EXPERIMENT 2 (A) AIM: To verify the Kirchhoff’s current law (KCL). OBJECTIVE: The objective of this Lab activity is to verify Kirchhoff’s Current Law (KCL) using mesh and nodal analysis of the given circuit. THEORY: According to Kirchhoff’s current law, in any network of wires carrying currents, the algebraic sum of all currents meeting at a junction (or node) is zero or the sum of incoming currents towards any junction (or node) is equal to the sum of outgoing currents away from that junction. APPARATUS REQUIRED: S. No.EquipmentSpecificationQuantityRemark1.Regulated power DC Supply0-24V12.PMMC Ammeter0-1A33.Resistances/Rheostats44.Connecting Wires CIRCUIT DIAGRAM: Figure 1 Circuit Diagram PROCEDURE: Four Resistance R1, R2, R3and R4; and ammeters A1, A2and A3are connected to DC battery or regulated DC power supply as shown in figure. The Four Resistances are connected as per circuit diagram, supply is switched on and the reading of the ammeter A1, A2and A3are noted. The process may be repeated by varying either of resistancesR1, R2, R3and R4. OBSERVATIONS: S. No.Reading of Ammeter A1 (I1)Reading of Ammeter A2 (I2)Reading of Ammeter A3 (I3)I2+I31.2.3.4.5. WORKING PRINCIPLE: The algebraic sum of currents in a network of conductors meeting at a point is zero. Recalling that current is a signed (positive or negative) quantity reflecting direction towards or away from a node; this principle can be stated as: N is the total number of branches with currents flowing towards or away from the node.The law is based on the conservation of charge whereby the charge (measured in coulombs) is the product of the current (in amperes) and the time (in seconds). KEY PARAMETERS: Letand also calculate the error. EXPERIMETAL RESULTS: Calculate the ideal voltages and currents for each element in the circuit and compare them to the measured values.Compute the percentage error in the two measurements and provide a brief explanation for the error. PRECAUTIONS: All connections should be tight.All steps should be followed carefully.Readings and calculation should be taken carefully.Don’t touch the live terminals. QUESTIONS: What is KCL?What is ohm’s law?What is difference between emf and potential difference?Why ammeters are connected in series to measure current?If the length of a wire of resistance R is uniformly stretched to n times its original value, what will be its new resistance? ________________________________________________________________ EXPERIMENT 2(B) AIM: To verify the Kirchhoff’s voltage law (KVL). OBJECTIVE: The objective of this Lab activity is to verify Kirchhoff’s voltage Law (KVL) using mesh and nodal analysis of the given circuit. THEORY: According to Kirchhoff’s voltage law, in any closed circuit or mesh, the algebraic sum of emf acting in the circuit or mesh is equal to the algebraic sum of the products of the currents and resistances of each part of the circuit or mesh. APPARATUS REQUIRED: S. No.EquipmentSpecificationQuantityRemark1.Regulated power DC supply or Battery0-24V12.PMMC Voltmeter0-24V43.Resistances/Rheostats44.Connecting Wires CIRCUIT DIAGRAM: Figure 2 KVL Circuit Diagram PROCEDURE: Resistances R1, R2, R3 and R4; and three voltmeters V1, V2 , V3 and V4are connected to DC battery or regulated power supply as shown in figure. Three rheostats are set their maximum values, supply is switched on and the reading of the voltmeters V1, V2, V3and V4 is noted. The process may be repeated by varying either of resistances R1, R2, R3 and R4. OBSERVATIONS: S. No.Reading of Voltmeter V1(Volts)Reading of Voltmeter V2(Volts)Reading of Voltmeter V3(Volts)Reading of Voltmeter V4(Volts)V=V1+V2V2=V3+V4 WORKING PRINCIPLE: The sum of the emfs in any closed loop is equivalent to the sum of the potential drops in that loop, or: The algebraic sum of the products of the resistances of the conductors and the currents in them in a closed loop is equal to the total emf available in that loop.Similar to KCL, it can be stated as: N is the total number of branches with currents flowing towards or away from the node.This law is based on the conservation of energy whereby voltage is defined as the energy per unit charge. The total amount of energy gained per unit charge must be equal to the amount of energy lost per unit charge, as energy and charge are both conserved. KEY PARAMETERS:Let and also calculate the error. EXPERIMENT RESULT: Calculate the ideal voltages and currents for each element in the circuit and compare them to the measured values.Compute the percentage error in the two measurements and provide a brief explanation for the error. PRECAUTIONS: All connections should be tight.All steps should be followed carefully.Readings and calculation should be taken carefully.Don’t touch the live terminals. QUESTIONS: What is KVL?What is ohm’s law?Why voltmeters are connected in parallel to rheostats to measure voltage?How does the resistance of a homogeneous material having constant length vary with the changing cross sectional area?What is Fleming’s left hand rule?What is Fleming’s right hand rule?Define junction and node.Define Mesh and loop.

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