B205B EXPLORING INNOVATION & ENTREPRENEURSHIP | My Assignment Tutor

Faculty of Business StudiesB205B EXPLORING INNOVATION & ENTREPRENEURSHIP Final Take Home Exam Questions2020-2021 / First- Fall Semester PART I – CASE STUDY Africa Felix Juice LLP Africa Felix Juice LLP is the first commercial fruit juice concentrate manufacturer in Sierra Leone, a West African country that has undergone more than a decade of post-war rebuilding. Launched in January 2011 it provides a very high-volume market to smallholder farmers in rural villages, uses local trucks for pick up and transportation of fruits to the factory, and makes immediate payment of the goods and services. The manufactured and packaged juice is exported to European supermarkets. It is an example of how an entrepreneur can successfully create a small manufacturing enterprise in a post-conflict context. The local and institutional contexts Sierra Leone is a West African country that is blessed with natural resources such as agriculture (e.g. fruits, rice, coffee and cocoa) and minerals (e.g. iron ore and petroleum production). However, it suffered a bloody civil war between 1991 and 2002, resulting in political and economic instability. The education system was destroyed and there was a sudden increase in poverty and illiteracy. According to the 2012 World Development Indicators, 66.4% of the population of 5.5 million people were living under the national poverty line in 2003, and only 39% were literate (this means that about 61% of the population had not completed secondary school). After the war, various elected governments initiated and implemented major post-war rebuilding reforms. In fact, many commentators credit the opportunity spotted by the founders of Africa Felix Juice LLP to the government’s reforms – re-instating a country-wide tree planting project initiated in the 1970s but abandoned during the war, the refurbishment of the main roads to ease logistics and distribution channels and authorization of First Step Inc., located in the outskirts of the capital Freetown, as the country’s first Special Economic Zone. The main objective of these reforms was to attract foreign investments to help stimulate domestic economic activity and local development. These interventions by government institutions are encouraging opportunity-driven entrepreneurial innovation in the sense that those individuals who are able to spot an entrepreneurial opportunity have confidence that the government will support them in creating and operating their enterprise. Answer the following questions (Case Study) QUESTION 01 – 700 words – 35 Marks Describe the institutional context in which Africa Felix Juice LLP was created in Sierra Leone, (10 Marks).Explain context and examine how different type of contexts can influence entrepreneurial innovation. AndWhat evidence of entrepreneurial innovation can you identify in the case study providing explanation of the challenges faced by Africa Felix Juice LLP and how they were overcome? (25 Marks) PART II: Essay Questions Question Two – 500 words (30 Marks) There is an existing debate about the best way to run a commercial business. Explain family business and corporate business; provide advantages and disadvantages for both models from literature and textbook.Are family businesses better than corporations are? Support your answer by evidence from research and literature provided for you in your textbook and/or external sources. QUESTION 03 – 400 words – 35 MARKS Explain with examples the following two cultural dimensions (15 marks) Masculinity Vs. FemininityCollectivism Vs. Individualism Explain the previous two cultural dimensions impact on innovation and entrepreneurship for nations indicating which dimension is better (take a country as an example on each dimension for illustration). Support your answer with evidence from textbook and literature (20 marks) End of Questions Answer Description Answer the following questions (in one essay – one introduction and one conclusion) LOOK FIRST IN “how to answer – guideline from university book chapters – read for proper answer.docx”LOOK IN B205B Block 03 Week 01.pptx, B205B Block 03 Week 02.pptx AND B205B Block 03 Week 04.pptx FOR MORE INFORMATION REGARDING UNIVERSITY BOOK CHAPTERS. Introduction is no more than= 50 words Question 1 = 650 words Question 2= 400 words Question 3= 450 words Conclusion is no more than = 50 words Total = 1600 words References = Harvard Style INTRODUCTION (no more than= 50 words) QUESTION 01 – 650 words – examples from Case Study Describe the institutional context in which Africa Felix Juice LLP was created in Sierra Leone, (10 Marks). – Model Answer is also attached for better exampleMust mention:Institutional context of Africa Felix Juice LLPFormal Institutional contextinformal Institutional contextModel Answer example – DO NOT COPY NOR PARAPHRASE To begin with, the war in Sierra-Leone before the initiation of Africa-Felix-Juice in 2011 destroyed the country as it continued for more than decade which resulted a high poverty and low literacy among the civilian society. By the end of the civil war and as the government tried to overcome the crises by reforming all country’s aspects even when various elected ones pass through the process of post-war rebuilding, the Institutional context in Sierra-Leone began to appear and take the formal and informal shape. As for the formal shape, the government helped in rebuilding the infrastructure including roads refurbishment to reach the rural villages and giving the access to the abandoned wide tree planting project from the 70s to be revived again which allowed the owners of Africa-Felix-Juice to take the opportunity provided by the new regulations and polices generated by the government to run this successful organization and reach the European countries. This was also by the help of the Sierra-Leone government authorization to the First Step Inc to run as the first Special Economic Zone which allow the foreign investors to pay attention to this country. Also, as for the informal Institutional context in Sierra-Leone, behaviors like cultural attitudes and norms which helped in gathering the people toward building the country again and leave any conflict memory behind. These informal contexts became so clear as social desirability presented by locals through opportunity recognition entrepreneurs as all farmers and local trucks united with each other to grow the fruit juice concentrate manufacturer which considered their high-volume market that gave them immediate payment to support them either. These bonds also helped in opening new wider opportunities to invest in agricultural projects in addition to menial projects too. Explain context and examine how different type of contexts can influence entrepreneurial innovation.Must mention:Context definitionFirst Study by Zahra, Wright and Abdelgawad (2014)Second Study by Welter (2011)The third study by Autio, Kenney, Mustar, Siegel, and Wright (2014)The fourth study, according to Garud, Gehman and Giuliani (2014) What evidence of entrepreneurial innovation can you identify in the case study providing explanation of the challenges faced by Sierra-Leone and how they were overcome? (25 Marks) – Model Answer is also attached for better exampleMust mention according to Africa Felix Juice LLP:Temporal contextSpatial or geographic contextIndustry and technology contextSocial contextOrganizational contextModel Answer example – DO NOT COPY NOR PARAPHRASE The entrepreneurial innovation examples in Sierra-Leone includes many aspects which formalized different dimensions. At the beginning is the temporal contextwhere the time played major role in the reshaping of the country as before the war ended in Sierra-Leone, there were no evidence of any economic change where after the end of the war it took some time to recover and start to effect the behavior of the innovators as the changes occurred was very promising. The great example is the developed rules and regulations which allowed the entrepreneurs in Sierra-Leone to be able to invest the lands after it as shutdown and abandoned during the war in addition to the availability of transportation which helped in creating logistics and jobs like local truck drivers and farmers to promote the manufacturing companies like Africa-Felix-Juice. Also, the spatial context as where location is important for promoting the value of the industry. In Sierra-Leone, the location of the country in west Africa helped it to have great natural resources to build and initiate projects such as agriculture and petroleum production which make many foreign countries to focus on this small country. Also, the local maintenance to the country’s roads helped in promoting the supply chain as the Special Economic Zone located in the outskirts of the capital. For the Institutional contextas it was previously mentioned, the role of the government in providing new formal rules and regulation in addition to the informal rules too helped in the reshape of the new Sierra-Leone. Moreover, the Social contextin Sierra-Leone was so clear as the owners of enterprises were from the same country and bonded with network of relations over the time which resulted by the support of the villagers and drivers to support the concentrated juice industry. Also, they all share the same infrastructure and they also manage the operations as famers provide the fruits, driver deliver it and manufactures produced it. Question Two – 400 words – Provide external examples There is an existing debate about the best way to run a commercial business. Explain family business and corporate business; provide advantages and disadvantages for both models from literature and textbook.Must mention:Family Business DefinitionCorporate Business DefinitionAdvantages and Disadvantages for both modelsUSE EXTERNAL RESOURCES & EXAMPLESAre family businesses better than corporations are? Support your answer by evidence from research and literature provided for you in your textbook and/or external sources.Must mention:Difference between both types (family & corporations)Small and medium-sized enterprisesThe long-standing cooperative firmsUSE EXTERNAL RESOURCES & EXAMPLES QUESTION 03 – 450 words – Provide external examples Explain with examples the following two cultural dimensions (15 marks) Masculinity Vs. FemininityCollectivism Vs. Individualism Explain the previous two cultural dimensions impact on innovation and entrepreneurship for nations indicating which dimension is better (take a country as an example on each dimension for illustration). Support your answer with evidence from textbook and literature (20 marks)Must Mention:COUNTRY OF YOUR CHOICEAPPLY strong association between innovation and measures of Individualism Study on that COUNTRYNational culture and the cultural orientations for that COUNTRYEfforts to encourage innovation and entrepreneurship CONCLUSION – (no more than= 50 words)

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