ENERGY MANAGEMENT | My Assignment Tutor

CARDIFF UNIVERSITY EXAMINATION PAPERAcademic Year: 2019/2020Examination Period: AUTUMNExamination Paper Number: EN4603 / ENT747Examination Paper Title: ENERGY MANAGEMENTDuration: TWO HOURSDo not turn this page over until instructed to do so by the Senior Invigilator.Structure of Examination Paper:There are 9 pages.There are 6 questions in total.The following appendices are attached to this examination paper:Appendix 1 – Discounting Factor TableThe maximum mark for the examination paper is 100 and the mark obtainable for a questionor part of a question is shown in brackets alongside the question.Students to be provided with:The following items of stationery are to be provided at the start of the examination:1 Answer BookLinear graph paperInstruction to Students:Answer FOUR questions only.The use of a translation dictionary between English or Welsh and another language,provided that it bears an appropriate departmental stamp, is permitted in this examination.Q1 The following table is the result of an energy audit for consumption data spanning 12 months.Table 1: simple energy audit results during 1 year. ComponentTypeRated powerAnnual useInjection moulding facilityElectrical500 kW1,300 MWhMain boilerGas3 MW6,000 MWhSpace heatingElectrical250 kW2,000 MWhConveyorsElectrical25 kW219 MWhLightingElectrical4 kW70 MWhMiscellaneous loadsElectricalUnknown Electricity cost is 11p / kWh. Gas cost is 4p / kWha) Calculate the capacity factor for each of these loads (i.e. compare the amount of energyused to the maximum amount it could use in one year). Comment on these results.[5 marks]b) In terms of the conveyors, suggest ways in which their capacity factor could be reduced.What operational problems would be encountered as a result of such changes?[2 marks]c) If the total annual electricity bill for the plant was £724,790 over the year, calculate theamount of electricity (in MWh) that was due to ‘miscellaneous loads’.[2 marks]d) In terms of cost, what is the gas expenditure compared to the rest of the plant’s energy?[2 marks]e) The inspection has shown that the plant is using a large number of single phase inductionmotors without any kind of speed or feedback control. What potential action could the plantmanagement take? Will there be cost implications?[3 marks]f) In terms of demand management, does Table 1 allow us to undertake a Demand SideManagement study? What else would be needed for this?[3 marks]g) Generate a list of priorities for the plant managers to study, based on your results in parts a)to f)[8 marks]Q2 This question is concerned with government policiesa) Compare the main conditions of EU ETS and the CCL. Which industries are obligated underboth?[5 marks]b) What is ESOS and what must UK businesses do to comply with it?[5 marks]c) What are the key differences between the Kyoto Protocol and the Paris Climate Agreement?[5 marks]d) What is the point of the Renewables Obligation? What is it trying to achieve?[5 marks]e) Why are cap and trade systems used instead of direct taxation? What criticisms have beenmade of emissions trading schemes?[5 marks]Q3 This question is about project financing.You have been asked to examine the financial case for the installation of a CHP system in a largehotel. The project will cost £1.6 million to install and will provide savings of £350,000 per year. Theexpected life of the system is 10 years. However, additional factors must be considered:• After 4 and 8 years the hotel management have opted to purchase upgrades to the plant,costing £200,000 each time.• There is an operational maintenance cost of £10,000 per year, with a 5% year-on-yearincrease in this cost.Using a 10% rate of discount, determine the following:a) The net present value.[14 marks]b) The internal rate of return (by also modelling the cost at 15% DCF).[7 marks]c) How does this compare to an estimated appraisal based on a simple payback model?[4 marks]See Appendix 1 for a Discounting Factor table.Q4 Answer the following questions about energy strategy:a) Discuss the need for a strategic approach to energy management.[6 Marks]b) Describe the issues involved with designing an energy strategy for an energy intensiveorganisation, including why the strategy must be specifically designed for the organisationunder consideration.[6 Marks]c) What are the phases of energy management and why should they be implemented insequence?[4 Marks]d) Why is change management important when devising an energy strategy?[4 Marks]e) What is the difference between strategy and policy and how does this relate to energymanagement?[5 Marks]Q5 This question is concerned with energy consumption prediction using temperature data.Discuss the method used to compensate energy consumption data for ambient weather changes.[6 Marks]A large commerce centre is in a building housing nearly 2,000 employees using a gas-fired heatingsystem. No problems have ever been reported with the system and the general feeling is that it isoperating effectively. Two years of historical data are included.Table 2 Degree day data and gas usage in 2018 and 2019.Study the degree day / gas data and comment on the following:a) Show the relationship between the degree day data and the gas usage for both years.[10 marks]b) Comment on the commerce centre’s heating usage and suggest potential ideas for the nextstep in the investigation of this problem.[9 marks]Q6 This question relates to the energy management matrix.Figure 1 (next page) shows the response to the energy management matrix you have just completedfor your company.a) Analyse the current status of the company derived from the matrix.[8 marks]b) Discuss the steps you would take to improve the energy management structure, based onthe information given and the profile of the curve.[14 marks]c) Suggest how the company might make consistent changes to the management of energy inorder to achieve an integrated approach to improvements.[3 marks] LevelEnergy PolicyOrganisingRelating tousersInformationsystemsMarketingInvestment4Energy policy,action plan andregular reviewhavecommitment oftopmanagement.Energymanagementfully integratedintomanagementstructure. Cleardelegation ofresponsibility forenergyconsumptionFormal andinformalchannels ofcommunicationregularlyexploited byenergymanager andenergy staff atall levels.Comprehensivesystem sets,targets andmonitorsconsumption.Identifies faults,quantifiessavings andprovides budgettracking.Marketing thevalue of theenergyefficiency andtheperformance ofenergymanagementboth within theorganisationand outside it.Positivediscrimination infavour of ‘greenschemes’ withdetailedinvestmentappraisal of allnew build andrefurbishmentopportunities.3Formal energypolicy, but noactivecommitmentfrom topmanagement.Energymanageraccountable toenergycommitteerepresenting allusers, chairedby member ofthe managingbody.Energycommittee usedas mainchanneltogether withdirect contactwith majorusers.M & T reportsfor individualprocessesbased on submetering, butsavings notreportedeffectively tousers.Programme ofstaff awarenessand regularpublicitycampaigns.Some paybackcriteriaemployed as forall otherinvestment.2Un-adoptedenergy policyset by energymanagement orseniordepartmentalmanager.Energymanager inpost, reportingto ad-hoccommittee, butlinemanagementand authorityare unclear.Contact withmajor usersthrough ad-hoccommitteechaired byseniordepartmentalmanager.M & T reportsbased onsupply meterdata. Energyunit has an adhoc involvementin budgetsetting.Some ad-hocstaff awarenesstraining.Investmentusing short-termpayback criteriaonly.1An unwritten setof guidelines.Energymanagement isthe part-timeresponsibility ofsomeone withauthority orinfluence.Informal contactbetweenengineer and afew users.Cost reportingbased oninvoice data.Engineercompilesreports forinternal use withtechnicaldepartment.Informalcontacts usedto promoteenergyefficiency.Only low-costmeasurestaken.0No explicitpolicy.No energymanagement orany formaldelegation ofresponsibility forenergyconsumption.No contact withusers.No informationsystem. Noaccounting forenergyconsumption.No promotion ofenergyefficiency.No investmentin increasingenergyefficiency inpremises. Figure 1 – Completed energy management matrixAppendix 1 – Discounting Factor Table

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