Assessment Task 1: Written Questions Task summary This is an open book test to be completed in the classroom. A time limit of 1 hour to answer the questions is provided. You need to answer all of the written questions correctly. Your answers must be word processed and sent to the assessor as an email attachment. Required Access to textbooks/other learning materialsComputer and Microsoft OfficeAccess to the internet Timing Your assessor will advise you of the due date of this assessment. Submit Answers to all questions Assessment criteria All questions must be answered correctly in order for a student to be assessed as having completed the task satisfactorily. Re-submission opportunities Students will be provided feedback on their performance by their Assessor. The feedback will indicate if you have satisfactorily addressed the requirements of each part of this task. If any parts of the task are not satisfactorily completed your assessor will explain why and provide you written feedback along with guidance on what you must undertake to demonstrate satisfactory performance. Re-assessment attempt(s)will be arranged at a later time and date. Students have the right to appeal the outcome of assessment decisions if they feel they have been dealt with unfairly or have other appropriate grounds for an appeal. Students are encouraged to consult with their assessor prior to attempting this task if they do not understand any part of this task or if they have any learning issues or needs that may hinder them when attempting any part of the assessment. Assessment Task 1 Instructions Provide answers to all of the questions below: Identify at least two project risks for each of the following risk categories: Scope risk– Scope is the sum of the goods, services and outcomes that the project will deliver. Product range involves product, service, and outcome characteristics and functions. This danger involves scope modifications due to the following variables: Scope creep–as customers add to the demands, the project grows in complexity and developers begin gold playing. Integration issuesHardware & Software defectsChange in dependencies Scheduling risk-There are a number of reasons why in the manner you planned the project might not continue. These include unexpected delays in the purchase of components at an external seller, natural variables, estimation errors and delays. The test team, for example, cannot start the job until the designers complete their milestone deliverables and a delay in those can trigger cascading delays.Resource risk-This danger stems primarily from problems linked to outsourcing and staff. A large project could require dozens or even hundreds of staff, and the management of attrition problems and the departure of important staff is crucial. Bringing a fresh employee into the project at a later point can slow the project considerably.Technology risk-This danger involves delays resulting from defects in software and hardware or the failure of an underlying service or platform. For example, halfway through the project you might realize the cloud service provider you’re using doesn’t meet your benchmarks for results. Apart from this, there could be issues in the platform used to build your software or a critical tool software update that doesn’t exist. Outline three examples of tools or techniques that could be used to identify risks as part of a risk assessment process. Select key stakeholders. Plan the interviews. Define specific questions. Document the results of the interview.Plan your brainstorming questions in advance. Here are questions should be used.: Project objectives. What are the most significant risks related to [project objective where the objective may be schedule, budget, quality, or scope]?Project tasks. What are the most significant risks related to [tasks such as requirements, coding, testing, training, implementation?See if there is a list of the most prevalent hazards in your business. If not, you might want to build a list of this kind. Conduct a post-review after each project where you capture the most important hazards. For subsequent projects, this list may be used. Warning–checklists are great, but there are all the risks in no checklist.Outline three sources of information that can be used to gather information on potential risks within the workplace. Government papers and journals, the Media and Employer / Industry Associations were three primary sources of data used by companies to obtain data on occupational health and safety. Explain each of the key components of a risk management plan Here are six components of a good risk management plan: DefinitionsAssumptionsRisk Breakdown StructureProbability Impact MatrixAccuracy Estimates (cost & schedule)Risk Register Definitions The hazards will be recognized in future segments and provided priority rankings like “high / medium / low.” Categories such as “Probability of 0.05= Very Low” will appear in the Probability & Impact Matrix. This chapter describes what these mean and utilizes phrases to explain them. A definition is usually written out, such as:Very Low: the event is highly unlikely to occur under regular circumstances.Low: The event is unlikely but should be noted by the project team.Medium: The event has a normal chance of occurring and the project team should be aware of it.High: The event has a reasonable chance of occurring. It should be regularly discussed, and mitigation actions taken.Very High: The occurrence of the event should be actively managed and mitigation actions taken. Assumptions The assumptions of the project have a major impact on risk analysis. Ask yourself these questions. What assumptions support the project costs?What assumptions support the project schedule (completion date, milestones, etc.)?What expertise or prior experience does the company have in this work? How long ago was this experience? What areas require additional training?Which relationships are being assumed to be strong that are not necessarily (owner, sponsor, client, contractor, consultant)?How many previous projects with similar components have been completed successfully? What were the project issues? Risk Breakdown Structure This is a categorical list of the main risk classifications and is extremely industry-specific. For instance, an I.T. The project will look like this: The Project Management Institute has lately integrated Risk Breakdown Structures into the Knowledge Body of Project Management. Probability Impact Matrix Because risk is described as probabilityx impact, it is necessary to consider both variables when determining the priority of each risk case. Thus, the probability-impact matrix provides you a more comprehensive description of the risk register’s likelihood and impact structure (more on that later).The matrix helps you to consider both factors and sets the stage for the determination of numerical probability and impact values for each risk event. Confidence Estimates There should be some kind of confidence range estimates for a good risk management plan, especially for bigger, complicated projects. These are great for perusal and debate of leadership. They are merely an assessment of the prospective deviation from the project plan by the risk management team (or project manager).It can be as simple as low/medium/high probabilities or as complex as statistical analysis of the probability of meeting deadline dates. Risk Register The risk register is usually in table form and has the following columns: Risk Name/DescriptionThe risk event can be described with descriptors, such as “The contractor could incur additional material supply cost and attempt to pass this on to us.” Risk identification is a fairly time-consuming endeavor that should not be skirted.ProbabilityThe likelihood of the event occurring. If possible, a numeric value between 0 and 1 should be used which can be multiplied by the Impact (next column) to determine meaningful risk values. But for smaller projects a 1-10 scale or “low/medium/high” is also satisfactory.ImpactThe impact of the risk event. Again, a number between 0 and 1 or a dollar value is good because it results in meaningful overall risk values.RiskSince Risk = Probability x Impact, multiply the two previous columns together. If a qualitative scale like low/medium/high was used, simply use the same qualitative scale to describe the overall risk level in light of the probability and impact of the event.PriorityA good risk management plan will identify the most important risks to the project. In this column, the risks will be prioritized starting from 1 and moving consecutively down until they are all prioritized. Project sponsors, clients, and owners love this, by the way.Response PlansTo complete the risk register, a response plan should be created for the top 3 (approximately) risks to the project. Alternatively, they could be included outside of the table, but often a quick synopsis can make the risk register stronger. Something like: “Account for project team, call hazardous spill group, and fill out incident form.” Make it so you don’t have to think about the initial response. Summarise the purpose of Australia/New Zealand Standard for Risk Management (AS/NZS ISO 31000:2009) and identify the key principles underlying this risk management standard. ISO 31000 is a family of standards relating to risk management codified by the International Organization for Standardization. The purpose of ISO 31000:2009 is to provide principles and generic guidelines on risk management. Creates and protects value Good risk management contributesto the achievement of an agency’s objectives through the continuous review of its processes and systems.Be an integral part of organisational processes Risk management needsto be integrated with an agency’s governance framework and become a part of its planning processes, at both the operational and strategic level.Be part of decision making the process of risk management assists decision makers to make informed choices, identify priorities and select the most appropriate action. Explicitly address uncertainty by identifying potential risks, agencies can implement controls and treatments to maximise the chance of gain while minimising the chance of loss. Be systematic, structured and timely the process of risk management should be consistent across an agency to ensure efficiency, consistency and the reliability of results. Based on the best available information to effectively manage risk it is important to understand and consider all available information relevant to an activity and to be aware that there may be limitations on that information. It is then important to understand how all this information informs the risk management process. Be tailored an agency’s risk management framework needs to include its risk profile, as well as take into consideration its internal and external operating environment. Take into account human and cultural factors Risk management needsto recognise the contribution that people and culture have on achieving an agency’s objectives. Be transparent and inclusive Engaging stakeholders, both internal and external, throughout the risk management process recognises that communication and consultation is key to identifying, analysing and monitoring risk. Be dynamic, iterative and responsive to change the process of managing risk needs to be flexible. The challenging environment we operate in requires agencies to consider the context for managing risk as well as continuing to identify new risks that emerge and make allowances for those risks that no longer exist. Facilitate the continual improvement of organisations Agencies with a mature risk management culture are those that have invested resources over time and are able to demonstrate the continual achievement of their objective. Describe the characteristics, techniques and appropriate applications of both quantitative and qualitative risk analysis. The quantitative risk analysis attempts to estimate the risk in form of the probability (or frequency) of a loss and evaluates such probabilities to make decisions and communicate the results. In this context, the ‘‘uncertainty’’ associated with the estimation of the frequency (or probability) of the occurrence of the undesirable events and the magnitude of losses (consequences) are characterized by using the probability concepts. When evidences and data are scarce, uncertainties associated with the quantitative results play a decisive role in the use of the results (i.e., meta-uncertainties or uncertainties about the expected loss). Quantitative risk analysis is clearly the preferred approach when adequate field data, test data, and other evidences exist to estimate the probability (or frequency) and magnitude of the losses. The use of quantitative risk analysis has been steadily rising in the recent years primarily due to availability of quantitative techniques and tools, and our ability to make quantitative estimation of adverse events and scenarios in complex systems from limited data. However, the use of quantitative risk analysis has been restricted to large scope risk analyses because quantitative risk analysis is complicated, time-consuming, and expensive. QUALITATIVE RISK ANALYSIS This type of risk analysis is perhaps the most widely used one, just because it is simple a quick to perform. In this type, the potential loss is qualitatively estimated using linguistic scales such as low, medium, and high. In this type of analysis, a matrix is formed which characterizes risk in form of the frequency (or likelihood) of the loss versus potential magnitudes (amount) of the loss in qualitative scales. The matrix is then used to make policy and risk management decisions. Because this type of analysis does not need to rely on actual data and probabilistic treatment of such data, the analysis is far simpler and easier to use and understand, but is extremely subjective. Qualitative risk analysis is the method of choice for very simple systems such as a single product safety, simple physical security, and straightforward processes. Outline the key steps involved in a risk management process. All risk management processes follow the same basic steps, although sometimes different jargon is used to describe these steps. Together these 5 risk management process steps combine to deliver a simple and effective risk management process. Step 1: Identify the Risk. You and your team uncover, recognize and describe risks that might affect your project or its outcomes. There are a number of techniques you can use to find project risks. During this step you start to prepare your Project Risk Register. Step 2: Analyse the risk. Once risks are identified you determine the likelihood and consequence of each risk. You develop an understanding of the nature of the risk and its potential to affect project goals and objectives. This information is also input to your Project Risk Register. Step 3: Evaluate or Rank the Risk. You evaluate or rank the risk by determining the risk magnitude, which is the combination of likelihood and consequence. You make decisions about whether the risk is acceptable or whether it is serious enough to warrant treatment. These risk rankings are also added to your Project Risk Register. Step 4: Treat the Risk. This is also referred to as Risk Response Planning. During this step you assess your highest ranked risks and set out a plan to treat or modify these risks to achieve acceptable risk levels. How can you minimize the probability of the negative risks as well as enhancing the opportunities? You create risk mitigation strategies, preventive plans and contingency plans in this step. And you add the risk treatment measures for the highest ranking or most serious risks to your Project Risk Register. Step 5: Monitor and Review the risk. This is the step where you take your Project Risk Register and use it to monitor, track and review risks. Explain five options for controlling risk. Elimination,substitution Eliminating the hazard completely is always the first choice. Substitution involves replacing the material or process with a less hazardous one. Can I find safer ways to perform the task? For example, if falling is a hazard, eliminate the risk by storing stock at lower heights so workers don’t have to climb ladders to reach the goods. Can I use something less harmful? For example, if chemical-heavy industrial cleaners are a hazard, consider substituting cleaners made of vinegar and water mixed with salt, borax, or baking soda. Just make sure the substitutions don’t create new hazards. Engineering controls If you can’t eliminate the hazards or substitute safer alternatives, engineering controls are the next best options. These involve using work equipment or other means to prevent workers from being exposed to a hazard. Engineering controls are physical changes to the workplace and may include equipment guarding, guardrails, traffic control lanes and barriers between vehicles and pedestrians, and many other options. For example, while working at heights cannot be avoided in construction, guardrails can be installed to prevent falls from happening. Guardrails are an example of an engineering control. Administrative controls Administrative controls involve identifying and implementing safe work procedures so your workers can perform their job duties safely. The findings of your risk assessment will form the basis of these safe work procedures.Examples of administrative controls include implementing person-check procedures and prohibiting the use of mobile phones while workers are driving. Personal protective equipment and clothing Using personal protective equipment (PPE) is another important control to protect workers. For example, while working with toxic chemicals may be necessary in certain workplaces such as laboratories, the use of PPE such as protective eyewear and gloves will help to reduce the exposure risk. Similarly, first responders enter hazardous sites as a regular part of their job, but they diligently use various types of PPE to protect themselves.
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