Structure of your research paper | My Assignment Tutor

Structure of your researchpaper*Please turn your screens and audio off*Hello!I am Professor David J. EdwardsI am here today to give a workshop presentation on the structure of yourresearch paper.You can find me at: [email protected];Or: 0044(0) 7722 521846 (Whatsapp);Or: today’s workshop session, the followingtopics will be covered:3✘ Introduction to a skeletal plan;✘ The rationale behind a skeletal plan;✘ The basic structure of your research paper;✘ Key sections of narrative within the structure;✘ Templates for creating a skeletal plan; and✘ In-text citations and references.Using your title, aims and objectives produced last week, you nowbe able to start populating your skeletal plan with narrative.1. The skeletal planLet’s look at what a skeletal plan is and what itinvolves…An artist does not start apainting by simply daubingpaint onto canvas…Rather a preliminary sketch isdone first to outline the workand detail what is involved.Whether a design project, aresearch report or researchpaper – the process is exactlythe same for writing and/orresearch.5A three stage process…61 2 3So using a ‘metaphor’ – a skeletalplan is a coat hanger upon whichyou hang the detail of yourresearch.78Let’s listen to a paststudent Dr Chris RobertsChris went onto secure a first classhonours degree, more recently aPhD and now works at BCU – areal success story for BCU to beproud of.2. The rationale behind theskeletal planLet’s look at why we use a skeletal plan…“It’s a huge area and I simply do notknow where to start – there is somuch literature to review and I haveother coursework.”10Points to consider…✘ A skeletal plangives you bite sized‘manageable’chunks of work.11Points to consider…✘ A skeletal plangives you a cleardirection with yourresearch.12Points to consider…✘ A skeletal planallows you to planyour time better onyour research.13Points to consider…✘ A skeletal planallows youincrementallydevelop your ideasand test these withyour supervisor…143. The basic structure of askeletal planLet’s look at what a skeletal plan contains…16TITLEABSTRACTINTRODUCTIONLITERATURE REVIEWMETHODOLOGYANALYSISDISCUSSIONCONCLUSIONSREFERENCESTypical process – iterative?17TITLEABSTRACTINTRODUCTIONLITERATURE REVIEWMETHODOLOGYANALYSISDISCUSSIONCONCLUSIONSREFERENCESTypical process – recurrent?4. Key narrative within thestructureLet’s look at what could be included…The abstract:19Purpose Methodology Findings OriginalityThe introduction:20??4 areas:✘ The big picture;✘ The specific area withinthe big picture;✘ The problem domain;and✘ Aims and objectives…The literature review? Or is it?21Some general rules – the don’ts✘ Never entitle this section heading as a literature review –rather name it after the content of the section;✘ Try to avoid writing a shopping list of in-text citations;✘ Try to avoid using more than three tiers of sub-sections;✘ Try to avoid essay style narratives; and✘ Avoid writing in the first person – third person for STEMsubjects.The literature review? Or is it?22Some general rules – the dos✘ Use subsections to create a logical structure for the narrative;✘ Use bullets to highlight key points being made;✘ Insert figures and tables to underscore and substantiate pointsbeing made;✘ Use electronic databases to search for relevant information andreferences to demonstrate knowledge and understanding; and✘ Insert infographics to demonstrate synthesis of ideas andconcepts.The literature review? Or is it?23Meta analysis of literature? Word clouds?Methodology and methods24Analysis25Two broad categories…Findings…26Use infographics to explain concepts discussed.Introduce figures and tables in the narrative.All figures and tables should have figure numbers and titles.Point out differences between your work and the work of others.Show relationships between phenomena under investigation.Discuss negative results.Make key results prominent and guide the reader through these.Do not mix findings with discussion .Refer back to your ‘aims and objectives’ – have you addressed these?Avoid being verbose .Discussion27Limitations? Future work?Practicalcontributions?TheoreticalContributions?Four keycommonareas fordiscussionConclusions28What results will transpire ifappropriate action is not taken?A briefsummaryConclusionsElicit polemicdebateUniversalise – how does your workcompare to the existing body ofknowledge?Provide a warning(s) or suggestconsequences.Provide recommendationsNow that you have a skeletal planframeworkWhy not start putting down your ideas onto paper today!295. Templates for useLet’s use a template to create a skeletal plan…Different types of paper/report…?31LiteraturereviewConceptualmodelProof ofconceptAnalyticalExperimentalLet’s look at two common formatsThe literature review formatIncreasingly popular to contextualise a phenomenaunder investigation…The standard paper formatUsed for most research papers and reports…32Standard Abstract; Keywords; Introduction; Literature review; Methodology; Analysis; Discussion; Conclusions; and References.Simple comparisonLiterature review Abstract; Keywords; Introduction; Methodology; Literature review; Analysis; Discussion; Conclusions; and References.33*For more detail – please refer to the MS Word templates(contained within a brief guidance note) that accompany this lecture.*6. ReferencesFinally let’s look at references and in-textcitations…“Larkham (2020) states education is the gateway to poverty prevention. Thisview has however been challenged (c.f Edwards et al., 2019). Regardless ofthe prevailing discourse, statistics reveal a negative correlation betweenpoverty and education (Roberts and Mateo-Garcia, 2019); whether there is acausal link is yet to be determined (Gaber, 2018).”35When directly using aquote or statement from asingle author.*A fictitious example of in-text citations….*When making a statement fromthe work of three of moreauthors use et al., – cf. ‘meansrefer to the work of’When citing two authorsWhen citing a single authorFinally … ‘references’Three main sources:✘ Journal paper:Edwards, D. J., Pärn, E. A., Sing, C. P. and Thwala, W.D. (2019), “Risk of excavators overturning:determining horizontal centrifugal force when slewing freely suspended loads.” Engineering,Construction and Architectural Management, Vol. 26, No. 3, pp. 479-498. DOI:✘ Textbook:Larkham, P.J. (1996), “Conservation and the City”, Taylor & Francis Ltd: London. ISBN: 1-004-150-79489✘ URL:CVWR (2005) The Control of Vibration at Work Regulations 2005, Statutory Instrument No. 20051093, London, UK: Crown Copyright. Available via: [Accessed: April, 2019].3637Thank You!Any questions?38That concludes with week’slecture.We now move onto a workshop on infographics…For the ‘reflective activities’ next week, you will be invited to: Bring along copies of your skeletal plan; Present the results of your manual literature review; and Propose data sources and consider ethical considerations.This presentation has been recorded and is available in the ResearchSummer School MS Teams Folder – so feel free to listen again at yourleisure. Come prepared next week to continue your research journey.


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