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Exploring Global Response to Food Insecurity in Sub-Saharan Africa by Colleen C. Chinake Abstract This research study pertains to food insecurity in Sub-Saharan Africa. Rising African agricultural production is crucial for food security to be achieved. Africa has the poorest agricultural output in the world despite its enormous potential and must import much of its food. The research study examines the international solution to and how to solve the problems facing food security in Sub-Saharan Africa. For most Sub-Saharan dwellers food relationship and food insecurity impacts health resulting in starvation or malnutrition. Food insecurity occurs often if food safety is limited. While there is an obvious definition of food security, as a measure of the availability of food in our daily lives, there are some variables that might limit access to the availability such as cost. On the other hand, food insecurity is not a single case of not having something to eat for a day or two. From the research paper, for Sub-Saharan Africa, food insecurity can mean daily perpetual hunger as Oxford Dictionary (n.d.) defines food insecurity as being with no easy resources of affordable nutritious foods. The dictionary also notes the more than 800 million people who do not have access to enough affordable nutritious food worldwide. However, food security does not just mean getting enough calories, but having a varied and nutritious diet that supports a healthy lifestyle. The research study led to a conclusion by analysing the findings and drawing conclusions on global agencies challenges and effects on the failure on support of Sub-Saharan regions. Keywords: Food Insecurity, Sub-Saharan Africa, Global Response Agencies, Hunger in Africa, SAP. Table of Contents Abstract 1 CHAPTER 1 5 Background of the Research 5 Statement of the Problem 7 Rationale 7 Research Aim 8 Hypotheses 8 Research Objectives 9 Research Questions 9 Definition of Terms 10 Limitations of the Study 11 CHAPTER 2 12 Theory of Justice 13 The Use of Indigenous Knowledge to Increase Food Security 15 Malthusian Questions of Sustainability Regarding Population 17 Millennium Development Goals and Sustainable Development Goals 19 Chronological Increase of Hunger in African Nations 20 Global Bodies and Organizations Working Towards Hunger Relief in Africa 21 Strategic Response of UN, World Hunger, and National Government 23 Gender Inequality 24 Global Warming and Climate Changes 32 The COVID-19 Pandemic 47 CHAPTER 3 58 Methodology 58 Data Analysis 59 Conclusion 61 Source: African Studies and African Country Resources @ Pitt: Central African Countries 80 CHAPTER 2 Introduction The discourse of hunger eradication in African nations must be directed at identifying the factors that pushes the issue of malnutrition in these areas. It cannot be negated that abject poverty in marginal parts of nations, abnormal and injustice distribution of food and related resources, are the primary circumstances that creates more hunger. However, lack of uniform opportunity of employment, social justice, and human rights in most of African countries are the primary causes of these consequences. The United Nations (2018) revealed that food insecurity influences the well-being and the health of the population and negatively affects mental, social and physical safety. Coleman-Jenson et al. (2017) revealed the negative psychosocial impact of food insecurity in women and children. As reported on October 9, 2020, the UN released its gauge of global food prices, which showed costs rose 2.1% in September 2020 driven by grains and vegetable oils. The index is approaching a multi-year peak set in January. The United States Department of Agriculture figures showed that the increases could continue as China imports more soybeans and wheat, tightening the global balance sheet (Hirtzer & Durisin, 2020). This chapter will include the literature on the theory of justice and Malthusian’s essay on sustainability of large population and food consumption patterns. The framework will also connect these approaches with the Millennium Goals of sustainability as strategically being implemented by United Nations in its second leg. There is one subsection about the use of indigenous knowledge to increase food security, as there are some parallels with the theory of justice. Further, tradition knowledge is a possible solution or partial solution to food insecurity. This chapter also includes literature about the chronological increase of hunger in African nations, global bodies and organizations working towards hunger relief in Africa, the strategic response of the UN, world hunger and national government, gender inequality, global warming and climate changes, the impact of conflict and violence as well as the impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic. Theory of Justice The theory of justice was proposed in the 1970s by John Rawls who tried to bring attention towards a moral perspective of human rights and individuality as an alternate approach towards utilitarianism. Utilitarianism is a group of normative ethical theories that prescribe actions to well-being and maximize happiness for all affected individuals (Ethics Unwrapped, 2021). However, utilitarianism has difficulty accounting for values such as individual rights and justice (Ethics Unwrapped, 2021). The approach towards justice was developed further in regard to economic concept by Amartya Sen, who saw the existence of hunger as the sub-consequence for the lack of limited individual entitlement or declining purchasing power of the commoners of a society (Panting, 2015). Food justice and insecurity approaches under this theory have also viewed malnutrition as an issue of individual injustice, exhibiting social injustice because this condition prohibits the individual their freedom to choose food and consumption, it directly hampers the social opportunity of individual development (Panting, 2015). From the perspective of utilitarianism, existence of social justice maximizes the opportunity of overall benefits. Thus, as per the utilitarianism approach happiness for all will indicate the maximization of food production. Rawls’ (1971) goals was to express an essential part of the common core of the democratic tradition, that of justice as fairness. Justice a fairness provided an alternative to utilitarianism, which had directed the Anglo-Saxon tradition political thought as far back as the nineteenth century. The rights and liberties of citizens as equal and free persons was a most important concept. “Each person,” writes Rawls, “possesses an inviolability founded on justice that even the welfare of society as a whole cannot override.” Rawls advancing the ideas of Emerson, Rousseau, Kant, and Lincoln and Rawls’s theory is still as powerful today as it was when the first book was published in 1971. He made a number of adjustments to the theory of justice and eventually renamed it as justice as fairness. (In this dissertation the theory of justice and the theory of justice as fairness are used interchangeably throughout.) Rawls proposed three utmost fundamental ideas found in the public political culture of a democratic society. The first is that citizens are free, the second is that all citizens are equal, and third, that society should be a fair system of cooperation. All conceptions of justice are therefore interpreted according to these three fundamental ideas. There are also two guiding principles of justice as fairness. One is that each person has the indefeasible claim to a fully adequate scheme of equal basic liberties, which scheme is compatible with the same scheme of liberties for all. The second is that both social and economic inequalities are to satisfy two conditions: a) they are to be attached to offices and positions open to all under conditions of fair equality of opportunity, b) they are to be to the greatest benefit of the least-advantaged members of society (the difference principle) (Rawls, 1971, pp. 42, 43). Further, Rawls explained that “By showing how the social world may realize the features of a realistic utopia, political philosophy provides a long-term goal of political endeavor, and in working toward it gives meaning to what we can do today” (Rawls, 1999, p. 128). Figure 1 is an illustration of concepts within the theory of S that will be used in this dissertation as a foundational structure. Figure 1: Theoretical Framework Prepared by Colleen Chinake The Use of Indigenous Knowledge to Increase Food Security Though not part of the theory of justice, the use of Indigenous Knowledge may help solve food insecurity of Indigenous people and bring some justice to them at the same time. Asogwa et al. (2017) stated that, “Building on IK [Indigenous Knowledge] systems will empower local communities in Africa, enabling them to shape their own food security agenda by actively participating in it” (p. 84). Using IK is a practical way of solving the food shortage, thereby a powerful means of sustaining food security (Asogwa et al., 2017). The study of Indigenous Peoples’ food systems and diets has caught the attention of global discourses around cultural identity and food sovereignty (Charlton, 2016; Coté, 2016). Works about the critical role that local diets place in supporting Indigenous health has also been the focus of studies (Nesbitt & Moore, 2016). Studies have also been conducted that provide detailed understandings of the complexity and diversity of Indigenous diets (D’Ambrosio & Puri, 2016; Knezevic et al., 2017). One of the key issues in relation to Indigenous health and climate change is its practical and actual application in practice. For example, during a World Health Organization conference, the Ottawa Charter centralized factors that align with an ecological approach, noting that, “the fundamental conditions and resources to restore health are peace, shelter, education, food, income, a stable ecosystem, sustainable resources, social justice and equity” (para. 3). Indigenous Knowledge has inherently included justice and equity (Jones, 2019). This knowledge is passed down from one generation to another generation, is embedded in their culture, and is unique to particular locations (Burkett, 2018). Nevertheless, incongruity often exists between the underlying intent, principles, and values and the ways health promotion is practiced. Contextual factors in the environments in which health promotion is carried out can result in practices that conflict with the objectives of Indigenous sustainability, self-determination, and equity, Contextual factors include embedded institutional racism as well as colonial structures and systems (Jones, 2019). Therefore, to support Indigenous communities along with advancing Indigenous rights, health promotion must include a process of decolonization, which means deconstructing existing practice and examining systems and structures that reinforce the oppression of colonialism that limits the development of Indigenous health. Instead of critiquing Indigenous knowledges and practices, decolonization consists of critical inquiry into Western systems of knowledge needs to take place (Chilisa, 2020). Chilisa (2020) explains how those who conduct research can aid in the decolonization process. Social justice in research is achieved when research give voice to the researched and moved from a define-based orientation, where research was based on perceived deficits in the researched, to reinforcing practices that have sustained the lives of the researched. (p. 14) However, researchers also need to be cognisant of not extracting environmental practices for the sole purpose of using that knowledge in resource management while deploying them in an ad hoc manner that ignores meaningful engagement of Indigenous worldviews (Chilisa, 2020). Knowledge from the viewpoint of Indigenous people includes relationships with the land, spirituality, oral traditions, ceremony, and storytelling. Indigenous knowledge is holistic, a worldview, and a way of life (Chilisa, 2020). Malthusian Questions of Sustainability Regarding Population An Essay on the Principle of Population as It Affects the Future Improvement of Society, with Remarks on the Speculations of Mr. Godwin, M. Condorcet, and Other Writers, by Thomas Robert Malthus was first published anonymously in 1798. Malthus argued that humanity’s hopes for social happiness was futile because population is always inclined to outrun the growth of production. If unchecked, the increase of population will occur. Population will always multiply, but only to the limit of subsistence (Seth, 2017; Chand, 2017). Malthus believed that only vice meaning the commission of war for instance, misery such as famine or ill health, and moral restraint by which he meant abstinence, could stem excessive growth. He was speaking of Britain and he has been highly criticized for his failure to appreciate the British agricultural revolution, which ultimately caused food production to meet or exceed population growth. Thus, making prosperity possible for a large number of people. Malthus also failed to foresee the extensive use of contraceptives, which decreased the fertility rate. Instead he recommended abstinence and late marriage (Chand, 2017). Malthus was successful in raising awareness of the necessity to balance population growth with the increasing population’s needs. Sakanko and David (2018) examined the validity of Malthusian Theory in Nigeria by using time series data from 1960 to 2016 in addition to the Autoregressive Distributed Lag bound test techniques. The result showed that in the long-run, both population growth and food production move proportionately to each other Whereas, population growth has a depleting effect on food production in the short-run. This validates the prevalence of Malthusian impact in Nigerian economy in the short-run. Sakanko and David (2018) explained: Rising population is an asset, provided, the skills of the workforce are used to the maximum extent. If not appropriately channelized, it can be a liability for a nation. A skilled and hardworking population can emerge as a foundation for a country’s development. (p. 77) Sakanko and David (2018) advocated for the government to strategize plans, which would intensify family planning further such as birth control measures, make western education compulsory, and revitalize the agricultural sector. Maximization of food production includes the factors of large national population, which is a factor of concern in most of the Sub-Saharan nations such as Angola, Burundi, Burkina Faso and Ethiopia. As per Malthusian concept of a sustainable growth of population, a uniform growth of population contributes towards the increase of production and resources by utilizing human capital (Panting, 2015). However, large population continuously increases the demand of resources, land, and food, which create considerable pressure on the population at a certain point of time. This means, that increasing population will gradually generate food shortages in these Sub-Saharan nations. The concept of this theory will help in prioritizing the issue of large populations in these nations as one of the root causes for increasing hunger and malnutrition among the people. Food Consumption and its Instrumental and Hedonistic Values The distribution of wealth among the Sub-Saharan Africa is not at all sustainable. South Africa, which has the most well-distributed wealth pattern among African nations, fairs badly on the global comparison of equal distribution of wealth. As per the idea of hedonic principles associated with food consumption, there are certain foods that renders psychological pleasure. Hence, there is more chance that people will consume them more irrespective of their physical hunger. This has a multiplying impact in food production. First, it reduced the individual lands for cultivating the food crops that make most of the staple food to sustain the lives. On the contrary, hedonic values of food consumption implies that most of the foods are consumed because of the pleasure associated with them to drive away the hunger (Panting, 2015). Therefore, the satisfaction of emerging from hunger generates the basic happiness in life. The notion indicates, the more food there is, the more satisfied the citizens are. Again, the maximization of food production can be affected by the over-increasing population in a country. Millennium Development Goals and Sustainable Development Goals The primary objective of the millennium development goals by the United Nations, conceived at the threshold of the new millennium in 1990s, was to ensure individual development for all (, 2018). The goals were the eradication of poverty, hunger, and generation of more employment. The evaluation of the outcomes of the decade long global efforts has provided evidence that the United Nations has only partially been capable to achieve these goals. This has necessitated the creation and implementation strategies for Sustainable Development Goals 2, which are slated to be achieved by 2030 (, 2018). Under this goal, the partially is determined to eradicate poverty and hunger from African nations forever. These efforts can impact the condition of increased hunger among the people of Sub-Saharan countries by generating more employment opportunities, food production, and other social and economic development. Chronological Increase of Hunger in African Nations (2018) tracked hunger statistics since 2009 reveals that in comparison with Asian nations the number of hungry people in African nations have increased over the years. Compared to 191 million hungry people in these African nations in 2010, the number of hungry people had grown up to 243.2 million at the end of 2017 (, 2018). Figure 2 depicts the increase in hunger in Africa and compares it to other continents around the world in the last ten years. Figure 2: The Gradual Increase of Hunger in African Nation in Past Decade Source: FAO, The State of Food Security and Nutrition in the World, 2017 , p. 7 The conditions of malnutrition in these nations have been termed chronic, especially for children from 1 to 5 years of age. The statistics indicate the existence of extreme poverty and lack of social care framework for marginal people in Sub-Saharan countries. Widespread malnutrition and food insecurity are multidimensional problems. There are many reasons why Africa and sub-Saharan Africa has food insecurity, food shortages, and prevalence of malnutrition uninterruptedly afflict sub-Saharan Africa. According to Dodo (2020) some of the reasons why food insecurity has been chronic are the following: The never-ending political instability and crisesThe short or long protracted civil conflicts and warsThe endemic, persistent, and institutional corruptionThe misdirected economic policies and mismanagementThe lack of committed political leadershipThe sheer neglect towards the farmersThe lack of clear financial and economic investment into the agricultural sector. (Dodo, 2020, section 2.2). Dodo (2020) concluded that “in actuality, many of them are unable to feed their populations today, and food insecurity and malnutrition have become the daily staple of millions of their citizens” (section 2.2). Global Bodies and Organizations Working Towards Hunger Relief in Africa Most of the South Saharan countries have been searching for a solution for food security since 1970. Due to this reason, the necessity to attract international agencies has become one of the main goals of these countries. As a part, the WFP (World Food Program) and FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization) started to support the United Nations for crisis management. Hulse (2019) has opined that the WFP takes the responsibility of relief and development to the victims and the people affecting by civil war. In this principle, the requirement of WFP was transportation facilities, vessels of sea-going, trucks’ fleets, and extensive logistic system and in extreme cases aircraft. Over the past few decades, the region-based organization has become active in following the humanitarian projects such as hunger crisis management in African countries. Bresalier (2018) opined that the focus of the WHO (World Health Organization) and FAO towards hunger security was to develop agriculture with the help of improvements and improving human nutrition and milk consumption. These two agendas became effectively integrated from the beginning of World War II. To produce the healthy and well-nourished products, these organizations went through the encouragement from expert opinions to forge their relationship through the collaboration between each other. On the contrary, the total number of people to be in hunger has increased to 821 million people (FAO, 2020). The projection of hunger management in South African countries is becoming difficult to follow. Besides, the earlier listed guideline is now becoming difficult to complete. As a result, the aim of decreasing malnutrition and hunger has resulted with achievements that are incomplete and unsatisfactory. Most of the region of the African continent is separated by the ethnical division. The impact of the colonial period is the reason behind this ethical division. Omaamaka and Groupson-Paul (2019) opined that maintenance of the resource in the states of Southern Africa need to develop plans to restore peace and use the resources as needed. In this case, the burden was that the higher authorities of the countries were not giving the required effort and contribution to fulfill the targets. Sendjaya et al. (2019) argued that the chronic problems are the cause of corporate scandals around numerous companies globally. Global organizations keept track of strategies implications, and changes of strategies. However, the scandals within the global corporations are the reason behind failure of proper implications. According to Jayasooria (2018) every country had the responsibility to raise and modify the resources to promote the partnership between civil society and private sectors. Therefore, the country needs to develop the strategic principals to attract the stakeholders. To commit the social movements and professional communities the country needs to think about required liability and changes to follow their objectives on the evaluations of food security. Hallion, Montgomery and Mount (2016) disagreed saying that the fear towards the cause of hunger management in African nations are the attacks by the unauthorized groups of Syria, Pakistan, and Iraq and that is how the political and social environment became unstable. United Nations (2019) stated that the disparity of resources and technology led to dissimilar distribution and production between the countries over the world. Despite following the objectives, over 700 million people are still living below the poverty line, which causes the failure of hunger security.   Strategic Response of UN, World Hunger, and National Government Zero hunger is the main goal of 2030’s Sustainable Development Agenda of the United Nations. The goals are to end hunger in overall African countries, follow the food security procedures, improve the nutrition level among the population, and promote sustainability in agriculture. The aims of these objectives are to decrease the wastage of foods and use the resources in a more efficient way (Sadza et al., 2020). The zero-hunger strategy of Zimbabwe relies on the identification of opportunities and strengths from present to future to committing to the goals of eliminating malnutrition and hunger. In this case, the key responsibilities are to follow the strategic frameworks of National Policy and National Food. The agenda was to sustain the socio-economic transformation and develop the government’s assistance framework. United Nations’ Millennium summits purpose was creating the connection and collaboration between almost all the states of the world to progress in the countries, which could be helpful for the change the world. The conference was held to configure the 2015 goals of MSD and made significant accomplishment. Fearon and Lati (2017) stated that the violent conflict in the developing world is the most negative impactful aspect in crisis management, especially for hunger security. The studies of South African countries draw the link between the environmental conditions, which negatively influence food productions between the countries. Therefore, the strategies that the countries need to follow are to the procedures of food scarcities and food resources abundance and how these affect local conflicts (Koren & Bagozzi, 2016). Hendrix and Brinkman (2019) stated that the strategy of reducing rival groups to accessing the food resource could positively affect the ability of fighting and give strengths to an organization. In addition, problematic organizations such as rebel groups and military officials have complete access to the food and utilization of resources. Therefore, a strategy is needed for the sake of food security. Gender Inequality Climate change and other factors have caused changes in rainfall patterns that have contributed to a decline in food security in Zimbabwe’s Zaka District-Ward 31 (Hove & Gweme, 2018). In response, women adopted and have been practicing conservation agriculture since the 2005/6 agricultural season. The objective of this study was to evaluate the extent to which practicing conservation agriculture has led to increased food security in this semi-arid area. The results showed that the farmers who practiced conservation agriculture were able to increase their food security. Hove and Gweme (2018) concluded that female farmers that were constrained by labor, fencing, long dry spells were unable to effectively realize conservation agriculture and therefore failed to achieve food security. Dzvimbo et al. (2018) examined the relation between off-farm income and food security, testing key hypotheses that have not been examined in other studies in six African countries. The results showed that although off-farm income (income made other than from farming) has a strong statistically significant relation with food security. Also, a significantly stronger association was found between off-farm income and food security in households headed by females and poor region households than in households headed by males and rich region households in most of the six countries the study covered (Dzvimbo et al., 2018). The results support that households are inclined to benefit more when women have greater control over resources than when resources are controlled by men. From a policy and development practice viewpoint, the results suggests that concentrating only on rural development factors that raise farm productivity alone, such as input subsidies, most likely will not lead to gender-neutral beneficial outcomes. Further, Ghana, Kenya, and Mozambique showed that food security implications differ depending on if female or males are head of the household. Therefore, interventions such as rural nonfarm microcredit programs that target households headed by women or women in general could help attain gender-equitable poverty reduction (Dzvimbo et al., 2018). Hove and Gweme (2018) conducted a mixed method approach, collecting data through key informant interviews, focus group discussions, in addition to researcher observations. A case study approach was used with a combination of qualitative and quantitative methodologies. The qualitative data was collected by interviewing 35 participants and there were five focus group meetings. Secondary data was used for the quantitative portion of the study that were obtained from NGO reports, assessment reports, that were located on the Internet and at libraries. Whereas Dzvimbo et al. (2018) carried out several descriptive analyses to test the hypotheses in their quantitative study. This was an important study because prior literature has consistently shown that.there is a growing nonfarm in rural areas, although farming is still the one most important source of income (Davis et al., 2017). However, Dzimbo et al. showed that more than a quarter of farming households in all six countries do not have any income from off-farm sources. Gender differences regarding farming and food security has also been the focus of other studies (Ampaire et al., 2020; Tavenner et al. 2019; Venkatramanan & Shachi, 2020). Climate change and its effects are continuing to impact rural livelihoods and especially food security (Ampaire et al., 2020). The response must be that gender mainstreaming efforts are accelerated. This means that effective gender mainstreaming requires that gender is sufficiently integrated into development plans, policies, and implementation strategies that are supported by budgetary allocations. Therefore, Ampaire et al. (2020) investigated the extent of gender integration in agricultural and natural resource policies in Tanzania and Uganda in addition to how gender is budgeted for in the implementation plans at both lower and district governance levels. The following are the themes that emerged: There is increasing gender responsiveness in both countriesGender issues are still interpreted as “women issues,”There is disharmony in gender mainstreaming across governance levelsBudgeting for gender is not yet fully embraced by governmentsAllocations to gender at sub-national level remain inconsistently low with sharp differences between estimated and actual budgetsGender activities do not address any structural inequalities. (Ampaire et al., 2020, p. 43) However, researchers also observed that there was insufficient data and inadequate capacity of policy makers in both countries to understand and act on issues concerning gender. Ampaire et al. (2020) stated that this necessitates moving beyond over-simplification of gender to collect data on a nationwide bases and gender analysis in key climate change sectors of the countries, which Huyer (2016) and Jost et al. (2016) also suggested. Yet, government officials admitted they did not have sufficient skills to conduct proper gender analysis nor could they integrate the results into the planning process (Ampaire et al., 2020). Further, in Tanzania legislators have limited appreciation and understanding about improving food security or adapting to climate change through gender responsiveness (Ampaire et al., 2020). Still, both countries have made positive strides in integrating gender into plans, policies, and strategies that has created a general shift from gender-blind policies. Tavenner et al (2019) involved 2,859 households from the three countries of Ethiopia, Kenya, and Tanzania in their study focused on gender impacts on different farming systems as well as on gender-respondent-household typologies. The results showed that that on-farm strategies regarding adapting to and mitigating to climate change have gendered trade-offs, which are related with different patterns of female control (Tavenner et al., 2019). Results showed that these relationships differ dependent on the gender-respondent-household type that was surveyed by the Rural Multiple Indicator Household Survey (RHoMIS), which was used as secondary data in this study. Findings also indicated that while market commercialization in the East African region tends to weaken women’s control by centering on sales instead of consumption decisions, diversification most likely will give women greater control by including more “marginal” crops, such as vegetables, legumes, and livestock (chickens, eggs). This would create a “social safeguard” to combat against possibly marginalizing impacts of commercialization (Tavenner et al., 2019). Ampaire et al. (2020) and Tavenner et al. (2019) both focused on gender issues concerning food security, however in different countries and from different perspectives. Samples were also different as Tavenner et al. included 496 households from Ethiopia, (903 households) from Kenya, and 1,460 households from Tanzania. Whereas, Ampaire et al. (2020) examined a total of 155 different types of documents and also four consecutive financial years of gender allocations. Ampaire et al. also detailed several recommendations that could be implemented but Tavenner et al. did not. However, Tavenner et al. used descriptive statistics in their analysis while Ampaire et al. relied on a system of first rating the study for gender blindness, which received a number 1. The extent of integration was assessed and rated from 2 to 5, with 5 indicating that financial resources were allocated to gender, the amount did not make a difference ratings. Budget analyses were also conducted. Plus, the documents were explained by participants that took part in a workshop by them giving feedback to the researchers. Anang and Yeboah (2019) investigated factors influencing participation in off-farm work and the predictors of total amount of off-farm income of small-scale farmers in northern Ghana. Off-farm activities involve working outside the participant’s own farm. Off-farm work plays an increasingly essential role in sustainable development and poverty reduction especially in rural areas. The results revealed that gender, years of education, farming experience, and access to credit are the factors that determine participation in off-farm work (Anang & Yeboah, 2019). Farming experience, geographical location, and years of education are determinants of income from off-farm work. Women play several economic roles in most Ghanaian societies and are noted for their entrepreneurial abilities. Women participate in petty trading as well as other income earning activities in order to supplement household income in many rural communities. Women also play multiple roles in the household (Anang & Yeboah, 2019, 2019). Participation in rural non-farm activities wields a pronounced impact on house-hold food security, rural development, welfare, agriculture, income, and household farm decisions. Osarfo et al. (2916) investigated the impact of participation in non-farm activities on food security and household income among farm households. This study was conducted in the Upper East and Upper West Regions of Ghana and used the Recommended Daily Calorie Required Recommended Daily Calorie Required (RDCR). The results showed that 45 percent of households are food insecure in both regions. This is despite Ghana’s success at cutting consumption poverty in half (Osarfo et al., 2016). Propensity score matching (PSM) results indicated that participation in non-farm work has significant positive impact on food security and household income. Significant determinant factors of non-farm work participation were identified such as village group membership, number of farms owned, distance to the nearest health facility, basic education attainment, road network, and ownership of assets namely mobile phone, motorbike, or truck (Osarfo et al., 2016). The study by Osarfo et al. (2016) is three years older than Anang and Yeboah (2019), so neither could take the COVID-19 pandemic into consideration, which most likely made a difference in both food security and income. Osarfo et al. (2016) had a sample of 400 that were chosen using multistage stratified random sampling. Whereas Anang and Yeboah (2019) had a sample of 300 and there were an equal number of farmers who irrigated and those that did not irrigate for rice production. Anang and Yeboah (2019) used Double-Hurdle Model of Off-Farm Income Determination was used to analyze the data collected from interviews, which generated a number of statistics that researchers provided in table form. Rural Cameroon has also been the site of research related to gender differences as women are usually charged with the cultivation of basic food crops. Therefore women need to be agriculturally and medically empowered yet this has not been the case in most of rural Cameroon. Women are a precious asset to humanity and make immense contributions to food security. Therefore, Tambi et al. (2017) developed these objectives for their study. One was to explore the determinants of women in agricultural production. Secondly, researchers examined the contributions of women that work in the agriculture on food security area. Lastly, researchers derived policy implications on the basis of the analysis. Overall, results showed that women in agricultural production are linked positively with food security. Other variables that are linked significantly with food security in rural Cameroon are mother’s education, maternal participation in the labor market, father’s presence in the household, and family size . Results also showed that the determinants of women in agricultural production were: health of status of mothers, mother’s age, farm size, and married women’s place of residence. Women in agricultural production are indeed working machines in terms of food crop production in Cameroon that translates into food security. The results showed that women in agricultural production are significantly positively correlates with food security. In Cameroon it has been observed that: Women are at the base/principal actors of basic food crops production that are the basis for food security.Women in general are proven to have a greater burden for family satisfaction than their male counterparts.There are more women involve in agricultural production in Cameroon than otherwise.Women activities in the agricultural production is full time while the male are involve in other activities.Culturally, women are expected to go to the farm more than men. (p. 77) Tambi et al. (2017) stated that, “The decision makers must put at the top of their agenda women empowerment and support programs, as well as medical services at the disposal of women to permit them do their job effectively. This is a gateway towards ameliorating standards of living among women and poverty alleviation in rural households” (p. 70). Despite women’s role in feeding the population, effective reform paths for addressing women’s tenure security and access to land are yet to be found. Africa adopted the AU Declaration on Land Issues and Challenges in Africa in 2009. When the African Land Policy Centre (2017) was launched, there were high that existing precarious women’s food security, access to land, and tenure, would be transformed to opportunities. However, prevailing discourse still advocate for land reforms with gender equality based on a neo-classical chord. Bachange and Tchawa (2017) argue that gender parity-oriented reforms are not only less robust but also prone to generating uncertain outcomes vis-à-vis women’s tenure challenges as well as aggravate food importation. This study collected data from two communities in Cameroon, and Sub-Saharan Africa to showed that gender-sensitive land tenure reforms are critical in the struggle to guarantee women’s access to, control, as well as land transfer for suitable use and for bringing the second High 5s to fruition. ActionAid (2010) posited that building women’s capacity in the agricultural sector and protecting women’s food sovereignty is an essential precondition to attaining the 1st Millennium Development Goal, which ties in with the second High 5s. Cameroon is essential Africa in miniature with 5 key agro-ecological zones for both cash and food crops cultivation, and this is on land accessed primarily through customary arrangements that consists of a bundle of rules developed by societies. Some land tenure arrangements are favorable to women and some are not. In Sub-Saharan Africa this is important because girls and women do the collecting of non-timber forest products (Bachange & Tchawa, 2017). Land tenure reforms have become very confusing and decisions are often based on European texts that do not coincide with the problems that reforms should be addressing (Ngwasiri, 2001). Gender insensitive/neutral land tenure rights in SSA, emerged from two underpinnings, which are not gender-responsive (Chigbu et al. 2019). Tambi et al. (2017) used secondary data as the household consumption survey they wanted to use did not include rice in 2007, which was the last time data was collected. In Cameroon, 62.4 percent of women are involved in agriculture production Culture and educational reasons may be whey there are more women than men. Bachange and Tchawa (2017) conducted a qualitative study by collecting data from several sources. Researchers reviewed policy documents and peer review works on gender-related land right reforms. Oral histories were collected in four focus group discussions with 6 to 8 participants per focus group. Four interviews, two in Ambelle Clan and two in Nso Fondom in the North West Region of Cameroon were also conducted. Thematic analysis was adhered as described by Strauss (1987). Global Warming and Climate Changes In World Bank (2016) studies, projections have shown that Africa is highly susceptible to climate changes. Masipa (2017) stated that most studies have shown that climate changes has had a severe effect on agriculture land, which ultimately impacts food security. The World Food Program (WFP 2016) report showed that crop production on average yield per hectare is increasing at a rate lower than global population growth, which means that food production will struggle meet global demands in the immediate future. This will leave numerous countries and millions of people facing the stark reality of reduced food security. In Ethiopia, Africa’s second populous country after Nigeria, food insecurity is a persistent, critical challenge (Mohamed, 2017). The El Niño drought that occurred in 2015 was one of the strongest droughts that has been recorded in Ethiopia where more than 27 million people became food insecure in addition, the total population of 18.1 million people required food assistance in 2016. As indicated by The Africa Food Security and Hunger Multiple Indicator Scorecard ranked Ethiopia first in having the highest number of people in a state of undernourishment which was 32.1 million people in 2014 (Mohamed, 2017). The World Food Program found that the long-term effects of chronic malnutrition cost Ethiopia an estimated 16.5 percent of its GDP every year. The number of food insecure people in the country is steadily increasing, which was approximately 2.9 million in 2014, 4.5 million in August of 2015 and by the end of 2015 the number had more than doubled to 10.2 million food insecure people (Mohamed, 2017). The major sources of food security problems in Ethiopia are from drought and land degradation, instability and armed conflict, and population pressure. To cope Ethiopian people use the sale of livestock, requesting grain loans, agricultural employment, sales of wood or charcoal, migration to other areas, small scale trading as well as limiting the size and frequency of meals. To make considerable improvement on food security in Ethiopia Mohamed (2017), suggested the following actions and measures need to be taken by household heads, the government of Ethiopia, and national and international organizations: The households and productive aged members of the household should participate in different income generating activities and diversify their livelihood strategies that help them to escape from wider state of food insecurity and undernourishments.The government of Ethiopia should have to invest more on pro- poor development programs such as PSNP and improve social accountability to increase the ability of citizens to provide feedback on the services they receive.The international NGOs, local organizations, private sector and government should continue to work together on strengthening the livelihoods, rural market structures and providing the climate resilience services that improve the ability of poor households to cope with shocks. (p. 95) Borrell et al. (2020) researched Enset (Ensete ventricosum (Welw.) Cheesman), which is the main starch staple in the Ethiopian Highlands, where its unique features enhance the food security of an estimated 20 million people, earning the title “The Tree Against Hunger” (p. 212). Nevertheless enset-based agriculture is nearly unknown outside of its narrow zone of cultivation, despite the fact of it growing wild across much of Southern and East Africa (Borrell et al., 2020). Shifting the range of current agricultural systems for example, enset-tuberenset-chat, enset-cereal-vegetable, or development of novel crop combinations, rather than enset-coffee, could most likely be an important for adaptation to climate change. This, combined with genetic surveys, improved processing and selection of appropriate landraces, and modern crop breeding, could make enset as an critical climate–smart starch staple for Ethiopia and perhaps for other countries also (Borrell et al., 2020). Borrell et al. (2020) reviewed historical production data and showed that the area of land under enset production has increased 46% in two decades in Ethiopia. The yield also increased 12- fold making enset the second most produced crop in Ethiopia. Further, researchers reviewed and synthesizing the multifaceted and fragmented agronomic and ethnobotanic knowledge related to enset (Borrell et al., 2020). This included farming systems, medicinal uses, processing methods, products, and cultural importance. The traditional farming system and associated traditional wisdom that contributed for the availability of present day diversity need to be maintained and developed further, farmers should be supported and encouraged to continue the on-farm conservation activities (Borrell et al., 2020). Women process enset using traditional process and tools that is laborious and tiresome. Therefore, a possible future research area may be processing technology development (Garedew et al., 2017). Mohamed collected data, interpreted and evaluated secondary data sources. Various authors and researchers have written about food security/food insecurity. Many government and non-government agencies have also produced reports on food security in Ethiopia, which were used in this study. While Borrell et al. (2020) collected data directly from the people that use this traditional knowledge to grow and process enset. Researchers used semi- structured interviews, questionnaires, field observations, and focus group discussions from Elders and those over the age of 20 years of both men and women. Participants were chosen randomly and all interactions were conducted through a translator. Data was analysed using descriptive statistics including the use of frequency distribution and percentages, bar charts, tables, figures, and graphs. Hall et al. (2017) focused on the impact of population growth and climate change on food security projections to 2050. This study only encompassed 44 African countries because due to the lack of data it was not possible to include all African countries (Hall et al., 2017). The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Special Report on Emissions Scenarios and socio-economic pathways (Nakicenovic & Swart, 2000) was used to explore what would occur if the world developed according to those parameters if no adaptive response was forthcoming (Hall et al., 2017). The results suggested that the driving force behind food insecurity is rapid population growth, which was stronger than possible climate changes. However, climate impact will not be negligible as this study emphasized the major related contribution of population growth (Hall et al., 2017). There are two key options for preventing this type of situation from happening in Africa. One is to close the yield gap by increasing food imports via aid and trade agreements along with sustainable intensification. To close this gap investments in the regeneration of soil fertility and technology would be required (Hall et al., 2017). This study presented a method for assessing the multifaceted association between climate change and food security by an index measure of comparative vulnerability to food insecurity in developing and least-developed countries (Richardson et al., 2018). To assist with long-term planning, it provides a framework for rapid translation of climate information into food security outcomes at a national level. The results showed that food insecurity is projected to increase under all emission scenarios that included adaptation investment scenarios (Richardson et al., 2018). The geographic distribution of vulnerability was found to be similar to that of the present-day. The most severely affected are parts of South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa (Richardson et al., 2018). Hall et al. (2017) used the Food Estimation and Export for Diet and Malnutrition Evaluation (FEEDME) model, which was set up to model the impacts of future climate, socio-economic, and population changes on food availability and consequent undernourishment prevalence (Dawson et al., 2016). FEEDME focuses on hunger instead of undernutrition/malnutrition, which has a wider range of nutritional implications (Hall et al., 2017). Richardson et al. (2018) used the Hunger and Climate Vulnerability index (HCVI) that was originally developed by Krishnamurthy et al. (2014). Both studies provided needed information that will help with planning and policy development. Locusts are different from ordinary grasshoppers in their ability to swarm over long distances (150 kilometres per day or 93.20568 miles) and are one of the oldest migratory pests (Peng et al., 2020). Locusts are among the most devastating pests globally and consequently calls for actions to prevent the next outbreaks. Peng et al. (2020) reviewed the locust epidemic of the 2020 outbreak, its causes as well as prevention including green technologies that may help with future directions of locust control and food security. Massive locust outbreaks threaten crop production and the terrestrial environments in an estimated 100 countries of which Somalia, Ethiopia, and Kenya are the most impacted (Peng et al., 2020). Global warming is most likely the principal cause of locust plague outbreak in recent decades as it drives egg spawning of nearly 200,000 to 400,000 eggs per square meter. Biological control practices such as microorganisms, birds, and insects help to decrease the outbreaks while simultaneously reducing agricultural and ecosystem impacts. Light and sound stimulation are also green technologies that appear to work, still, these need further technological development for the incorporation of remote sensing and modelling before they can be utilized on large-scales. The Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations declared that the 2020 locust outbreak was the worst in 70 years most likely triggered by climate change, heavy rain, and hurricanes (Peng et al., 2020). It has affected 70,000 hectors in Ethiopia and Somalia. Shifting towards soybean, rape, and watermelon seems to help prevent locust outbreaks at the same time attain food security. Additionally, locusts contain a very high amount of protein and is therefore a superb source of protein for meat production. Locusts are also an alternate human protein source, which should be used to alleviate food security. Furthermore, forestation (the establishment of forest growth) of arable land improves local climate conditions towards lower temperatures and less precipitation whilst simultaneously attracting many more birds thus increasing the locust predation rates (Peng et al., 2020). The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has shown that climate change is not only real it requires thorough knowledge of future climate change scenarios. Ogallo et al. (2018) endeavoured to provide projected temperature and rainfall change scenarios over Lower Jubba, Somalia. The focus was on IPCC projected periods of the 2030, 2050 and 2070 benchmarks. Results showed a projected a decreasing tendency in rainfall leading up to 2030, which will be followed by an increase in rainfall that was shown in the 2050 and 2070 scenarios (Ogallo et al., 2918). Temperature projections showed increase in minimum and maximum temperatures in all seasons and sub periods. The 2030, 2050 and 2070 projected temperature and rainfall change scenarios showed that the future development and the livelihoods of Somalians will face increased threats of climate extremes unless effective climate adaptation systems form essential components of the country’s development strategies (Ogallo et al., 2918). Projections for South Sudan, an area of 619,745 sq. kms. in northeastern Africa are not much different (Omoj et al., 2016). Ogallo et al. (2018) used the downscaled Coordinated Regional Downscaling Experiment (CORDEX) RCMs data. The simulated rainfall and temperature data were derived from the CORDEX RCMs ensemble and were compared with the observed data strengthening the study (Ogallo et al., 2018). Peng et al. (2020) reviewed prior literature on their topic including some history of locusts outbreaks, though not articulated as such. Every aspect of locusts was covered even their lifecycle, which is important to consider for possible control measures. A worldwide perspective was presented so the depth and width was excellent (Peng et al., 2020). Diallo et al. (2020) focused on factors that influence adaptation strategies to climate change and the impacts of those adaptation strategies on maize productivity and household food security in the Sahelian region of Mali. Some of the strategies are changing planting dates, organic fertilizers, and growing of short duration maize varieties. Many of these strategies are evolving from traditional practices (Douxchamps et al. 2016). According to USAID (2016), agriculture in Mali employs 80% of the labor force and agriculture is 33% of the GDP. Dependency on rainfall and small-scale farms makes them highly vulnerable to rising temperatures and erratic rainfall. This study focused on maize an important cereal crop and a main food source for farmers (Diallo et al., 2020). However, the frequency of drought has hindered maize production as it is more sensitive than any other crop, which has now worsened food insecurity (FAO, 2017). The results of this study showed that farmer experience, off-farm employment, number of livestock owned, technical training, access to credit, and farmer association have positive effects on the when planting short-duration maize varieties (Diallo et al., 2020). However, the distance to the farm resulted in a negative effect. The use of organic fertilizers and planting short-duration maize varieties promotes both maize productivity and food security (Diallo et al., 2020). The purpose of a study conducted by Douxchamps et al. (2016) in West Africa was threefold: to define food secure and insecure household profiles, to assess the current levels of adoption of adaption strategies along with identifying the drivers of adoption, and to assess the impact of adaption strategies on the level food security and land productivity for households. Douxchamps et al. (2016) identified the following adaptation strategies: Soil and water conservationAgroforestrySmall ruminantsCrop diversityDry season vegetable productionImproved crop varietiesMineral fertilizer (p. 1). The researchers concluded that by adopting of adaptation strategies, the food security status can improve of some household types, but not all. Further, there are no one-size-fits-all solutions, as different farm types require different ‘climate-smart’ adaptation strategies (Douxchamps et al., 2016). Diallo et al. (2020) collected primary data using a multi-stage sampling approach. First, the two districts where the study took place were purposively chosen because they have high maize production in addition to approximately 20% and 40% frequency of occurrence of drought risk (Fofana et al. 2011). Second, three out of the six agricultural subsections from Koutiala District and four out of the eight used cross-sectional data from two districts in the southern Mali Bougouni District, which were purposively chosen (Diallo et al., 2020). Third, two communities were randomly chosen from each subsection, making a total of 14 randomly selected communities. There were eight from Bougouni and six from Koutiala. During the final stage, there was 153 from Bougouni and 155 maize farmers from Koutiala that were randomly sampled, therefore the total sample size was 308 farm households (Diallo et al., 2020). Douxchamps et al. (2016) used the IMPACTlite survey methodology and questionnaire. There were 200 households per site and three sites that were involved in the study. However, further analysis information was not provided. Douxchamps et al. (2016) used the ‘IMPACTlite’ survey methodology and questionnaire. There were 200 households per site and three sites that were involved in the study. IMPACTlite stands for Integrated Modeling Platform for Mixed Animal Crop systems, which captures characterizes the main agricultural production systems and captures the diversity of farming activities (Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security (CCFS) (n.d.). IMPACTlite is a tool for surveying households to collect information for analyzing farming systems. There are 30 pages of questions and an interview can last up to two whole days (CCFS).   Climatic variables cannot be changed, nevertheless cultivar selection along with crop management must be tailored to predominant climatic conditions (Sarkar & Baishya, 2017). It is critical to include physiological traits that will improve the plants’ capacity to tolerate multiple climatic stress factors in a breeding program. Sustainable crop production that will deliver high yield to meet ever-increasing requirement for food necessitates optimum use of fertilizers, which contain nutrients, by crops (Sarkar & Baishya, 2017). Since fertilizers are costly both environmentally and financially increasing, efficiency of fertilizers that are applied is a prerequisite. Nutrient use efficiency is defined “as yield per unit fertilizer input or in terms of recovery of applied fertilizer” (p. 119). The most applicable expression of nutrient use efficiency is, however, determined by the question being asked and frequently by the spatial or temporal scale of interest that has reliable data available (Sarkar & Baishya, 2017). Analysis of global temporal trends in nutrient use efficiency for N, P and K showed that partial factor productivity. For Africa, Europe, and North America, the EU-15 is trending upwards, whereas in China, India, and Latin America, they are trending downwards. It is best to set typical nutrient use efficiency values for crops locally within the appropriate climate, management, cropping system, and soil contexts (Sarkar & Baishya, 2017). Development of new cultivars that contain higher nutrient use efficiency, coupled with best management practices, will contribute to sustainable agricultural systems. Improvement in nutrient use efficiency thus requires simultaneous consideration of multiple aspects such as crop improvement as well as crop management that involve a multidisciplinary approach (Sarkar & Baishya, 2017). Sahel is part sub-Saharan Africa and food security is a crucial issue. Sahel could be endangered during the 21st century by both climate change and demographic pressure (Defrance et al., 2020). Changes in rainfall and higher temperatures because of global warming are threatening the rain-fed agriculture. Maize, sorghum, and pearl millet makes up nearly 70% to 98% of the total crop production in these countries. Simultaneously, the population is expected to increase an estimated three-fold until 2050. Defrance et al. (2020) quantified the effect of climate change on food security by combining climate modeling, crop yield and demographic evolution under two future climatic scenarios. The researchers simulated yield for the main crops in five countries in West Africa, Berkina Faso, Mali, Niger, and Senegal. Researchers also estimated the population pressure on crop production to evaluate the number of accessible cereal production per capita (Defrance et al., 2020). The results showed that the African monsoon evolution contributes to increased rainfall in Eastern Sahel, while in Western Sahel rain decreases under the RCP8.5 (Representative Concentration Pathway) scenario from IPCC. Therefore, by the end of the 21st century higher temperature will increase. The amount of food for the inhabitants, local agricultural production is expected to be below 50 kg per capita in 2050. As a result, this situation can have impact on both crop import as well as regional migration. Further, strong difficulties in food security are expected (Defrance et al., 2020). The Impact of Conflict and Violence According to Brück and d’Errico (2019) food insecurity and violent conflict have decreased in the long term but fluctuated recently, yet there is a strong positive correlation between these variables. For instance, in 2017 all nineteen countries categorized by FAO as under ‘‘protracted crisis” circumstances were engaged in violent conflict at the same time (FAO et al., 2017). Additionally, all countries currently at high risk of famine experience substantial violent conflict also. There were over 9000 conflict deaths in 2017 in Nigeria, Somalia, South Sudan, and Yemen (UCDP, 2018). In addition to conflict, many countries also suffer natural disasters. For example, there were prolonged droughts in South Sudan, Mali, or Syria that further undermine food production, food consumption, livelihoods, and markets (Sneyers, 2017). Rudolfsen (2020) conducted a review the literature, synthesizing its principal empirical findings. In addition, central explanations are provided. Researchers identified four specific issues to consider in order to enhance the understanding of how food insecurity is related to unrest (Rudolfsen, 2020). First, there is a broad range of theoretical mechanisms that have been suggested of how food insecurity relate to unrest, however, the empirical tests are similar. Second, there are various independent variables, but a gap exist between the measurement and theoretical definition (Rudolfsen, 2020). Third, the focus is frequently on food riots, but it is questionable that riots is the most likely response, and whether it is possible to separate between food-related unrest and other kinds of turmoil is not clear. Lastly, it is challenging to address the endogenous nature unrest and food insecurity (Rudolfsen, 2020). Martin-Shields and Stojetz (2018) reviewed the literature of the key concepts and findings about the food security and conflict, which provided a reference for future research and policy making. Martin-Shields and Stojetz (2018) defined conflict and food security by using the customary Uppsala Conflict Data Program and the FAO databases. The definitions of variables based on recent literature are excellent with explanations provided. Each is illustrated with a graph (Martin-Shields & Stojetz, 2018). Researchers explain that the scope was intentionally broad in order to reflect and variety of forms of conflict and food security. Recent and controversial debates in regards to causal effects of climate conditions, food policies on food security, and violent conflict as well as their interrelationships are also presented. Results support new data collection to fill the academic gaps as well as supporting policy making (Martin-Shields & Stojetz, 2018). The concentration was on quantitative studies that validate, extend, and complement descriptive and qualitative findings that there are substantial links and causalities between violent conflict and food security (Martin-Shields & Stojetz, 2018). Rudolfsen (2020) and Martin-Shields and Stojetz (2018) both conducted literature reviews with a focus on food security and conflict. Yet, Rudolfsen (2020) does not explain the method by which the review was conducted or even give a total of the number of articles reviewed. Martin-Shields and Stojetz (2018) do not outline their review methods either, however, they do back up their arguments with substantial studies. For example, there are not only a number of studies confirming the climate-conflict link but also meta-analyses of over 50 studies that document the effects of temperature increases on the prospect of conflict, both intergroup or interpersonal (Hsiang et al., 2013; Burke et al., 2015). Koren and Bagozzi (2017) developed a food-security based theory to explain the substantial variation observed in violence against civilians across time and subnational geographic space. Combatants, be they rebel or government actors, frequently must utilize local agricultural resources for nourishment (Koren & Bagozzi, 2017). However, during times of peace, both civilians and armed actors have long time horizons, thereby the prospects of repeated interactions thus foster a strategy of co-optation for the attainment of food resources. Yet, when conflict exist in a region it leads armed actors discounting the benefits of future interactions in favor of attaining food immediately, if necessary using violence (Koren & Bagozzi, 2017). On a sample of all African countries (1997–2009), the findings showed robust support for our expectations: cropland increases the incidence of violence against civilians during conflict, but has an enhanced pacifying influence during times of peace (Koren & Bagozzi, 2017). Though agriculture is hindered by a number of both endogenous (developing from within) and exogenous (originating externally) problems, it is the major generator of livelihoods for the majority of the population in the least developing countries like Ethiopia (Abegaz et al., 2017). Rain-fed agriculture is the main method of farming in the developing world. In sub-Saharan African (SSA) this practice has resulted in food systems that are exceedingly sensitive and dependent on rainfall. Climate changes as well as man-made calamities of civil strife and prolonged war have impacted farming (UNDP, 2012; Welteji et al., 2917). In consequence, it has resulted in lower agricultural outputs putting rural people at greater risks of food insecurities (Abegaz et al., 2017). The objective of this study was to look at the status of food security in addition to identifying its determinants in the rural Ethiopia. The majority of the households were found to be food insecure, yet food insecurity decreased in 2009 compared with 2004 (Abegaz et al., 2017). Three issues significantly determined food security: lack of off-farm income, rain shock, and region of the households. To ensure food security, farmers should consider every rain season in the farming activity as well as enhancing off-farm income-generating activities (Abegaz et al., 2017). The sample for the study conducted by Koren and Bagozzi (2017) consisted of 13 years of data, from 1997 to 2009, which is the total range for which information on both the independent and dependent variables were available. Researchers also included several control variables when estimating a series of statistical models that strengthened the study (Koren & Bagozzi, 2017). Abegaz et al. (2017) also had a large sample for their study and analysis. The pooled data of a total of 2722 households were included in this study, which were obtained from the Ethiopia Rural Household Survey (ERHS). Both bivariate binary logistic regression and multivariable binary logistic regression were used in analysis. Abegaz et al.( 2017) provided several tables that summarized and illustrated the results. van Weezel (2018) examined the connection between violent armed conflict and food security by using data aggregated at the country level for 106 countries across the global South on the continents of Africa, Central America, South America, and Asia, between 1961–2011. The results of the data analysis demonstrated that though there has been global progress in improving the food supply, countries affected by conflict most likely make slower progress (van Weezel, 2018). The data also showed that some countries experience large setbacks, while others do not appear to be affected, at least not at an aggregate level. Essentially, there are potentially diverging effects of conflict on food security. These diverging effects may differ depending on the type of conflict occurring (van Weezel, 2018). Using data on the both the incompatibility and intensity of the conflict, the results suggested that civil wars and violent armed conflict about government power are inclined to show higher negative correlations with changes in food security when compared to territorial conflicts, for instance. However, the regression analysis strongly showed that violent armed conflict is negatively related to food security in the short as well as the long run (van Weezel, 2018). Agricultural activity is critical for many people in developing countries that were included in the sample, and they are most likely to be affected because of the rural character of most conflicts (Kalyvas, 2004). The topic of this review was on natural resources, food security and conflicts to emphasize the connections between natural resources management, food security, and conflicts (Ajayi & Oguntade, 2018). Furthermore, the effects of the struggle for control of natural resources and food insecurity on conflicts in Nigeria, and the demographic, political, and social factors that might aggravate the conflicts. The results suggested that Government pay attention to the connection between natural resources and conflicts. Issues that should be considered include environmental hazards, grievances arising from land expropriation, social disruption accompanying labor migration, and inadequate job opportunities (Ajayi & Oguntade, 2018). Environmental justice is imperative, meaning low-income and minority communities do not bear a disproportionate share of environmental costs of natural resources exploitation and therefore should be given sufficient consideration. Accountability to the citizens of Nigeria should be strengthened in the exploitation of the nation’s natural resources in order to minimize the incentive to form separatist groups and secession (Ajayi & Oguntade, 2018). van Weezel (2018) used regression analysis but the results do not include individual country statistics only the overall condition. The author does mention studies that have been conducted an individual level Brück, d’Errico and Pietrelli (2018), and Mercier et al. (2017) or other examples listed in Martin-Shields and Stojetz (2017). Though Ajayi and Oguntade (2018) do not explain what databases they searched for articles nor anything else about their method they do provide the most useful definitions related to their topic. They also state that there are over 200 different definitions of food security. However, there is a commonly excepted definition of food security and then the four dimensions are explained. Their definitions and conceptual issues about conflict well as the usefulness of conflict analysis and other related information. The COVID-19 Pandemic Within less than three months COVID-19 spread to over 100 countries (Vos, 2020). The pandemic led to the total lockdown in many cities across the worldwide. During other pandemics, involving SARS and the avian influenza, food price hikes and market panics occurred in affected areas. With the COVID-19 crisis, the world’s poorest, who primarily depend on agriculture, will most likely run out of food. Therefore, malnutrition hunger, and starvation due to inadequate and unhealthy eating habits, put their well-being and health at risk (United Nations/Department of Economic and Social Affairs, 2020), and could increase the risk of infection (Short et al., 2020). COVID-19 has not spread to livestock, it is primarily urban economic activity that is being affected by social-distancing. Figure: 3 Comparison of the overall supply exposure of developing nations to developed nations Source: Schmidhuber, J., Pound, J., Qiao, B., 2020. COVID-19: Channels of transmission to food and agriculture. Food and Agriculture Organizations. United Nations.
(Adapted by Workie, 2020). Figure 4 Comparison of the overall demand exposure of developing nations to developed nations Source: Schmidhuber, J., Pound, J., Qiao, B., 2020. COVID-19: Channels of transmission to food and agriculture. Food and Agriculture Organizations. United Nations. (Adapted by Workie, 2020).
 According to Lucchese and Pianta (2020) the pandemic is predicted to be followed by a severe unparalleled economic crisis. Imminent famine in many developing countries is also anticipated (Ezeh et al., 2020; Miles, 2020). Notwithstanding, exceptional evaluation of a likely economic crisis (Bai et al., 2020; Lucchese & Pianta, 2020; WHO, 2020), little has been done about the pandemic‘s impact on land-use including forest and Savanna ecosystem, agriculture, water, as well as food security and education in Africa. Predictions that the COVID-19 crisis will have a significant impact on countries struggling to meet the targets of the SDGs Agenda 2030 of zero hunger (Sumner et al., 2020), sanitation, climate actions, clean water, and partnerships for the goals among others. To avoid the impending famine that is predicted to occur in a post-COVID, the leaders and academics in Africa must re-strategies on how best to improve food production without harming the ecosystem (Ezeh et al., 2020). This will help the African continent attain food-sufficiency and prevent a similar pandemic outbreak related with encroachments to nature and biodiversity. In this regard, researchers and scholars also need more funding should also be made available. Increased investment in education, agriculture, and scientific research is key to revamping the economy in the post-COVID Africa (Ezeh et al., 2020). Many scholars have documented the lack of food access for vulnerable countries and communities (Lancet 2020; Moseley & Battersby 2020; Power et al. 2020) and disruptions to supply chains on a worldwide scale. A number of researchers have called for transformative change in food systems so that it is built on principles of food sovereignty while supporting local markets (Altieri & Nicholls 2020; Blay-Palmer et al. 2020; Van der Ploeg 2020; Worstell 2020). On the positive side has led to improved air quality, the decline in N2O, CO2, and noise pollution. Air pollution conservation advocates and scientists have been vindicated (Ezeh et al., 2020). However, COVID-19 has also revealed the vulnerabilities of the worldwide population to food supply, health care, and economy. Africa has been tremendously affected so much so that intervention is required in many socio-economic areas. COVID-19 exposed the need for food security, potable water, social security, improved hygiene and the need for higher investment in both education and agriculture (Ezeh et al., 2020; Miles, 2020). A number of movement restrictions that were part of the control measures to stem the spread of the COVID-19 pandemic by countries in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) has implications on food security, because movement restrictions coincided with planting periods for nearly all staple crops (Ayanlade & Radeny, 2020). Planting months are normally March and April (Akinseye et al., 2020; Nyagumbo et al., 2017; Srivastava et al., 2016), but lockdowns and partial lockdowns made it impossible to accomplish planting in 2020. Over the past 24 years, Western Africa has accounted for more than 60% of the agricultural output of SSA (Barbier & Hochard, 2018; Mechiche-Alami, 2020). Maize and rice are cultivated for income and food, plus they have a high market value and are the fastest-growing staples food crops in Africa (FAO, I., UNICEF, WFP & WHO, 2018). These crops have become important are part of the diet and make up a large portion of many of the countries’ GPP. Despite that according to WHO nearly all the countries in the SSA are still major importers of food. Along with the lockdowns, only limited flights and emergency flights were allowed into affected countries, so that the supply of life-saving and protective equipment, humanitarian cargo could be distributed. Border closures led to the dearth of essential food supplies, while the price of food that was available significantly increased. Furthermore, the border closures limited the supply and increased the price of related goods and services involving essential farm inputs such as agrochemicals, supply seeds, fertilizers and pesticides the majority of which are imported by SSA countries (Brenton & Chemutai, 2020; Willy et al., 2020). However, climate change and land degradation now posing additional threats to agriculture (Barbier & Hochard, 2018; Mechiche-Alami, 2020). Over 65% of the households in SSA are primarily small farmers, many are poor as well as vulnerable even more so since the COVID-19 pandemic (Ayanlade & Radeny, 2020). Clapp and Moseley (2020) take a long-term historical view on policy responses to food crises in the past in their analysis of the COVID-19 pandemic. The legacies left by past policies created vulnerabilities, especially in the face of the current crisis are characterized by three interlocking dynamics: a) disruptions to global food supply chains, b) the loss of income and livelihoods due to the global economic recession, and c) uneven food price trends unleashed by a set of complex factors (p. 1). Clapp and Moseley (2020) strongly insist that the, “COVID-19 pandemic marks an inflection point and demands a different set of policy responses that work toward fundamentally transforming food systems” (p. 1). Food security is the most important facet of sustainable development (Workie et al., 2020). Agricultural forms the backbone of the economy besides providing livelihood to a large portion in developing countries along with food security. Hence, the disruption of the agricultural sector will have far-reaching effects on these countries. Owing to the importance of these sectors, Workie et al., (2020) performed a comprehensive assessment of the impact of COVID-19 on both food security and agriculture. It is evident from this analysis, that livelihoods and lives are at risk from the COVID-19 pandemic. Furthermore, advances towards the attainment of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) will be jeopardized. The restrictions and containing measures adopted by many countries are most likely to intensify the food insecurity in developing countries. The global food availability and food prices are also affected as the pandemic started to spread through various countries. Vulnerable groups such as landless laborers, small-scale farmers, and wage earners, have been blocked from their day-to-day work and migrant laborers will also be hit hard by job and income losses. As of now, food accessibility will be severely affected along with food availability.. Post-pandemic, food availability could be severely impacted if no actions have been taken. Governments must quickly plan to enhance their ability in agriculture by instituting new reforms and risk management programs coupled with insulating the livelihood of people by cash and food assistance to meet their basic needs. These measures would in turn be benefit the ability of countries to achieve the SDG goals. With the COVID-19 crisis, the world’s poorest, who primarily depend on agriculture, will most likely run out of food. Therefore, malnutrition hunger, and starvation due to inadequate and unhealthy eating habits, put their well-being and health at risk (United Nations/Department of Economic and Social Affairs, 2020). The stability of food supply chains is vital to the food security of people worldwide (Erokhin & Gao, 2020). The beginning of 2020 saw this stability undergo one of the most vigorous pressure tests ever, owing to the COVID-19 pandemic. The pandemic has turned into an economic threat to food security worldwide in the forms of lockdowns, food trade restrictions, economic decline, and rising food inflation. The novel health crisis has struck developing and the least developed economies, in which people are especially vulnerable to malnutrition and hunger. In the study conducted by Erokhin and Gao’s (2020) aim was to reveal interactions between the food security status of people and the dynamics of COVID-19 cases, food inflation, food trade, and currency volatilities. There were 45 developing economies that were considered and they were distributed to three groups according to the level of income (Erokhin & Gao, 2020). The results showed that food insecurity effects of COVID-19 were more perceptible in upper-middle-income economies when compared to the least developed countries. In developed countries, food security risks attributed to the beginning of the health crisis were primarily related to economic access to sufficient food supply referred to as food inflation. In developing higher-income economies, food trade restrictions and currency depreciation were more prevalent (Erokhin & Gao, 2020). Workie et al. (2020) said that collecting data was the biggest challenge of this study. Because of the quantitative data gaps about every food security indicator along with the pandemic time series considered, the researchers were obliged to reduce the scale of quantitative analysis. Therefore, an assessment of the possible disruptions of COVID-19 on the developing countries’ agriculture and food security following their the diverse choke-points, supply/demand chains, and import/export activities therein (Workie et al., 2020). To guarantee the consistency and strong trustworthiness the data sources chosen are all United Nation-based international organizations that included FAO, UNSDG, UNCTAD, WB, WHO, FSNI, WFP, and World Economic Forum (Workie et al., 2020). Whereas, Erokhin and Gao (2020) used data from several sources: WFP’s Hunger Map portal (World Food Programme), [52], Trading Economics (Trading Economics),
and the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) (Committee for the Coordination of Statistical Activities, United Nations Conference on Trade and Development). Data collection pertained to Africa, America, Asia, Middle East, and Latin America. The analysis of data consisted of consecutive application of the autoregressive distributed lag method, variance decomposition analysis, and Yamamoto’s causality test. According to Willy et al. (2020), COVID-19 pandemic is expected to have severe economic health ramifications in Africa. This study presents a technical position on supply and demand shocks related with the COVID- 19 pandemic in the African context. Literature is provided documenting the disruptions related with containment measures instituted by most governments (Willy et al., 2020). There are discussions about the containment measures implications on labour mobility, production and productivity of major staples, import and export of food commodities, and prices of food items (Willy et al., 2020). Willy et al. (2020) recommended the following measures be taken: Circumscribing the impact of the COVID-19 and supporting a shock-resilient food system through implementation of sound food policies and short to long term actions including quality agricultural input provision of recovery,Stimulating key supply chain operation, food market system strengthening (Strong partnership platforms establishment for key food system players (Promotion of resilient technologies and deployment of digital agricultural solutions and support for scientific research and innovations that could deliver a vaccine sooner rather later.Implementation of comprehensive national, regional, and continental Knowledge Management System & Compendium on COVID 19 implications in agriculture and food system to guide the policy-making process. (p. ) Duke University economics professor Campbell Harvey indicated that. “It’s a Biological event, and the solution is also clear, another Biological event” (MarketWatch, 2020). The biological event that will end the COVID-19 pandemic will be in the form of a vaccine (Willy et al., 2020). Brenton and Chemutai (2020) emphasized the potential benefits and opportunities for African countries that would occur if there were coordinated measures on trade in response to the COVID19 pandemic. Trade contributes by supplying countries with essential medical goods, including material inputs for their production. Brenton and Chemutai (2020) list trade that contributes to both medical goods and services to help treat those affected and contain the pandemic: • Ensuring access to food, maintaining and enhancing nutritional intake of the poor which will boost immune systems and contribute to the ability to resist the virus • Providing farmers with necessary inputs (seeds, fertilizers, pesticides, equipment, veterinary products) for the next harvest • And supporting jobs and maintaining economic activity in the face of a global recession, disruption to regional and global value chains, and reduced employment and increased poverty. (para. 5) African countries are greatly dependent on worldwide trade and therefore measures put in place that limit trade have negatively impact (Figure 1). Flight restrictions were put into place in 32 countries in Africa. Some have blocked international flights, and others have suspended all commercial passenger flights. A few other countries have limited the restrictions to countries with high infection rates. Figure 5 Policy Instruments Affecting Trade in Goods and Services in Africa as of 29 March 2019 Source: Brenton, P. & Chemutai, V. (2020). Trade responses to the COVID-19 crisis in Africa. World Bank. In order to support a superior response instead of countries acting individually, Brenton and Chemutai (2020) suggested that countries coordinate to purchase medical supplies, standards and regulatory approval of COVID-19 medical products, mobilizing and allocating critical medical resources, both physical and human, to identify capacity (and comparative advantages) within the region to repurpose production for COVID-19 related goods, to enhance management of border crossings during the crisis, to enhance management of border crossings during the crisis, and establishing COVID-19 “container clinics” along Africa’s transport corridors. (para. 13) Most of the information that Brenton and Chemutai (2020) came from searching the internet and still this article is already over six months old, thus the situation with COVID-19 has also changed. This is just a short article, not a formal literature review but it was written for the World Bank. In fact, the authors refer to it as a guidance note, yet the recommendations are practical measures that are well presented and backed up the substantial literature. Willy et al. (2020) also made a number of recommendations but in regards to a different topic. The article by Willy et al. (2020) was written for Technologies for African Agricultural Transformation (TAAT) program. However, both articles are concerned with trade in Africa and how it can be supported while COVID-19 is still claiming monumental death rates. Both also cite nearly all articles that were published in 2019 and 2020. References Abegaz, K. H. (2017). 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