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CHAPTER 1 GENERAL INTRODUCTION INTRODUCTION This study focuses on the glass ceiling in the public sector in developing countries with particular reference to Mauritius. According to Johns (2013:2), the phrase ‘glass ceiling’ was first introduced in the 1980s. This phrase is defined by Shabarwal (2013:399) as “the barriers women are confronted with in their attempt to rise to leadership positions”. Moreover, the barriers associated with this phrase can be either invisible or artificial and they hinder women from attaining management and executive positions. Shabarwal (2013:399) defines glass wall as the “barriers that hold women in certain types of agencies that are traditionally viewed as “feminine” in nature. According to Connel (2006:837), the phrases glass ceiling and glass wall denote a way of thinking that focuses on certain aspects of gender inequality. International laws such as the United Nations Convention on the Elimination of Discrimination Against women highlight the importance of addressing glass ceiling in the public sector. Mauritius is not exempted from these laws hence this research focused on this particular country. As already alluded to, this research study focuses on glass ceiling in the Mauritius public sector in order to contribute to the gender discourse in Public Administration. Considering the introductory arguments above, this chapter provides a background and motivation for the study in order to put the problem into context. The problem statement, the research problem and the aim of the study are also discussed in this chapter. The adopted research methodology for investigating the research problem is unpacked for clarity purposes. In addition, the conceptualisation and the definition of terms frequently used is also provided in this chapter. BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY Wilson (2013:1) states that “women are expected to battle in proving themselves equal to men”. This is evidenced by the fact that in many public and private sectors women are often over-looked and disadvantaged. These are the results of a series of negative assumptions regarding women for example patriarchal societies controlling the roles of women which lead to taking the issue of under-representation of women in executive positions as acceptable norms. Wilson (2013) further argues “that although society has consciously upheld the convention that a woman’s ideal place is at home. In western culture the breadwinner notion is still common, relegating the significance of a wife’s career, women pursuing feminine careers, working extended hours is unsuitable for women, women do not possess leadership qualities that makes them suitable for top management positions”. This shows the social constructed stereotypes attached to women and their career advancement. According to Wilson (2013:1), glass ceiling is still prevalent and experienced by women in this 21st century and its serve as an obstacle in entering and advancing in managerial and supervisory roles. This is further confirmed by a study entitled: Glass ceiling and sticky floors: hurdles for Mauritian Working women”, that states that the higher hierarchy is more affected by gender disadvantages than the lower level (Tandrayen-Ragoobur & Pydayya 2015:452). Thus, women are compelled to leave the traditional sectors dominated by males to advance their careers. The male dominated and oppressive sectors remain unchallenged and the affected women as said by Catalyst (2018:1), “resort to leaving such toxic environments”. Many countries have enacted legislative frameworks inclusive of Constitutions, bar sexual discrimination in the workplace and any other forms of discrimination against women. For example, in Mauritius, the Equal Opportunities (amended) Act 2017 acknowledges equal rights for all citizens. Regardless of such legislative framework underpinnings, glass ceiling is still prevalent both in the private and the public sector in Mauritius. Cotter (2001:655) states that although women may no longer be barred due to their gender orientation from employment there might be still other factors that contribute to preventing women from moving into supervisory and management positions. The popular notion of glass ceiling effects as argued by Cotter (2001:655), implies that gender (or other) disadvantages such as low promotion, pervasive stereotype such as that of a “caring mother”, are stronger at the top of the hierarchy than at lower levels and that these disadvantages become worse later in a person’s career. In addition to this, Mafunisa (2006:3) argues that “women are confronted by serious internal and external barriers such as glass ceilings that hinder their career advancement and success”. Some of these barriers as discussed by Mafunisa include “…barriers imposed on women by society, family, employees and women themselves in the form of family responsibility and corporate responsibility”. Mafunisa (2006:3) further highlights “the lack of gender awareness by educators which strengthen gender inequality undermine girls’ self-esteem”. For these reasons, women generally do not advance as far or fast in the institutional hierarchy as their male counterparts, and they appear to be clustered in a position with relatively limited authority. In a similar vein, Ansari (2016: 528), asserts that “women are expected to have a more vigorous set of behavior or criteria than men to climb the corporate ladder”. There is a need to redress the imbalance of the past to achieve women representation in the public sector. In the same line, Gunnoo (2012:1) argues that barriers to advancement of women is derived from a “combination of stereotypical attitudes and perceptions which continue to compartmentalize people and leadership qualities by gender as well as the system itself which is patriarchal”. This implies that patriarchal systems hinder women advancement in the public sector. Hannan (2011:1) contends that “women should be equitably represented and have access to decision-making within all organizations”. She adds that experience has shown that although some organisations have well-defined and clear statements about the goal of gender equality and empowerment of women but without a major change in attitudes and practices there will be very little positive change. More women are entering government and are taking senior positions, including Heads of States but she states that the “road has been difficult and the numbers disproportionate even though women make half of the global population”. A brief description of Mauritius is provided in the following section. 1.2.1 MAURITIUS Mauritius is a small island of about 720 square miles situated in the Indian Ocean off the east-coast of Africa. Since its independence in 1968, Verdickt (2009:1) states that Mauritius has adopted a right-based approach to development. The same author argues that in line with the United Nations Decade for Women for Plan of Action of 1976/1985, the Government of Mauritius was one of the first to set up an institutional mechanism for the advancement of the rights of women, that is, a ministry for Women’s Affairs in 1976. According to Verdickt (2009:2), the ministry of Mauritius was mandated to cater for women’s rights, child development and family welfare. In spite of the existence of the legal framework, men continue to dominate the world of policy and decision-making in Mauritius. According to Ramgutty-Wong (2003:2) “Mauritius is classified as middle-income economy, but it has experienced remarkable swift development since the 1980’s” Moreover, Mauritius was left behind for many years, in terms of policies and practices for the provision of gender equality in its various forms. This past omission on equality may be explained by the fact that the public service in Mauritius is based on the characteristics of the British public service. Mauritius having gained its independence in 1968 and acceding to the status of Republic in 1992, but the Public Sector’s system is still linked to this colonial heritage (Ramgutty-Wong, 2014:55). This colonial heritage had resulted to women facing discrimination in various forms for years. The civil service of Mauritius which was developed around 1900 after the British took over a French system of administration is characterized by a complex network of rules and regulations, high formality multiplicity of grades and a long chain of command. According to Ramgutty (2014:55), “when the country became independent, the ministerial system supplanted the colonial structure, with attempts made in the late 70’s and the 80’s to convert the public service into an effective instrument of development policy. It was in the face of the acute economic problems faced by the country in the early 1980’s that part of the blame was attributed to the inefficiency of the public service. An articulated ‘political will’ found its reflection in the 1998 edition of the PRB Report, wherein Government expressed its commitment to reform the public sector with a view to improving service delivery and strengthening the process of public policy and decision making in that sector. Successive reports have all but repeatedly recommended almost the same recommendations since”. Ramgutty (2014:55) states that “currently (in 2014), there is no clearly defined policy for the management of human resources in the public sector. Successive governments have attempted some change in the structure and culture of the civil service, through various Steering or other Advisory committees. Current ills, apart from the image of inefficiency and complacency include the inability of management to bring about change, the shortage of qualified personnel in key areas, and the absence of career development prospects, the absence of a quality of work life and motivation effort and the unattractive remuneration package offered discourage women to enter the public service”. 1.3 PROBLEM STATEMENT: GENDER BARRIERS, STEREOTYPES AND OBSTACLES THAT WOMEN ENCOUNTER. Mauritius is a multi-cultural country which is moving towards growth, development and advancement of women in accordance with its Constitution of the Republic of Mauritius 1968, as amended in 2011. But in this venture of developing countries, many challenges such as low representation of women in senior positions in the public sector are being encountered, especially in the advancement of women in the public service. The Central Statistics Office of Mauritius (2019:1) highlights that the population of Mauritius as at the end of year 2019 was 1,265,711. The population comprises 639,544 women compared to 626,167 men. The survey of the Central Statistics Office (2019:1) revealed that women’s advancement in decision-making in the public sector remains low and women are largely under-represented in decision-making at the higher sphere of society. The proportion of women in most senior positions are largely under-represented in government services (Senior Chief Executive, Permanent Secretary, Deputy Permanent Secretary, Director, Manager, judge and Magistrate) has remained around 37% in 2017 and 2018. The statistics clearly indicated that glass ceiling existed in Mauritius during these two years. According to the UNESCO World Declaration on Higher Education for the Twenty-First Century (1998), in order to enhance women advancement in decision-making positions there is a need to understand the glass ceilings, gender barriers, stereotypes and obstacles that women encounter to reach senior positions and subsequently prevent them from venturing and ultimately advancing in the decision-taking posts. This need is felt for Mauritius where glass ceilings faced by women in in their advancement in the public sector have not been researched significantly.. This research study, is basically based on Mauritius to determine the extent in which glass ceilings are present in the public sector in this selected country. 1.4 PRIMARY RESEARCH QUESTION In view of the background provided, the main research question to be addressed is: To what extent does glass ceiling still prevail regarding the promotion of women in the civil service of Mauritius? 1.5 SECONDARY RESEARCH QUESTIONS Emanating from the main research question and the background to the study, the following secondary research questions are identified: What are the different types of glass ceilings in the Mauritian public sector preventing women in reaching certain jobs? What is the legal framework put in place in Mauritius to discourage such glass ceilings? To what extent has the Mauritian government managed to discourage glass ceilings to promote women’s representativeness in the public sector? 1.6 RESEARCH OBJECTIVES The main objective of this study was to observe the evolution of glass ceilings in Mauritius with specific emphasis on decision making positions in the public service of Mauritius. In order to answer the above research questions the following sub-objectives are considered: To critically analyse the different types of glass ceilings in the public sector preventing women in reaching certain jobs in Mauritius. To explore the legal framework put in place in Mauritius to discourage such glass ceilings. To determine the extent in which the Mauritian government has managed to discourage glass ceilings and eventually promote women’s representativeness in the public sector. 1.7 CONCEPTUALISATION The following concepts were identified and defined: Gender: refers to the socially constructed understanding of what it means to be a man or woman. It refers to the social characteristics whereby women and men exist in a dynamic structural relationship to each other. It is the process through which social life is organised at the level of the individual, family and society and it also play a crucial role in the structure of the organisation (Nicholson, 1996:39). Glass ceilings: AccordingtoOmran (2015:315), “glassceilingmaybedefineda phenomenonoflackofpromotionofwomentoupperlevelsofauthorityhierarchies”. The expression “glass ceiling” first appeared in the Wall Street Journal in 1986 and was then became the title of an academic article by A.M. Morrison and others published in 1987. The idea behind the expression was that a transparent barrier ie a glass ceiling blocked them. It is on the persistent failure of women to climb the corporate ladder as might be expected from their representation in the working population as a whole”. The main idea behind the expression of glass ceiling is that a transparent barrier, a glass ceiling, blocked them. The barrier is invisible from the bottom, when women started their careers but it was steely strong in preventing them from attaining equality with men. (The Economist, 2009). Policy: It is defined as a relatively stable, rule following-like course of action followed by an actor or set of actors in dealing with a problem or matter of concern. This definition focuses on what is actually done instead of what is only proposed (Anderson, 2004:6). Decision-making: Anderson (2004:122) defines decision-making as making a choice from among alternatives and selecting the best one. Barriers: National Health Service, Education for Scotland (2014:5) defines barriers as those things that prevent or make access to a service more difficult for certain groups and individuals. Social barriers: Social barriers refer to the cultural institutions and structures that Impinge on individuals, including gender and ethnicity. They can influence the ability of groups and individuals to engage in services and they can also feed into the organisation and implementation of services (Katz, 2007:11). Culture: it is a derivation of individual experience, something learned or created by individuals themselves or passed on to them socially by cotemporaries or ancestors (Avruch, 1998:5-6). 1.8 RESEARCH METHOD This dissertation was based on theoretical observation which is a non- empirical approach to research. This usually involves perusal of mostly published works like researching through archives. The research method is further discussed in chapter 4. 1.9 LITERATURE STUDY AND OTHER SOURCES Literature on glass ceilings in the public sector of Mauritius, represents important literature sources of studies and statistics of various bodies in developing countries like Mauritius are used in this research. The consulted literature included the following: Relevant scholarly literature on glass ceilings in the public sectorPublished and unpublished dissertations and thesesOfficial documents in MauritiusData from the statistics office of MauritiusInternational reportsArticlesReliable newspapers 1.10 REFERENCE TECHNIQUES The reference technique used was the abbreviated Harvard system. 1.11 ETHICAL CONSIDERATIONS According to Resnik (2015:1), ethics is regarded as morals or rules distinguishing between right or wrong. It can be defined as norms of conduct that distinguish between acceptable and unacceptable behaviour. Resnik (2015:1) defines ethics as a method, procedure or perspective for deciding how to act and help in an analysis, complex problem and issues. There are several reasons why it is important to adhere to ethical norms in research. Ethics is critical and, in this dissertation, secondary information and official reports that are available to the public will be used. 1.12 LAYOUT OF CHAPTERS The chapters were demarcated as follows: Chapter 1: provides the introduction to the entire study. Chapter 2: Legislations and policy framework on women and women in public service in Mauritius. Chapter 3: Research and design methodology Chapter 4: Data analysis Chapter 5: Findings, conclusion and recommendations on glass ceiling in key decision-making positions in the public service of Mauritius CHAPTER 2 LEGISLATIONS AND POLICY FRAMEWORK OF WOMEN IN MAURITIUS 2.1 INTRODUCTION The previous chapter provided a general overview of this research study. This chapter endeavors to investigate the literature on a glass ceiling to determine whether it exists and is indeed preventing women from achieving self-actualisation and reaching the panicle of their careers in the public sector. The chapter will commence on a larger scope and it will be narrowed to the public sector of Mauritius. This will entail providing an overview of the constitutional, legislative and policy framework on women in the civil service of Mauritius. A combination of both scholarly literature and legislative framework are studied in this chapter. Determining the extent glass ceilings still prevails regarding the promotion of women in the public sector of Mauritius plays a pivotal role to show how females are portrayed in the workplace. Feminist theories are identified and analysed to help to understand the changing role of women. According to the International Monetary Fund Staff Discussion Note (2013:4), women constitute over half of the world’s population but “their contribution to economic activity, growth, as well as well-being is much below its capacity, which lead to severe macro-economic effects”. Also, the difference between theories and perspectives is explained for a better understanding of both terms. Theories can be defined as analytical tools used for understanding, explaining and predicting subject matter, whereas a perspective is a set of assumptions about reality to analyses the questions we ask and the kind of answers we arrive at as a result (Buchanan, 1998:439). This Chapter aims at studying the different theories to find out whether a glass ceiling exists and is preventing women from reaching senior positions in the public service. In this chapter, an analysis of the views of different feminists on the status of women in the workplace is provided. This analysis further aims at revealing the various inequalities and under-representation of women in decision-making processes in the public sector caused by glass ceiling. 2.2 A SELECTION OF FEMINIST THEORIES Feminist theories are considered as one of the major groups of contemporary theories which cropped out of the women’s movement and had a task of analysing the status of women and men in society with the purpose of using that knowledge to better women’s life. It is the intention of feminist theories to understand the status of women in society for the purpose of improving their position in society (Crossman, 2013:1). Stivers (2008:50) claims that feminist theory is ‘critical of existing reality’. Feminist views women’s historical exclusion from certain human pursuits and confinement to others such as home-making which is not always deliberate on the part of individual men and not natural as well. In the same line, Stivers (2008) argues that such “arrangements make women more likely than men to encounter perspectives of neglect and to ask submerged questions about the terms and characteristics of their common existence with men”. Shafritz (2016:481) states that feminist theories argue that being a feminist means to bring up those left out or ignored. As seen earlier, Stivers (2008:50) further acknowledges that ‘two general perspectives on feminism have emerged’. The first one is associated with liberal feminists which address the historical dichotomy in sex roles by attempting to discourage it out to various degrees. This perspective is of the view that perceived differences in men’s and women’s behaviour is largely a side effect of societal sex roles and is of the opinion that the opening up of existing arrangements to women helping them to feel empowered. The second perspective is also on the perceived differences between men and women whether natural or not. Again, according to Stivers (2008:50), “women’s experiences and the values they acquire are not only different, but they are worthy in their own rights and need to be injected in one way or another into existing arrangements, which are seen as unnecessarily one-sided”. McGinn and Patterson (2005:932) identify three basic elements of feminist theories. Firstly, feminist theories offer views of the world ‘that highlight the extent to which sexual, gender, and other ‘master status’ distinctions structure the world’. Secondly, feminist theories incline adherents to see those distinctions as having consequences worthy of examination. The observation is made whether sex/gender distinctions are understood as natural or socially constructed; they are hierarchically organized and structured with dimension of power. The same author mentions that feminist theories, “whether manifested in social consciousness, mass politics, institutional politics, academic writing or all of these, tend to both supply and require a sense that current gender distinctions or their consequences can and should change”. McGinn and Patterson (2005:932) state that efforts have been made to classify feminist thinking and theories of thought: liberal, socialist feminism, radical feminism and multiracial feminism. According to McGinn and Patterson (2005:932), liberal feminists argue that gender inequality comes from past tradition and it poses barriers to women’s advancement and they promote individual rights and equal opportunity as the key for social justice and reform. Socialist feminists argue that the origin of women’s oppression emerges from the system of capitalism which consider women as cheap supply of labour and exploit them and make them weaker both as women and as workers. Reiman and Hartmann (1981: 22) were among the first to demonstrate that the percentage of an occupation that was female was negatively associated with wages earned in that occupation. Also, according to the Global Wage Report 2018/19, it is reported that the global wage growth was the lowest since 2008, while women were still earning 20 percent less than men. The Global Wage Report 2018/19 finds that in real terms (adjusted for price inflation) global wage growth declined to 1.8 per cent in 2017 from 2.4 per cent in 2016. The findings are based on data from 136 countries. As said by Gunnoo, Journalist of ‘Le Mauricien’ (2012:2) “…some forget that 52% of the citizens of this country are women and therefore the issue of adequate representation is the real priority”. In the same vein, Gunnoo added that “we are providing education to men and women for free and equal footing only to create a glass-ceiling immediately after in all decision-making positions”. Women in Mauritius are entitled to the right of work, and this includes the right to choose a profession, job security, equal pay, benefits, vocational training, maternity leave and child care. The Employment Rights Act 2008 protects women against discrimination in recruitment and employment, both in the public and the private sector. Finally, there is evidence that wage gaps between women and men in both the public and private sector persist and that labour laws are not adequately enforced. Anker (1992:248) argues that “gender is not a static characteristic that workers bring to the workplace as gendered individuals, but rather something that is produced and reinforced through participation in organizations”. According to Lewis (2020:1), “radical feminism is a philosophy emphasizing the patriarchal roots of inequality between men and women, or more specifically, the social domination of women by men”. United Nations Fund for Population Activities (2005) mentions the fact that “gender attributes are socially constructed means that they are also adjustable to change in ways that can make a society more just and equitable. These views addressed the critical issue of gender equality by emphasizing the importance of women empowerment”. This can be achieved by focusing on identifying and redressing power imbalances and giving women more autonomy to manage their own lives. Gender equality is not about men and women becoming the same but rather that access to opportunities and life changes are not dependent on, or constrained by their sex. According to UNFPA (2005), “achieving gender equality requires women’s empowerment to ensure that decision-making at private and public levels, and access to resources are not only in men’s favour but are provided to both women and men who can fully participate as equal partners in productive and reproductive life”. Accordingly, this stands true and without empowerment and appropriate actions towards equality no progress would be possible. 2.3 FEMINIST PERSPECTIVE There are four main perspectives that attempt to explain the societal differences between men and women. These main perspectives are discussed below. 2.3.1 GENDER DIFFERENCES Crossman (2016:2) states that the gender difference perspective examines how women’s location and their experience of social situation differ from men. Bingham and al (2009:4) argue that the nineteenth century journalist, critic and women’s rights activist, Margaret Fuller, contributed to cultural feminism. She writes that “Fuller’s Woman in the nineteenth century was the initiator of the cultural feminist tradition. It shows the emotional, intuitive side of knowledge and expresses an organic world view that is quite different from the mechanistic view of Enlightenment rationalists”. It also emphasized the different values associated with womanhood and femininity as a reason why men and women experience the social world differently. Existential and phenomenological feminists like Simone de Beauvoir (1949) wrote on how women have been marginalized since centuries and was even defined as “the other” in patriarchal societies. 2.3.2 GENDER INEQUALITY Gender inequality perspectives recognized that location of the country a woman lives and experience of social situations are not only different but also unequal to men. For e.g, countries like USA and Europe encourage women empowerment whereas Muslim countries and middle east countries are radically different. Liberal feminists like Mackenzie (1999:13) holds that women should have the ability to assess one’s own preference and imagine life otherwise. Tuana (2018:5) mentions that “the past twenty years have witnessed a blossoming of feminist philosophy”. Also, despite the fact that some traditional philosopher like Plato and Marx accept women as equal to man, most tradition philosopher like Aristotle expressed “serious reservation about women’s capacities”. Liberal feminists point out “that marriage is a site of gender inequality and that women do not benefit from being married as men do. it can be deduced that these philosophers of that time were in general views that women were oppressed and treated unequally 2.3.3 GENDER OPPRESSION Gender oppression runs deep in the history of humanity. Society often sets up societal structures and stereotypes against women, which are still present to this day. Accordingly, Crossman (2003:12) states that “theories of gender oppression go further than theories of gender difference and gender inequality by arguing that not only are women different from or unequal to men, but they are actively oppressed, subordinated and even abused by men”. Crossman (2003:14) further says that “power is the key variable in the two main theories of gender oppression: psychoanalytical feminism and radical feminism”. He adds that “psychoanalytical feminists attempt to explain power relations between men and women by reformulating Freud’s theories of the subconscious and unconscious, human emotions and childhood development”. Crossman (2003:14) stated that “structural oppression theories posit that women’ s oppression and inequality are a result of capitalism, patriarchy, and racism. He mentioned that that one-way structural oppression of women, specifically the economic kind, manifests in society is in the gender wage gap, which shows that men routinely earn more for the same work as women. This holds true according to the Global Wages Reports 2018/2019 where it is proved that gender pay gaps represents one of today’s greatest social injustices. 2.3.4 STRUCTURAL OPPRESSION Structural oppression is an oppression found in structures which facilitate how some organisation, society or the likes work. According to Crossman (2013:1) “theories on structural oppression posit that women’s oppression and inequality are a result of capitalism, patriarchy, and racism”. Ferguson (2004:1) states “that socialist feminists agree with Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels that the working class is exploited because of the capitalist mode of production, but they seek to extend this exploitation not just to class but also to gender. He further says that intersectionality theorists seek to explain oppression and inequality across a variety of variables, including class, gender, race, ethnicity and age. They have the important insight that not all women experience oppression in the same way. According to Abramowitz (2012:32), “feminism emphasizes the importance of the social, political and economic structures that shape human societies and stresses that gender must be considered when examining the effects of oppression and dominance and power and powerlessness in the society”. Turner (2015:151) highlights that throughout history, women have been and continue to be “oppressed and discriminated against in ways that are different than men”. Turner (2015:153) mentions “that central to feminist theory is the belief that the inferior status delegated to women is due to societal inequality, that the personal status of women is shaped by political, economic and social power relations and that women should have access to all forms of power. Like the concept of empowerment, feminist analysis helps women to understand how they are oppressed and dominated and often inspires them to engage in efforts to bring about broader social changes”. This is true to the extent that only the government of a country can bring major changes in the life of a women and her status in society. It can be deduced that from these perspectives that it is important to acknowledge that gender inequality do exist, and it is generally women who are excluded or disadvantaged in relation to decision-making and access to economic and social resources. In addition, feminist and empowerment theories are especially important to the understanding of individual and sociopolitical levels of social work assessment and intervention. Turner (2014:151) states that “incorporating feminist and empowerment approaches in practice will provide social workers with the knowledge, values and skills most likely to promote human rights and social justice”. 2.4 GLASS CEILING EFFECT Glass ceiling is the term used to describe barriers that prevent women and minorities from advancing in society. Different authors posit different definition of it for instance, according to Cotter (2001:655), the popular notion of glass ceiling effects implies that “gender (or other) disadvantages are stronger at the top of the hierarchy than at lower levels and that these disadvantaged become worse later in a person’s career”. Clevenger and Singh (2013:376) describe the “glass ceiling” as an expression that regularly applies to women in their work environments who are paid unreasonably low remuneration and come up against boundaries that keep them or minorities from acquiring upper-level positions. Shabarwal (2017:50) refer to “glass ceiling” as the illegitimate boundaries based in attitudinal or hierarchical predispositions that keep qualified people from progressing upward into upper managerial ranks in their corporations. Cansu (2013:488) states that there are basically four specific criteria that must be met to conclude that a glass ceiling exists, namely • A glass ceiling inequality represents a gender or racial difference that is not explained by other job relevant characteristics of the employee. • A glass ceiling inequality represents a gender or racial difference that is greater at higher levels of an outcome than at lower levels of an outcome. • A glass ceiling inequality represents a gender or racial inequality in the chances of advancement into higher levels, not merely the proportions of each gender or race currently at those higher levels. • A glass ceiling inequality represents a gender or racial inequality that increases over the course of a career. Cotter (2001:655) mentions two events on glass ceiling women in the business world were facing focused attention in 1999. First was that Carleton Fiorina was named the new CEO of Hewlett-Packard, the first female Chief Executive Officer of a fortune 500 institutions. Her appointment was used to show internationally that a glass ceiling no longer exists. She claimed that women face “no limits whatsoever and there is no glass ceiling” (Meyer 1999: 56). The other event was that Catalyst, an independent research group, issued a Report on corporate women that highlighted the persistence of a glass ceiling, especially for women of colour. According to this Report, “women of colour perceive a “concrete ceiling” and not simply a glass ceiling” (Catalyst 1999). Other such studies were carried by Auster (2016:177) and Manwa (2014:5936) showing the underrepresentation of women in higher management positions worldwide despite advances they have made in organisations as well as initiatives they have undertaken for better education and skills over the past century. These two announcements suggested very different conclusions for working women in the United States of America Cook (2015:51) states that “women leaders contribute positively to organizations yet remain significantly underrepresented in corporate leadership positions”. While the challenges women face is well documented but what is less understood are the factors that shape the experience and success of women who, against significant odds, rise above the glass ceiling”. The analysis was drawn from two data sources: comparison of the career trajectories of all women who have ever served as CEO in the Fortune 500 with a matched sample of men CEOs as well as in-depth interviews with women executives across a variety of sectors. The analysis reveals “that women are more likely than men to be promoted to high-risk leadership positions and often lack the support or authority to accomplish their strategic goals”. As said by Gunnoo, Journalist of ‘Le Mauricien’ (2012:2)- “…some forget that 52% of the citizens of this country are women and therefore the issue of adequate representation is the real priority”. In the same vein, Gunnoo added that “we are providing education to men and women for free and equal footing only to create a glass-ceiling immediately after in all decision-making positions”. Mauritius has a plethora of international and local pledges aimed at creating a gender sensitive program of development for the country however; the reality shows conflicting findings according to Statistics Report 2017 whereby it is mentioned that that the proportion of women in the most senior positions in government services (Senior Chief Executive, Permanent Secretary, Deputy Permanent Secretary, Director, Manager, Judge and Magistrate) increased from 20% in 1997 to 37% in 2017 which is still very low. The challenge in Mauritius is the under-representation of women in the public sector where women still face cultural, structural obstacles and glass ceilings (PriceswaterhouseCoopers, 2003:7). Social, cultural barriers and glass ceilings continue to be the major hurdles to women’s participation in decision-making. 2.5 CAUSES FOR GLASS CEILINGS IN THE MAURITIAN PUBLIC SERVICE IN THE PAST. According to Bunwaree (2006:231), the literature of Mauritian history rarely discusses women and little has been known about their roles. A few sources, however, suggest that the persistent invisibility of women in post-independence Mauritian politics can be traced to the period of colonial rule when women’s roles were mostly limited to reproduction and domesticity. Thus, the contemporary exclusion of women from the public sphere can be interpreted as a legacy of the gendered Mauritian colonial history. In many developing countries including Mauritius, gender inequality and glass ceilings still persist. According to Ragoobur (2015:451) glass ceiling effects imply that gender disadvantages are stronger at the top of the hierarchy than at lower levels. She stated that women still face systematic disadvantages in terms of vertical mobility, authority and low-income, lower status jobs. Carrillo (2014:251) states that gender stereotypes exist as to what is considered “women’s work”. These stereotypes are ingrained in society causing many women to choose “pink collar” jobs, like those in the administrative support and helping fields. According to Ragoobur (2015:453) this promotes the “sticky floor” phenomenon which refers to barriers to the advancement of women such as family commitments attitudes, stereotyping and organizational structures. According to Olsen (2010:211), it has recently been observed that there is rising “glass cliff” which implies that women in male-dominated careers are in danger of falling from their higher positions and they are judged more severely for their mistakes than men. According to Jones (2018:2), there are also three key reasons why the glass ceiling persists in excluding women from top paying jobs: 1.Women with college degrees often choose to work in fields that offer lower incomes. Although women have surpassed men in educational attainment, they are still underrepresented in top-paying jobs. 2. Psychological differences between men and women could accounts for up to 10% of the pay gap. Much of the research concludes that women are more risk-averse than men are. The willingness to take risks helps employees compete for higher paying jobs and negotiate higher salaries. Whether men and women are born with different attitudes towards risk or the differences are taught, understanding the role of nature versus nurture is key to closing the gap. 3.The demands for child care, housework and other life chores outside of work fall more heavily on women than on men. Higher paying occupations are more inflexible and require more time commitment. Women have a harder time with the inflexibility because they remain disproportionately responsible for taking care of the home, including raising children. 2.6 LAWS AND REFORMS MADE BY THE GOVERNMENT OF MAURITIUS TO PROMOTE WOMEN REPRESENTATION IN THE PUBLIC SECTOR. Kahn (2014:1062) indicates that there is a “three-prong approach in addressing gender equality, namely legislation, positive action and gender mainstreaming”. Accordingly, the Government of Mauritius has enacted the 2008 Equal Opportunity Act, which prohibits any direct or indirect discrimination in areas such as employment, recruitment, distribution of services and access to education. Like the Employment Rights Act 2008, the Equal Opportunities Act provides provisions against sexual harassment. In addition, Mauritius adopted in 2008, the National Gender Policy Framework, aimed at addressing discriminatory practices in a wide range of areas, and the government has declared its intention to undertake a review of the 1968 Constitution. Although women in Mauritius fare well in terms of educational attainment, this has not translated into equality in terms of wage equality, income levels or representation in political life. In 1995, the Constitution of Mauritius was amended to include gender in Section 16 which guarantees protection from discrimination, defined as “affording different treatment to different persons attributable wholly or mainly to their respective descriptions by race, caste, place of origin, political opinions, colour, creed, or sex. Mauritius ratified the Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW) in 1984 and the Optional Protocol on violence against women in 2008. The country also signed the Protocol to the African Charter on Human and People rights of women in Africa in 2005. 2.7 GLASS CEILING CONCEPT: A REVIEW AND CRITIQUE Cotter (2001:655) states that glass ceiling is classified as a specific type of gender or racial inequality. In defining the glass ceiling more precisely, it is not being suggested that this type of inequality is more unjust or larger than other types of inequality; nor it is necessarily more deserving of policy interventions than other types of inequality. According to Cotter (2001:655), “there are four criteria which are related to the previously mentioned criteria in section 2.4 which implies that there are basically four specific criteria that must be met to conclude that a glass ceiling exists. It is set out in more details which might be used to define a glass ceiling effect”. 2.7.1 CRITERION1: GENDER OR RACIAL DIFFERENCE NOT EXPLAINED BY OTHER JOB- RELEVANT CHARACTERISTICS OF THE EMPLOYEES Different authors define “glass ceiling” in different ways. According to the Federal Glass Ceiling Commission (1995:1), the concept “glass ceiling” refers to artificial barriers to the advancement of women and minorities. These barriers reflect “discrimination as a deep line of demarcation between those who prosper and those left behind.” Therefore, the first criterion of glass ceiling according to Cotter and Al (2001) is that: A glass ceiling inequality represents a gender or racial difference that is not explained by other job relevant characteristics of the employee. Cotter (2001:655) states that “glass ceilings are measured as the residual differences due to race or gender after controlling for education, experience, abilities, motivation and other job-relevant characteristics”. This means that it takes into consideration the rate of women left out in the promotion prospects due to the glass ceiling effects. Cotter (2001:655) says, “it is impossible to measure and control all the job-relevant employee characteristics that affect outcomes; some part of the residual difference may reflect true differences in productivity or preferences, not discrimination. Second, it is impossible to control too many job characteristics since some characteristics of past jobs may explain how discrimination happens, so controlling them masks rather than detects discrimination. Finally, there can be reasonable disagreements about what constitutes “job relevant” characteristics that need to be controlled to establish discrimination”. Such an example is that most would consider family characteristics (e.g., marital status, presence and age of children) as a non-acceptable criterion for promotion and success that should not be controlled in glass ceiling studies, others could argue that these are proxies for a family versus career orientation that affects productivity and are therefore job relevant characteristics that need to be controlled. This is not an easily resolved empirical issue. 2.7.2 CRITERION 2: GENDER DIFFERENCE THAT IS GREATER AT HIGHER LEVELS OF AN OUTCOME THAN AT LOWER LEVELS OF AN OUTCOME The second criterion states: A glass ceiling inequality represents a gender or racial difference that is greater at higher levels of an outcome than at lower levels of an outcome. UNFPA (2005:1) states that “if women in a non-professional and non-managerial positions experience the same degree of gender inequality in their work life as professional and managerial women, then the inequality is seen among professionals and managers is not a glass ceiling but rather a common pattern of gender inequality”. 2.7.3 CRITERION3: GENDER OR SOCIAL INEQUALITY IN THE CHANCES OF ADVANCEMENT INTO HIGHER LEVELS, NOT MERELY THE PROPORTIONS OF EACH GENDER OR RACE CURRENTLY AT HIGHER LEVEL. According to Cotter (2001:1), the third criteria emphasises that “a glass ceiling inequality represents a gender or racial inequality in the chances of advancement into higher levels, not merely the proportions of each gender or race currently at those higher levels”. According to Cotter, promotions to higher positions and raises of income are the proper subject of glass ceiling tests. The glass ceiling ought to be tested in dynamic models that measure change over time, not just in static comparisons of outcome levels. 2.7.4 CRITERION 4: GENDER OR RACIAL INEQUALITY THAT INCREASES OVER A COURSE OF A CAREER. It has been found that there are some studies undertaken like for instance by Morgan (1998) which define the glass ceiling as disadvantaged that grow over the career. It is important to acknowledge that where glass ceiling exists, women, in general are excluded or disadvantaged in regards to decision-making and access to economic and social resources as confirmed by data and scientific studies. Cotter (2001:662) states that presently is it complex to determine if women and/or minority workers really face a glass ceiling because of the varying definitions in the existing literature. 2.8 BARRIERS TO ADVANCEMENT OF WOMEN IN DECISION-MAKING POSITIONS As asserted by Van der Colff and Van Scheers (2004:68), “only a few women are found in managerial or decision-making positions in proportion to their presence in the work force due to barriers in women’s advancement in the public service”. As said by Athal (2012:1) “though men and women have been equal partners in the development of civilizations, women were denied an equal status in work environment. Social and political institutions, as well as the legal systems discriminate against them. Women’s role in most societies was defined as household demands and largely limited to private domains”. The political and economic environment is still dominated by the privileged and powerful, and therefore largely by men. Age, old traditions, social norms and values, economic dependence and lack of political awareness have also contributed to the marginal position of women in the realm of power and decision-making especially in the public service (Athal, 2012:1). The different barriers facing women advancement in decision-making positions in the public service is discussed in the following sections. 2.9 GENDER ROLE SOCIALIZATION Gender role socialisation can create many barriers. In an organisation, humans are gendered individuals that are influenced by the perceived gender differences. According to Cotter (2001:1), “women are socialised to accept more limited views of success; they are taught that they can achieve only certain career goals in only limited jobs titles”. Marinova (2003:1) argues that ‘gender equality has been and still perceived in many societies as something concerning only women, invented for women and implemented for women’. In the same vein, she writes that gender stereotypes are deeply enshrined in society’s mind that sometimes even the strongest advocate for gender equality are not feeling concerned on this issue. 2.10 GENDER STEREOTYPING Gender role socialization in the workplace elicits gender stereotypical behaviour. Stereotypes about groups of people are often inaccurate or they are overgeneralized which does not apply to the individual group member who is targeted. Stereotypes thus become the basis of faulty reasoning, leading to biased feelings and actions, disadvantaging others, not because of what they are like or what they have done, but because of the groups to which they are deemed to belong. Heilman (1997:877) states that some of the typical stereotypes’ examples are that men are believed “to be strong and active and women considered as weak and passive”. Also, Heilman states that “men are described as decisive, independent, rational, objective and self-confident whereas women are described as indecisive, dependent, emotional, non-objective and insecure. The traits associated with men and women are not only viewed as different but also are valued differently”. Heilman (1997:880) argues ‘man values are considered to be more highly valued than those concerned with nurturance and affiliation typically ascribed to women’. Liff and Ward (2001:20) assert that if women do not mirror the behaviour of males then they are judged as incompetent. Women were not given the liberty to practice their own managerial style and their own individualism. The ILO Report, breaking through the glass ceiling (2004:59) claims that “another factor hindering women’s progression in the workplace hierarchy concerns the traditional sex stereotyping of women as passive and timid, which is at odds with stereotypes of leadership where the indispensable qualities for success are seen as predominantly male attitudes. These stereotypes are formed through observation of successful role models, who have historically been men”. This means that stereotyping and customs still play a role in defining the way women should behave. Phago and Mello (2007:152) argue “that male stereotyping is one of the key obstacles to the advancement of women. Gender stereotyping occurs when employers are judged according to traditional stereotype based on gender”. Women are traditionally socialised to be passive, deferential and soft spoken while men have been traditionally been socialised to be aggressive, forceful and dominant. Phago (2007:153) stated that individual not conforming to these attributes are subject to criticism, outright prejudice and hostility and therefore it becomes difficult for women to find a place in top and senior management position in the public service which according to my opinion is not true at all. 2.11 ORGANISATIONAL CULTURE: BALANCE BETWEEN WORK AND HOME Many authors have different views in organizational culture like for instance Omar and Davidson (2001:51) state that “the myth that work and home are two separate worlds no longer hold true. These two worlds intersect and institutions need to take cognizance of this. When women opt for careers, they add to their life’s new steps of roles demand without a decrease in their traditional roles as wives and mothers”. The point here is that the division of labour compels society to assume that domestic responsibilities are associated with women and any commitment undermining this role results in role conflicts. The division of labour frees men from domestic responsibilities. In the same context, Smith (2002:530) asserts that “married women with children limit themselves from applying for promotions due to the challenging roles of managing a family and high-ranking career. Women work long hours, take work home and work over the weekends. Women opt out of positions of authority because they are more likely than men to assume the bulk of the family responsibilities as a result of this unequal division of labour”. Hence, they are not able to take charge of their career and job responsibilities as men. From women’s perspective, organisational culture restricting women’s career development such as the omission of a family friendly policies at the workplace, often obliges them to give priority to their family life over paid job. This fact is succinctly highlighted in a 2003 Report by the Mauritius Research Council of Mauritius on organizational culture and women’s progress in management in Mauritius, the survey of the 1,753 organisations representing both the private and the public sectors, showed that only 16.6 percent of all managers were female (MRC Report:2003). Since then, no further report has been conducted on this issue. It can be said that glass ceiling is still predominant in many spheres of society and in the workplace. Women still face some sort of glass ceiling at decision-making position in the public service of many countries around the world. Nevertheless, Mauritius has witnessed a lot of progress in the breaking of the glass ceiling which is highly apparent in its public service. 2.12 CONCLUSION This chapter addressed the various theories of glass ceiling by investigating on whether a glass ceiling exists and is preventing women from achieving self- actualization and reaching at the top of their careers in the public sector. It discussed feminist theories as one of the major contemporary approaches which have emerged. The chapter also highlighted the barriers that prohibited the advancement of women and how these hinder the growth of women. CHAPTER 3 RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY 3.1 INTRODUCTION The preceding chapter aimed to analyse the policy framework and legislations on women empowerment in Mauritius and the different types of glass ceilings preventing women in reaching senior positions in the public sector in developing countries especially in Mauritius. This chapter shows that glass ceiling is a global phenomenon that is prevalent in both the public and private sector. In order to answer the second and the third objective of this study it is crucial to delve on the research design and methodology in this chapter. This research study is conceptual in nature hence it is non-empirical and a document analysis was undertaken. Included in this chapter are the following important aspects: purpose of the research, research methodology, qualitative research method, research design and document analysis. These aspects will assist in deriving results that will provide a better understanding of the glass ceiling in the Mauritian public sector. According to Omran (2015:315), women comprise half of the workplace worldwide and the employment rate has also increased in recent years. Again, according to Omran (2015:315) who states that the promotion of women to management positions ‘has not been palpable’. This chapter therefore discusses the steps taken in the research to realise the aim and objectives of the study. 3.2 PURPOSE OF THE RESEARCH Research is important in scientific and non-scientific fields. According to Shodhganga (https;// “research is defined as a normal activity based on intellectual application in the investigation of matters”. It was added that “the primary purpose of applied research is discovering, interpretation and the development of methods and systems for the advancement of human being on a wide variety of scientific matters”. In short, it can be deduced that the main purposes of research are to inform, gather evidence for theories and contribute knowledge in a field of study. I n brief, it is to seek the truth and new knowledge which enables social development. There are various definitions and purpose of research presented by various scholars. According to Powell (1997:1), a research is “the discovery and interpretation of facts, revision of accepted theories or laws in the light of new facts, or practical applications of such new or revised theories or laws”. According to Kothari (2006), “research can be considered as a contribution to the actual stock of knowledge. It is the pursuit of trust by studying, observation, comparison, experiments and the search for knowledge through objective and systematic method of finding solutions to a problem is research”. Creswell (2006:4) defines “research as a process of steps used to collect and analyse information to increase ones understanding of a topic or issue”. Similarly, for Shuttleworth (2008:3), “research is the gathering of data, information and facts for the advancement of knowledge”. Leedy and Al (2010) defines research as a contribution to the existing stock of knowledge making for its advancement. It is the pursuit of truth with the help of study, observation, comparison and experience. In short, research is an academic and as such the term should be used in a technical sense. When we perform research, we are essentially trying to solve a mystery by trying to know how something works or why something happened. In short, we want to answer a question that people have about the world. 3.3 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Research methodology is the process used to collect information and data for the purpose of making decisions related to problem solving. According to Business Dictionary (2020:1), “research methodology consists of publication, research, interviews, surveys and other techniques including both present and historical information”. Research methodology is the specific procedures or techniques used to identify, select, process and analyze information. 3.4 QUALITATIVE NON- EMPIRICAL RESEARCH METHOD This study uses the qualitative non-empirical research method. Shank (2002) as cited by Ospina (2004:2) defines “qualitative research as a search of systematic empirical inquiry into meaning”. As a result, qualitative research is viewed as a mode of planned, ordered and public enquiry and following rules agreed upon by members of the qualitative research community’. Denzin (2000:3) claims that qualitative research involves an interpretative and naturalistic approach “this means that qualitative researchers study things in their natural settings by attempting to make sense of, or to interpret, phenomena in terms of the meanings people bring to them. Creswell (1994:15) defines qualitative research as “an approach for exploring and understanding the meaning of individuals or groups ascribe to a social or human problem”. Qualitative research is a systematic scientific inquiry to provide for a holistic, narrative, description understanding of a social or cultural phenomenon. According to Mc Millan and Schumacher (1993:479) qualitative research is, “primarily an inductive process of organizing data into categories and identifying patterns among categories.” This is the reason the qualitative research method was chosen for this study as it will help to research on the glass ceiling factor affecting women in reaching senior post in the public service. Through these statistics and data, a research can be carried out. Carrier (2013:1) states, “non-empirical values serve to delineate specific distinctions of scientific knowledge beyond empirical adequacy”. Dan (2017:1) mentions that “non empirical methods can be divided into two categories. On one hand are methods used to review the progress in a certain field of ongoing research. On the other hand, there are non-empirical research that draw on personal observations, reflection on current events and or the authority or experience of the author”. Dixson (2016) states that “non-empirical research is research that is conducted without data: quantitative data, which is when you analyze numerical data or qualitative data, which is when you use-non-numerical data such as observations and interviews to base claim of”. The explanatory research is considered relevant for this study because the researcher requires understanding, discovering, explaining and exploring of barriers that hindered. women in management in the public service of Mauritius from progressing to top management level. According to the explanatory Research definition (2018), explanatory research is conducted “for a problem which was not well research before, demands priorities, generates operational definitions and provides a better-researched is actually a type of research design which focuses on explaining the aspects of your study in a detailed manner Explanatory Research can be very advantageous in directing subsequent explanatory research further research approaches”. Creswell (1994:22), qualitative approach is useful when the researcher does not know the important variables to examine. This type of approach may be needed because the topic is new, the subject has never been addressed with a sample view or group of people. It helps to capture the relevant data on women in the public service 3.4.1 BENEFITS OF USING QUALITATIVE RESEARCH Qualitative research focuses in understanding a research query as a humanistic or idealistic approach. It is used to understand people’s beliefs, experiences, attitudes, behavior and interactions. As such it has many benefits as will be listed below. According to Ospina (2004:10), the reasons to use qualitative research are cited as follows: To explore a phenomenon that has not been studied before (and that may be subsequently developed quantitatively)To add rich detail and nuance that illustrates or documents existing knowledge of a phenomenon, generated quantitativelyTo better understand a topic by studying it simultaneously or concurrently with both methodsTo advance a novel perspective of a phenomenon well studied quantitatively but not well understood because of the narrow perspectives used beforeTo try to understand any social phenomenon from the perspective of the actors involved, rather than explaining it from outsideTo understand complex phenomena that are difficult or impossible to approach or to capture quantitatively According to Mack (2005:4), “one advantage of qualitative methods in exploratory research is that the use of open-ended questions and probing gives participants the opportunity to respond in their own words and forcing them to choose from fixed responses, as quantitative methods do”. Open-ended questions have the ability to evoke responses that are: Meaningful and culturally salient to the participantUnanticipated by the researcherRich and explanatory in nature Another advantage of qualitative methods is that they allow the researcher the flexibility to probe initial participant responses- that is, to ask why or how. According to Dan (2017:1) “the dividing line between empirical and non-empirical methods is marked by scholars’ approach to knowledge gain (i.e., epistemology). Empirical methods are positivist and typically involve systematic collection and analysis of data”. 3.5 DOCUMENT ANALYSIS This section of the chapter focuses on document analysis as a method of data collection. According to Bowen (2009:27), “document analysis is an important social science research tool and forms part of triangulation”. Before providing a definition of a document analysis, it is of interest to first define a document. A document is a wide spectrum of available written and symbolic records. This implies that for a document analysis method to be undertaken there should be available information. This is aligned to the definition by Bowen (2009:27) that document analysis is a “form of qualitative research where documents are interpreted by the researcher to give meaning to the assessed topic”. In this research, documents were collected from various units of observation such as scholarly books, articles and official documents in order to create meaning and understanding. When undertaking a document analysis, it is essential that the researcher code the content into themes for easier interpretation and analysis. O’Leary (2014:1) identifies and describes the three types of documents namely: Public records: this includes official and ongoing organization’s activities such as mission statements, annual reports, policy manuals and strategic plans (O’leary:2014:1). In Public Administration, public records are termed as official documents. 2.Personal documents: accounts of an individual’s actions, experiences and beliefs such as e-mails, scrapbooks, blogs, personal journals and newspapers. 3.International physical evidence: physical objects within the study setting (often called artifacts). Physical objects can include: flyers, posters, agendas, handbooks and training materials. This type of documents was not used in this study. O’Leary (2014:1) further outlines eight steps to be considered when undertaking a document and textual analysis: Create a list of texts to read (e.g., population, samples, respondents, participants)Consider how texts will be evaluated in regards to linguistic or cultural barriers.Acknowledge and address biases.Development of an appropriate skills for research.Consider strategies for ensuring credibility.Acknowledge the data one is searching for.Consider ethical issues (e.g., confidential documents).Decide on a backup plan. According to O’Leary (2014:24), a researcher utilizes a selection of texts for research like written documents. In this study, works and research of scholars have been used extensively. Zeegers (2015:1) states that the following can be used for research “policy statements, edicts, legal papers, Acts of Parliament or some other legislations, editorials, newspapers and magazine articles, research reports and so on”. They emphasis that restricted documents such as records or diaries should be handled meticulously and with ethical considerations. In addition, documents that are found to be relating to the research question should be seriously considered irrespective of their format. In this study books and research work from renowned authors were used. In addition, statistics and reports on the Mauritian context were referred to. Erlandson et al (1993:99-100) recommend that the “researcher should not limit him/herself on the number of quality of sources at his/her disposal at the premature stage of the research process, but the selection of documents should be tacit and rational”. For the purpose of this research, official documents such as statistical reports from the National Statistic offices, the laws and Acts, official reports on gender issues, scholarly literature were utilized. The researcher should ascertain that the documents are conform with the set quality standards, are authentic, have credibility, representatives and have a significance. CONCLUSION Research that uses qualitative methods is not, as it seems something to be represented, the easy option, nor is it a collation of anecdotes. It usually involves a complex theoretical or philosophical framework. Rigorous analysis is conducted without the aid of straightforward mathematical rules. Normally three broad categories of qualitative research of interest are used mainly observation studies, interview studies and lastly documentary and textual records which in a way allow. In this research, nevertheless the interview part was not carried out. It should also be highlighted that qualitative research can have a major contribution to social research, and creates and in-depth understanding of the attitude, behaviour, interactions, social process that create glass ceiling in the public service in general. CHAPTER 4 DATA ANALYSIS 4.1 INTRODUCTION Chapter 3 discussed the methodology employed in this research. This includes purpose of the research, research methodology, qualitative-non empirical research method, benefits of using qualitative research and a document analysis. This study is mainly qualitative; hence data will be analyzed. The Public Sector Guide report 2020 is thus studied in depth to demonstrate the number of men and women employed in the public service of Mauritius. A brief analysis on the status of women globally is also effected at first. 4.2 WOMEN STATUS IN EMPLOYMENT GLOBALLY Omron (2015:315) stated that “various studies by different researchers demonstrate that the presence of women and men in management positions is still unequal in many countries. Women constitute almost half of the population of every society and they are considered as the creators and trainers of next generations”. At the present time, statistics show that the important role of women in the development of societies has always been neglected and the human society has suffered irreparable damage because of this issue. The present unfavorable situation created by gender inequalities has caused many countries to take various measures to eliminate discrimination and inequalities like Mauritius. Some of these countries like Mauritius have achieved notable success in the elimination of inequalities and now more than 40 percent of decision-making positions are occupied by women in the northern European countries such as Norway, Denmark, Finland and in the US, the proportion of women’s occupation has had a progress of 250 per cent compared to the 1970s. However, many of the developing countries, such as Iran, have not successful in this endeavor during the 1990s. The latest statistics presented by Statistical Center of Iran show that there is a huge difference between the rate of economic participation of women and men and the this rate is 72.9 per cent for men and 18.5 per cent for women. According to Kahn (2014:1067), the public service, has seen major progress in South Africa, for instance in South Africa women in top management has increased from 13% to 18.7%, in senior management from 21% to 27.7%, in skilled positions from 40% to 46.2%. 4.3 DATA ON WOMEN EMPLOYED IN THE PUBLIC SERVICE OF MAURITIUS A study by Ramgutty-Wong and Baguant (2003:12) which was based on the inadequacy or inexistence of relevant structures, policies and practices within the Mauritian Public Sector to promote the development, well-being, and career of female employees revealed that women are under-represented at executive level at that time (30% of total executive staff) sheds light not only on human resources practices but also on the perceptions and organizational culture prevailing. A research on the data of employment of all 23 ministries of Mauritius was also carried out as published in the Public Sector Guide 2020 Edition. The results are as follows: Table 1 SnMINISTRYPOSTMALE EMPLOYFEMALE EMPLOY1Prime Minister’s OfficeSecretary to the Cabinet10Permanent Sec.21Deputy Permanent Sec03Assistant Permanent Sec.23TOTAL572Defense and Home Affairs DivisionSecretary to Home Affairs10Permanent Sec.10Deputy Permanent Sec12Assistant Permanent Sec.31TOTAL633External Communication DivisionPermanent Sec.01Deputy Permanent Sec10Assistant Permanent Sec.02TOTAL134Mins of Arts & CulturePermanent Sec.01Deputy Permanent Sec02Assistant Permanent Sec.13TOTAL165Mins of Blue Economy, Marine Resource, Fisheries and ShippingPermanent Sec.10Deputy Permanent Sec11Assistant Permanent Sec22TOTAL436Mins of Commerce and Consumer ProtectionPermanent Sec.10Deputy Permanent Sec01Assistant Permanent Sec12TOTAL237Mins of Education, tertiary education, Education, Science & TechnologySenior Chief Executive10Permanent Sec.21Deputy Permanent Sec.24Assistant Permanent Sec113TOTAL6188Mins of Environment, Social Waste Management & Climate changePermanent Sec.10Deputy Permanent Sec11Assistant Permanent Secretary22TOTAL439Ministry of Finance, Economic Planning and DevelopmentFinancial Secretary10Deputy Financial Secretary20Permanent Secretary10Deputy Permanent Secretary20TOTAL6010Mins of Financial Services and Good GovernancePermanent Secretary10Deputy Permanent Secretary11Assistant Permanent Secretary31TOTAL5211Ministry of foreign affairs, regional integration and international tradeSenior chief executive01Secretary for foreign affairs10Permanent Secretary10Deputy Permanent Secretary21TOTAL4212Ministry of Gender Equality and Family welfareSenior Chief Executive01Deputy Permanent Secretary02Assistant Permanent Secretary13TOTAL1613Ministry of Health and WellnessSenior Chief Executive10Permanent Secretary02Deputy Permanent Secretary42TOTAL5414Mins of Housing and Land use planningPermanent Secretary01Deputy Permanent Secretary01Assistant Permanent Secretary01TOTAL0315Mins of Industrial Development, Smes and CooperativesPermanent Secretary21Deputy Permanent Secretary32Assistant Permanent Secretary13TOTAL6617Mins of Labour, Human resource and DevelopmentPermanent Secretary01Deputy Permanent Secretary01Assistant Permanent Secretary10TOTAL1218Mins of Local Government and Disaster Risk ManagementSenior Chief Executive01Deputy Permanent Secretary21Assistant Permanent Secretary30TOTAL5219Mins of Land Transport and Light RailPermanent Secretary01Deputy Permanent Secretary03Assistant Permanent Secretary22TOTAL2620Mins of Public service administration and Institutional ReformPermanent Secretary01Deputy Permanent Secretary01Assistant Permanent Secretary11TOTAL1321Mins of Information Technology, Communication & InnovationPermanent Secretary01Deputy Permanent Secretary20Assistant Permanent Secretary04TOTAL2522Mins of TourismPermanent Secretary10Deputy Permanent Secretary01Assistant Permanent Secretary12TOTAL2323Mins of Youth Emp, Sports and RecreationPermanent Secretary10Deputy Permanent Secretary02Assistant Permanent Secretary21TOTAL33 SOURCE: Mauritius: The Public Sector Guide 2020 Edition FIGURE 1 4.4 ANALYSIS OF THE DATA This analysis was effected for top management staff of the public service of Mauritius through the Public Sector Guide 2020. Accordingly, top management no longer represents a comparatively small group of individuals who lead the organisation and with whom the final power and accountability rests. It can be noted from the two figures above that there is now almost no disparity between women employed in senior posts in the civil Mauritius compared to men. There are 57% women employed in the public sector of Mauritius compared to 44% of men. This shows a major development in the empowerment of women in the public service of Mauritius. According to the same statistics and the 23 ministries studies, 15 males and 12 females are employed as Permanent Secretary. Likewise, 22 males and 27 females are employed as Deputy Permanent Secretary. It can be assumed that for the highest post in the hierarchy of the public service that is the post of Permanent Secretary there are 55% of male employed to 45% of female. On the other hand, to the second highest post of Deputy Permanent Secretary the percentage is 45% males to 55% female. Nevertheless, in the third post of authority that is that of Assistant Permanent Secretary the number of women is drastically higher than men. 24 men compared to 42 women are employed in this post. These three comparisons can shed light on the fact that glass ceiling is disappearing from the system compared to previous years reports. Also, according to Le Defi Quotidien (2017:6), in year 2016, 232 females were employed as Senior Chief Executive, Permanent Secretary, Director, Manager Judge and magistrate in the public service of Mauritius compared to only 89 in 2001. Yet, it can still be noted that in 2016, 348 (60%) of male are employed in decision making positions in the public service of Mauritius. Mauritius has steadily noted a consistent improvement in breaking the glass ceiling. 4.5 SUMMARY OF RESEARCH FINDINGS 4.5.1 Research objective one The first research objective is to analyse to the different types of glass ceiling in the public sector preventing women in reaching certain jobs in Mauritius. The aim of this objective was to seek data on women employed in the public service compared to men. Accordingly, it could be found that the glass ceiling is no longer so much present in the public service of Mauritius. 4.5.2 Research objective two The second research objective was to explore the legal framework put in place in Mauritius to discourage such glass ceiling. Various international laws and conventions were studied to find out to what extent Mauritius was adhering to these rules and it could be noticed that Mauritius was well beyond many countries in the world and was on the verge of eradicating glass ceiling in the public services. 4.5.3 Research objective three The third research objective is to determine the extent in which the Mauritian government has managed to discourage glass ceilings and eventually promote women’s representativeness in the public sector and this is highly visible through the statistics presented in figure 1 above. The shattering of the glass ceiling has been possible only through measures, laws and policies of the government and international conventions and agreements. 4.6 CONCLUSION The aim of this chapter was to analyse, interpret data and discuss findings. Data was collected from the public sector guide 2020, the only updated report available on this matter. The findings reveal that the “glass ceiling” does still exist but is in the verge of being eradicated. It should be noted that the existence of glass ceiling was present since history by creating challenges for working women. CHAPTER 5 FINDINGS, RECOMMENDATIONS AND CONCLUSION 5.1 INTRODUCTION The previous chapter was based on the research design and methodology of the research subject. This chapter aims at the analysis, findings, recommendations and conclusions on the presence of glass ceiling effect in the public service of Mauritius along with cultural biases, gender stereotypes and the approaches that all organisations should take to encourage and promote eligible women in respectful and managerial positions. Also, in view of the background provided, the main research question addressed is to discern to what extent a glass ceiling still prevails regarding the promotion of women in the public sectors of developing countries namely Mauritius. For decade, it has been seen that the presence of women in senior managerial positions is very low “despite having good scholastics, plethora of knowledge, quality and efficiency” (Nandy, 2014:135). As already alluded to in chapter two, Nandy (2014:136), defines the word ‘glass ceiling’ as an invisible barrier within a hierarchy which limits women or minorities from promotion at higher level positions at their workplace. This is very apparent from the various statistics showing that women reaching decision taking positions are low most probably due to hidden obstacles. This means that women advance very close to high-ranking positions but rarely achieve them. In some countries of the third world like Turkey, Pakistan and South Africa, it has been observed that the disparity between male and female representation in civil service is extensive mostly at higher level (United Nations Division for the advancement of women Report, 2015:4). In addition, women have a minimal or unequal opportunity in public employment and fewer women are employed by government in the civil service and they figure more in jobs at lower level set aside for them, while executive positions are generally occupied by men. According to a United Nations Women Annual Report (2016-2017), “more women than ever are successfully running for office, climbing the corporate ladder and shattering the glass ceiling, but not yet in numbers equal to men”. This chapter provides the findings, recommendations and conclusions based in the Mauritius context and based on literature overview. 5.2 FINDINGS This section will provide data and findings on Mauritius regarding the status of women employment at decision- taking level in the public service in Mauritius. 5.2.1 Mauritius The first finding is that there is a disparity between the number of males and female population. According to the Statistics Mauritius Report (2019:2), the population of the Republic of Mauritius was estimated at 1,265,475 as at 31 December 2019. As at end 2019, the female population was estimated to be 626,022 and the male population stood at 1,265,475. Compared to a figure of 1,265,637 at the end of 2018, the population decreased by 162 or -0.01% during the year 2019. The above figures show that although women form 51% of the population of Mauritius, making them the majority of the population, their social status was still under-represented in 2003, especially at the level of decision-making and they indicate that women were not fairly represented at the public service. This is well asserted by Puri (2011:1) who said that “world-wide women represent 3.5 billion citizens, yet in many countries they face a wide range of constraints to effective participation as candidates, voters and elected officials”. She also mentions that women make less than 10 per cent of world leaders. It should be noted that Section 16 of the Constitution of Mauritius (1995) prohibits discrimination on the ground of sex, thereby making such a prohibition a fundamental right hence leading to the curtailing of glass ceiling. Mauritius is also committed to most conventions, declarations and protocols regarding equality between men and women. These imply that Mauritius is well beyond many developing countries in terms of programmes to empower women. Verdict (2009:3) asserts that successive governments have lobbied for economic and social success through equity, ethics and social justice regardless of gender, creed, ethnic, origin or class. In this context, a number of measures have been put to safeguard the rights of citizens and protect women’s and children’s rights, thereby contributing to their social, political and economic empowerment. One such measure is: The Enactment of an Equal Opportunity Act (2008) amended in 2010 with the objective to encourage the identification and elimination of discrimination, sexual harassment and victimization and their causes and to promote and facilitate the progressive realization of equality. This act has help enormously in the decrease of women facing glass ceilings. At the international and regional level, Mauritius adheres to a number of human rights instruments and standards on women advancement like for examples of these are the goals and principles enshrined in the 1948 United Nations Charter and contained in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1973). This also includes the Beijing Platform for Action in regard to Advancement of Women and the Convention for the Elimination of all forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW) (1979). Mauritius is still a male-dominated, and the concept of ‘work’ still follows the male model to a very large extent, in which the ideal worker is one who works continuously and full time and does not allow family to interfere with work. But this situation has greatly improved since then due to the enactments of some laws and the challenge in Mauritius is the under-representation of women in the public sector where women still face cultural, structural obstacles and glass ceilings (PriceswaterhouseCoopers, 2003:7). Social, cultural barriers and glass ceilings are the major hurdles to women’s participation in decision-making. Mauritius is still male-dominated, and the concept of ‘work’ still follows the male model to a very large extent, in which the ideal worker is one who works continuously and full time and does not allow family to interfere with work. But this situation has greatly improved since then due to the enactments of some laws and the policy of the Mauritian government to empower women. 5.3 KEY FINDINGS FROM LITERATURE REVIEW As mentioned earlier, the Mauritian government has drafted legislatives and regulations and is signatory to various conventions which have the foundation for gender equality in the public service. Despite these, a target of 50% has not been achieved to date on the level of women reaching top management in the public service i.e. the post of Permanent Secretary. This clearly shows that legislation alone is not enough to bring a gender transformation. According to a study by Ragoobur (2015:455), who states that “Mauritius has progress well in the economic development since independence successfully transitioning from a low-income agrarian economy to a middle-income country. Growth has slowed down from an average of 4.8 per cent during 2003-2007 to 3.9 per cent in the period 2008-2013. Unemployment has also steadily increased especially among skilled youth and women. Women have ratified several important international human rights agreements to promote gender equality and women empowerment”. According to observation and statistics, gender inequality no longer prevails at senior management levels in the public service of Mauritius as depicted in the previous chapter. The Mauritian society does now reflect the demography of the Mauritian society at its different levels such as Deputy Permanent Secretary and Assistant Permanent Secretary. Furthermore, the literature review undertaken shows that a number of factors are still affecting the advancement of women to decision-taking positions in the public service of Mauritius these include government factors, family relate problems etc. There are also challenges faced by women who occupy management positions. Such challenges include gender discrimination, old boys’ network, cultural stereotypes, work-life balance, lack of mentoring, and perception. Organizational culture also affects the promotion of women in senior post in the public service. Literature reveals that globally organisation cultures are highly dominated by men. In addition, corporate practice that guide organisations are biased in favor of women. It can be noted that by taking into consideration the keys aspects that guide organisations, it is difficult for women to ascend to top management positions. Literature suggests that there has been progress in women entering the job market, however, there is a global under-representation of women at executive levels as denoted in many studies. 5.4 RECOMMENDATIONS In line with the programmes of the government, the following additional recommendations are suggested to improve the status of women in Mauritius. 5.4.1 Training and development Training and development programs aimed at women and sponsored by the employer are essential for women who are identified for succession planning or promotion. These women should attend professional conferences and networking events. 5.4.2 Gender bias and stereotype awareness When it comes to the skills needed to be in senior management, such as being assertive, women are judged more harshly than men. Women with no leadership traits are considered as not being assertive. Thus, it is recommended that women in public service especially those who are in decision makers, should be made aware of their unconscious biases and how these might affect their decision making. Training to increase awareness of bias and stereotypes and ways to overcome them should be provided. 5.4.3 Deliberate hiring of women into top management positions After training and development, succession planning and mentoring programs, well-deserving women should be offered promotion into top management positions when opportunities are presented. 5.4.4 Initiatives by women to break the glass ceiling Women who aspire to advance to executive management to take necessary initiatives to show that they are eager to break the glass ceiling. It is recommended that: Women should support each other as when they do so it could be easier to overcome the challenges they face at work.Women should also build their confidence as employers tend to promote employees who are confident and have a positive attitude at work. 5.5 Recommendations for future research The main focus in this research was to investigate the existence of a glass ceiling in the public service of Mauritius at senior-most posts. The disparities between the different creeds who hold management position can be investigated. The glass ceiling can also be studied in the perspective of different cultures. Further, the glass ceiling could be studied in academic, civil society and non-profit organisations since studies pertaining to the glass ceiling are limited in Mauritius. 5.6 Conclusion Mauritius has strived hard to break glass ceiling and utilise female talents to the fuller extent. 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