AUK, BUS 2013 Week-ONEThe operational definition & explanation of relevant concepts and termsThe operational definition of the main concepts and explanation of the terms have beenoutlined below:Pollution: The word ‘pollution’ is closely related with another word ‘pollutant’, whichis a kind of substance that contaminates air, water and soil. The presence of harmfulsubstances (pollutants) in the environment, in undesirable amount due to humanactivities, is generally regarded as pollution. In the manufacturing process of industry,various harmful substances (pollutants) are generated in the form of effluents, whichare called industrial pollution, that have a huge impact on human health, naturalenvironment and socio- economy of a country.Effluent: The term ‘effluent ‘, is widely used to describe the generation of wastes frommanufacturing processes in the industrial plants. Any solid, liquid or gaseoussubstance, coming out of the chimney, dust or other out-let of industrial plant, isconsidered as industrial effluents.Environment: The term ‘environment’ is widely used in various disciplines. It is used inthis research to refer to the surroundings in which the business organization functions.It includes water, air, land, animals, plants, human and their interrelation. The twomajor factors of environment are ‘biotic’ (living organisms) and ‘a biotic’ (non-livingorganism). The ‘biotic’, factors are-animals, plants, bacteria, viruses, and the ‘a biotic’factors are-land, water, atmosphere, odor, taste etc.Eco-system: Ecosystem is the basic concept of ecology, which emphasizesinterrelationships and interdependence. The natural tendency of ecosystem is to remaincapable of self-maintenance and self-regulation. Ecosystem supports all life through itsvarious resources and services. A pond, lake or tracts of forest etc. are the examples ofecosystem unit. A country has a variety of ecosystems. In a country, extremely highrainfall is recorded in some areas; on the other hand, very low rainfall is observed inother areas. Likewise, very high temperature and very low temperature may be there inthe same country.Ecology: According to the oxford dictionary, the word “ecology” comes from the Greekword “oikes”, meaning “house” or “place” to live. Ecology refers to the study of theorganizations in various habitats, for instance, land, oceans, fresh water, and air etc. Thestructure and function of nature are studied in ecology. One can predict what willhappen to organizations, population, or communities under particular set of habitatthrough the study of ecology. Ecology is studied to know the interrelations betweenliving organisms (animal plants, bacteria, virus etc.) and their environment.Industrial Ecology: Industrial ecology focuses on the role of industry in reducingenvironmental impact through lifecycle of the product. The lifecycle of the productstarts from the extraction of raw materials to the consumption or use of the finalproduct, which is also related with the management of the wastes. This calls for usingindustrial ecology. To do so, industrial ecology refers to follow close-loopmanufacturing system for sustainable results. It means every output of manufacturingunits should be remanufactured, i.e., recycled for further production or sent back to ecosystem. Industrial ecologists try to model sound industrial practices on natural system.Environmental Aspect: Environmental aspect considers whether, and how the majorenvironmental factors (biotic and a biotic) are interacted with industrial products andprocesses. It means organizations’ activities, services and products, which interact withenvironment. For example, packaging process of a manufacturing unit has anenvironmental component, which dictates the need for environment-friendlypackaging. In this study, environmental aspect is considered to know the inter-actionbetween industry and natural environment.Environmental Impact: Environmental impact refers to any negative change in naturalenvironment due to products, services and activities of industrial enterprises. In thisstudy, damage of natural environment due to negative influence of products andactivities of industrial enterprises is considered as environmental impact.Environmental Degradation: Environmental degradation refers to decrease in thequality of environment resulting from the increase in water, air and land pollution.Environmental Damage Costs: These costs are imposed on environment pollutingindustrial units by the government for discharging the harmful substances (pollutants)into the natural environment without adequate prior treatment. In this case,environmental damage costs include fines and penalties for non-compliance withenvironmental regulations.Social Cost: These costs are incurred due to discharge of pollutants resulting in a hugeimpact on human health, environment and socio-economy. Notably, social costs areconsidered as externalities as the costs are not yet internalized.Polluter Pays Principle (PPP): This principle requires that the potential and actual costsof pollution should be borne by the person or organization responsible for causingenvironmental pollution.Pollution Prevention (PP): Pollution Prevention (PP) refers to any in-plant practice tominimize, eliminate, or prevent the harmful substances (pollutants), before it is createdin production process in industrial enterprises. In industrial unit, pollution preventionor changing the pollution avoidance refers to changing the production process or thematerials used in order to prevent the harmful substances (pollutants). The concept,pollution prevention, is also applicable to the individual consumer who can avoid usingproducts that contain harmful element.Pollution Prevention Cost: The cost incurred to prevent the pollutants; before it iscreated in industrial plants are recognized as ‘pollution prevention costs’. For instance,R & D costs for designing and implementing eco-friendly production process,additional material costs for eco-friendly raw materials.Pollution Control: In industrial unit, pollution control refers to use of different filters orother devices at the “end of the pipe” to create barrier for harmful substances(pollutants) that have already been created. So that pollutants cannot enter the naturalenvironment. The techniques, such as, treatment and storage are commonly used aspollution control techniques in industrial plants.Pollution Treatment Costs: These costs are incurred to reduce the adverseenvironmental impacts of harmful substances (pollutants), which have already beencreated or generated in the process of industrial activities. For instance, wastewatertreatment costs.Cleaner Production (CP): Cleaner production refers to the use of products andprocesses very consciously to prevent the pollution of air, water and land. It means thata careful look is taken at the overall processes and waste materials in an industrial plantin order to prevent the pollution. CP is the key to ecologically sustainable industrialdevelopment.Life Cycle Assessment (LCA): Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is used as a tool toevaluate the environmental impact of a product or service, through its entire life. InLCA, manufacturers have to look at the total environmental aspects of their products.LCA involves looking at the different stages of a product starting from the supply of theraw materials to its production, consumption and its ultimate disposal.Cradle to Grave Approach: The cradle to grave approach is used to look closely theenvironmental impact of product manufacturing. It starts with raw material and ends atfinal disposal. It is also called as life cycle assessment or analysis.Source Reduction: It means reduction of the harmful substances (pollutants) at thepoint of generation in industrial plant. Source reduction refers to a practice that lessensthe amount of hazardous substances (pollutants) that either enters the waste stream oris otherwise, released into the environment, before treatment or disposal or recycling.Process Modification: It refers to the development of an alternative process thatgenerates fewer wastes. Process modification is applied as a tool of pollution preventionreplacing inefficient or old processes with newer technology to reduce wastes. In thisstudy, the concept process modification is used to denote whether, and how the existingenvironment polluting process, can wholly or partially be modified in industrial plantsto prevent pollution.Developed Countries: The highly industrialized countries like the United States,Canada Western European nations, Japan, Australia and New Zealand, —with grossdomestic product exceeding $9, 360 per capita, are considered to be developedcountries.Developing Countries: All free-market countries, in which the gross domestic productis less than $ 9,360 per capita, are recognized as developing countries. The categoryincludes nations of Latin America, Africa and Asia, except Japan.Kyoto Protocol: It is an international agreement to reduce green house gas emission.Green House Gas: It refers to gases added to the atmosphere by human activities thattrap heat and cause global warming.Eco-design: It refers to the design of product and service in an environment-friendlymanner. In other words, giving the environment a place in product development. Itfocuses on the reduction of pollution at the sources.Environmental Investments: These are expenditures that are made with a view toimproving a company’s environmental performance over a period. In most cases,investments involve in the acquisition of plant and equipment.Agenda 21: It is an authoritative program to endorse sustainable development that wascreated by the 1992 Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and adopted by the U.N.General Assembly.Toxic Release Inventory (TRI): It is a kind of national database, which providesinformation about hazardous substances, released into the environment.Local Pollution: Environmental damage that does not extend very far from thepolluting source, and normally is confined to a certain community is regarded as localpollution.Regional Pollution: Environmental degradation that extends well beyond the pollutingsource is considered as ‘Regional Pollution’.Global Pollution: It refers to environmental damage that are widespread with globalimplications, such as, global warming and ozone depletion.Environmental Ethics: This search for moral values and ethical principles in humanrelations with the natural world.Environmental Audit: An environmental audit is a management tool for takingenvironmental assets and liabilities of a firm.ISO— 14001: The objective of the ISO 14001 standard is to provide all kinds of necessaryelements for an Environmental Management System (EMS) for the companies. It onlyspecifies general requirements for an environmental management system. But it doesnot contain environmental performance criteria.It is acidic precipitation (mainly sulphuric acid) falling as rain or mist. The main sourceof acid rain is sulphuric acid formed by sulphur dioxide emission. It affects animals,plants and buildings.Acidic Deposition: It arises when sulfuric and nitric acid mix with other airborneparticles and fall to the earth as dry or wet deposits.Green Product: Products that are more environmentally benign than their traditionalcounterparts, are considered as green products.Green Marketing: Green Marketing is a response to demand for ecologically soundproducts like recycled products and biodegradable products. Some of the companiesadvertise their products being environment-friendly, in which the production processes(packaging & recycling) have minimum impact on environment.Environmental Management System (EMS): It is a structured approach to address theenvironmental bottom-line. ISO-14001 is the world’s most recognized EMS framework.It normally consists of policies, procedures, and audit protocols for operations.Bio-chemical Oxygen Demand (BOD): It is a measure of dissolved pollutants in water.Potential impacts of wastes are commonly measured in terms of BOD, which is animportant variable to measure the water pollution. BOD test takes only five days.Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD): It is a measure of pollution from liquid wastes.COD is also a parameter to measure water pollution. COD test takes only two hours.Environmental Management: Environmental Management is viewed as the control ofall human activities that have significant impacts on the environment.
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