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Provided by Dr. Jill Fuson & Dr. Doris Blanton, American Public University System (April, 2020). InformationPublication Manual of the American Psychological Association. 7th ed., S.L., American Psychological Assoc., 2019***In-text citation: (Publication Manual Of The American Psychological Association.)3/19/2020 APA 7TH ED.GUIDELINESNew Seventh Edition APA 7th ed. GuidelinesPage 1 2019The Publication Manual of the AmericanPsychological Association has recentlyupdated the widely referenced Manual to aSeventh Edition. Updated for simplified,condensed material while retaining andstrengthening the basic rules of APA.American Public University APA 7th ed. GuidelinesPage 2APA 7th ed. GuidelinesN E W G U I D E L I N E S S E V E N T H E D I T I O N 2 0 1 9In today’s fast growing technological world, new inventions have altered the manner in which we gatherreport and perform scientific research. Thus, the Publication Manual of the American PsychologicalAssociation updated the widely referenced Manual to a Seventh Edition, which simplifies, condenses,and meets the needs of users in mind. This edition promotes accessibility for everyone, including WebContent Accessibility Guidelines while also concentrating on the Basic Elements of APA writing.October 2019, the American Psychological Association released its seventh edition of the PublicationManual of the American Psychological Association, with modifications to APA Style writing, sources, &structure.As you continue your higher education, you are faced with different writing styles. This reference guidewill concentrate on the basic principles of APA style as it applies to writing term (research) papers andessays. This reference guide will provide helpful tips and suggestions to assist in producing a scholarlyterm paper or essay using APA formatting and style guidelines.CHANGES TO THE NEW APA EDITION Citing online material Use of inclusive & bias-free language References & in-text citations are easier and clearer APA diversity for paper guidelines professionally or academically created Better explained guidelines for mechanicsAPA 7th ed. GuidelinesPage 3APA MANUAL 7TH EDITION: THE MOST NOTABLE CHANGESDate published October 11, 2019 by Raimo Streefkerk. Date updated: November 5, 2019In October 2019, the American Psychological Association (APA) introduced the 7th edition of the APAPublication Manual, which replaces the 6th edition published in 2009.In that time a lot of things have changed. Citing online material has become more common the use of inclusivebias-free language is increasingly importanttechnology used by researchers and students has changed The 7th edition addresses these changes by providing better and more extensive guidelines. Thisarticle outlines the biggest changes that you should know about.REFERENCES AND IN-TEXT CITATIONS IN APA STYLE When it comes to citing sources, more guidelines have been added that make citing onlinesources easier and clearer.In total, 114 examples are provided, ranging from books and periodicals to audiovisuals and social media. For each reference category an easy template is provided that helps you tounderstand and apply the citation guidelines. The biggest changes in the 7th edition are:1. The publisher location is no longer included in the reference. Instead of “New York, NY:McGraw-Hill” it’s just “McGraw-Hill.” (9.29)2. The in-text citation for works with three or more authors is now shortened right from the firstcitation. You only include the first author’s name and “et al.”. (8.17)3. Surnames and initials for up to 20 authors (instead of 7) should be provided in the reference list.(9.8)4. DOIs are formatted as urls ( The label “DOI:” is no longer necessary. (DOI)5. URLs are embedded directly in the reference, without being preceded by “Retrieved from,”unless a retrieval date is needed.6. For ebooks, the format, platform, or device (e.g. Kindle) is no longer included in the reference.(10.2)7. Clear guidelines are provided for including contributors that are not an author or editor. Forexample, when citing a podcast episode, the host of the episode should be included; for a TVseries episode, the writer and director of that episode are cited. (Table 10.15)8. Dozens of examples are included for online source types such as podcast episodes, socialmedia posts, and YouTube videos. Also, the use of emojis and hashtags is explained. (Table10.15)INCLUSIVE AND BIAS-FREE LANGUAGE (5.1-5.10)Writing inclusively and without bias is the new standard, and APA’s new publication manual contains aseparate chapter on this topic.APA 7th ed. GuidelinesPage 4The guidelines provided by APA help authors to reduce bias around topics such as gender, age,disability, racial and ethnic identity, and sexual orientation, as well as being sensitive to labels. Someexamples are:9. The singular “they” or “their” is endorsed as a gender-neutral pronoun.10. Descriptive phrases such as “people living in poverty” are preferred over adjectives as nouns tolabel people (e.g., “the poor”).11.Instead of broad categories (e.g., over 65 years old), you should use exact age ranges (e.g., 65-75) that are more relevant and specific.APA PAPER FORMATIn the 7th edition, APA decided to provide different paper format guidelines for professional and studentpapers. For both types a sample paper is included. Some notable changes include:12. Increased flexibility regarding fonts: options include Calibri 11, Arial 11, Lucida Sans Unicode10, Times New Roman 12, and Georgia 11. (2.19)13. The running head on the title page no longer includes the words “Running head:”. It nowcontains only a page number and the (shortened) paper title. (2.2-Sample)14. The running head is omitted in student papers (unless your instructor tells you otherwise).15.Heading levels 3-5 are updated to improve readability. (Table 2.3)MECHANICS OF STYLEIn terms of style, not much has changed in the 7th edition. In addition to some updated and betterexplained guidelines, there are two notable changes:16. Use only one space after a period at the end of a sentence. (6.1)17. Use double quotation marks to refer to linguistic examples (e.g. APA endorses the use of thesingular pronoun “they”) instead of italics. (6.22-6.23)APA 7th ed. GuidelinesPage 5WHY APA?APA (Seventh Edition) provides a foundation for effective scholarly communication, helping authorspresent ideas clearly, concisely, and in an organization manner. Uniformity and consistency enablewriters and readers to:a) Focus on ideas being presented vs. formattingb) Scan works quickly for key points, findings, sourcesAPA style guidelines encourage writers to disclose essential information allowing readers to dispensewith minor distractions i.e.1) Inconsistencies or omissions in punctuation2) Capitalization3) Reference citations4) Presentation of statistics (p. xvii)APA 7th ed. broadened its audience of consultants of not only by psychologists but also students andresearchers in many fields such as business, education, social work, nursing and many otherbehavioral and social sciences. The scope and length of the APA manual has grown in the response tothe needs of researchers, students, and educators across disciplines.(2.2) APA BASIC/MINIMUM STUDENT PAPER ELEMENTS:Student papers, narrative essays, literature review, usually include: The cover page or title page (Sections 2.3-2.6) Text of the paper (Section 2.11) Reference page (Section 2.12) Page numbers (Section 2.18)APA 7th ed. GuidelinesPage 6(2.3) COVER PAGE/TITLE PAGEAPA Manuscript elements of the title page:The Seventh Edition has revised the Title Page to consist of seven elements: page number, paper title,author, affiliation, Course, Instructor, Due date (2.2 – Sample Student Title Page).1. Title (in title case 6.17) bold, centered, and positioned in the upper half of the title page, 3-4lines down from top margin (2.4) added space for the next element is not required2. Author name first name, middle initial, last name. No titles or degrees are used (Dr. or Ph.D.)(1.22)3. Under the author’s name is the institutional affiliation – American Public University (2.6)4. Next is the Course number – Course name5. Instructor name6. Due date (month date year)7. Page numbers (2.18)***For Student Papers there is no requirementfor a Running head in the header.Page number in the header flush rightTitle of the paper in boldAdded spaceStudent/Author nameCourse #AffiliationInstructorDue dateAPA 7th ed. GuidelinesPage 7(2.11) TEXT OF THE PAPERFormat, the text should start on a new page after the title page and after the title of the paper in titlecase, bold, and centered.The text left-aligned, double-spaced paragraphs, the first line of each paragraph indented by one tabkey (0.5 in.; Section 2.23-2.24). Use headings as needed to separate sections and reflect theorganizational structure of content (Section 2.26-2.27). Do not start a new page or add extra linebreaks when a new heading occurs; each section of the text should follow the next without a break.BASIC APA WRITING COMPONENTS• (2.3) Title page: Use APA format (see example above)• (2.4) Title: Name your paper. The title can “hook” your readers. The title should summarize themain idea of the paper• (2.11) Introductory Paragraph: Should summarize the prose of the assignment, introducingthe topic. Pretend the reader has no idea of the topic the paper, concisely elaborate on thetopic. The thesis statement is often the last sentence of the first paragraph, generally a seguesentence to the body/sub-header (if used) essay• (2.26) Principles of Organization: The key to writing sound, organized, scholarly structured isto be clear, precise and logical. Headings in a paper identify the purposeand aid the reader’s ability to become familiar with the essays content – allows for easier foundinformation sought.• (2.27) Heading Levels: The first paragraphs of the paper are understood to be introductory, theheading “Introduction” is not needed. Do not begin a paper with an “Introduction” heading• (4.06) Sentence & Paragraph Length: Discuss topic. The number of paragraphs will dependon the length and complexity of your paper. There is not minimum or maximum sentence lengthin APA Style. Overuse of too short or too long sentences results in incomprehensible. Single 1” margins all the way around All text double-spaced Every new sentence 1 tab indent(0.5 inches)APA 7th ed. GuidelinesPage 8sentence paragraphs are abrupt and used infrequently. A new paragraph signals a shift to anew idea.WRITING THE PAPERThere are specific guidelines when writing an APA style paper. Center the title at the top of page two. The title is written in title case (6.17)Double space entire paper (2.21)Use 1 inch margins (2.22)Text is left aligned (2.23)APA Style paper should be written in a font accessible to all users.oUse the same font throughout the paper (2.19)Suggested options11-point Calibri11-point Arial10-point Lucida12-point Times New Roman11-point GeorgiaNormal 10-point Computer ModernFirst sentence of every paragraph must be indented (2.24)Quotes 40 words or more must be in blocked quotation format with no quotation marks andinclude the page number in parentheses after the last period (8.27) (2.12) COMPONENTS OF A REFERENCE PAGE`The word ‘References’ (‘Reference if only one source) should appear at the top center of the page inbold. Entries are double-spaced using a hanging indent.**Do not list a reference not used in the body of the paper. Similarly, do not include an in-text citationwithout a corresponding reference on the reference page.(3) Journal Article Reporting Standards (JARS)Specialized guidelines developed by APA referred to as JARS outline for authors what informationPage numberTitle of page, in bold (References)AlphabetizeDouble-spacedHanging IndentAPA 7th ed. GuidelinesPage 9should be included for journal articles. Primarily authors seeking publication or students conductingadvanced research projects.Undergraduate or graduate students conducting advanced projects will use JARS. Common reportingstandards for journal articles include the abstract and the introduction.Undergraduate and graduate students tend to write less complicated research papers; therefore anabstract or introduction are not requirements (unless by programmatic design).WRITING TIPS FOR STUDENTS• Acronyms: Identify acronyms on first use. Example: American Public University (APUS).• Allow Time Between Drafts: While a break of 24 hours or more is ideal, a thirty minute breakwill yield positive results.• Ampersand: If the citation is in parentheses, use the ampersand (‘&’) instead of the word “and”in text of paper. Always use ampersand (&) in tables, captions and on the reference page.• Awkward Phrasing: Use Standard English phrasing. For example, “try to do” rather than “tryand do,” “we went” rather than “us went.”• Brainstorming: Before beginning to write, take the time to put ideas down on paper. Mindmapping and list-making are two useful brainstorming techniques.• Commas and Introductory Phrases: Usually commas are placed between an introductoryphrase and the main sentence; however, commas are rarely used to separate a concludingphrase.• Complete Sentences: Write in complete sentences and avoid slang. Complete sentencescontain both subjects and verbs. Avoid run on sentences.• etc.: Avoid using etc. at the end of a list unless it is part of a quotation.• Extra Time: Quality writing takes time – lots of time. Build in a cushion of extra time.• Help from Others: Being mindful of plagiarism and academic honesty, request proofreadinghelp.• Homonyms: Homonyms are words sounding similar but are spelled differently and havedifferent definitions. (Example, new and knew; your and you’re; know and no).• Multiple Drafts: Professional writers create multiple drafts of their writing. You should too.• Non-words: Ensure all words are Standard English words. (Example, “alot” is not a word).• Organizing: Plan paper or assignment. This may be as simple as a chronological list of pointsor as elaborate as a formal outline.APA 7th ed. GuidelinesPage 10• Question Marks and Quotation Marks: Place question marks outside the quotation markunless the question mark is part of the quotation.• Titles of Books and Magazines: Italicize the title of books and magazines.• Titles of Articles and Chapters: Place the title of articles and chapters of books in quotationmarks to set off when mentioned in text.• Use Formal Voice: Academic writing is more formal than casual conversations, emails, andinstant messages.• Flow of Paper: Use transitional words helping maintain the flow of thought. Use a pronounreferring to a noun in a preceding sentence allows a smooth transition and elevates repetition.Other words assisting in transition are time links (after, next, since, then, while), cause-effectlinks (as a result, consequently, as a result), addition links (furthermore, in addition, moreover,similarly), and contrast links (although, but, conversely, however, nevertheless). (4.1 – 4.3)• Anthropomorphism: avoid attributing human characteristics to animals or inanimate sources.(4.11)• Verb Tense and Active Voice: Limit shifts in verb tense, and use active voice rather thanpassive voice. (4.12)• Subject-Verb Agreement: Be sure your subject and verb agree. For example, “we are” ratherthan “we is,” “they did” rather than “they done.” (4.15)• Perspective: Use third person point of view when writing research papers (avoiding pronounssuch as I, we, my, our (first person) and you, yours, your, us, we (second person). You shoulddeal with facts and not opinions, thus providing citations within paper and on reference page.Focus on the subject itself and not on your feelings about the subject. The use of third personretains a formal tone in your writing. (4.16)• Wordiness and Redundancy: Eliminate wordy sentences; get your point across with as fewwords as possible eliminating empty words such as “that”. (4.5)• Sentence and Paragraph Length: Be sure ideas are fully developed in each paragraph. Thisusually results in paragraphs of three to five. (4.6)• Tone: An effective way to achieve the correct tone is write in a way to educate and persuadethe reader. (4.7)• Full Wording Rather Than Contractions: Convert contractions to their complete wordpartner. (Examples: it’s = it is; won’t = will not; haven’t = have not). (4.8)• Bias-Free Language: Writing should maintain a stance of inclusivity and respect for all people,regardless of age, disability, gender, participation in research, racial and ethnic identify, sexualorientation, socioeconomic status, or intersectionality. Writers should strive to use language freeof bias. Writing should never promote prejudice or demeaning attitudes. (5.1 – 5.10)APA 7th ed. GuidelinesPage 11 Numbers: 0-9 are written out while 10 and above are written as numbers(Exceptions: numbers expressing approximate lengths of time be written as words (Example: 1hr 30 min; 12:30 a.m.; about 3 months ago). (6.32-6.34) Use words for numbers at thebeginning of any sentence. (6.33)• Semicolon: Semicolons are used to either connect two complete sentences, or to connect a listwith commas. (6.4)• Colon: Colons should only be used when the introductory phrase is a complete sentence. (6.5)• No Slash: Use dashes rather than slashes. (6.6)• Parenthesis: Parentheses are most often used in citations. Before using in other applications,consult the APA handbook for guidance. (6.8)• Punctuation when ending a Quote: If quotation is at the end of a sentence, close quote withquotation marks, cite the source in parentheses, and end with a period or other punctuationoutside the final parenthesis. (8.26)Levels of Headings: (Table 2.3 Format for the Five Levels of APA Style)PARAPHRASING VERSUS DIRECT QUOTESParaphrasing is your own rendition of someone else’s information or idea. (8.23)Parenthetical Citation Example: Many people possess knowledge on a multitude of topics, butinfrequently have the chance to take advantage of such knowledge (Conner, 2004).Narrative Citation Example: Conner suggested many people possess knowledge on a multitudeof topics, but infrequently have the chance to take advantage of such knowledge (2004).Direct quote: reproduces words verbatim from an author or source. (8.25) LevelFormat1Centered, Bold, Title Case HeadingText begins as a new paragraph.2Flush Left, Bold, Title Case HeadingText begins as a new paragraph.3Flush Left, Bold Italic, Title Case HeadingText begins as a new paragraph.4Indented, Bold, Title Case Heading With a Period. Text begins on the sameline and continues as a regular paragraph.5Indented, Bold Italic, Title Case Heading With a Period. Text begins on thesame line and continues as a regular paragraph. APA 7th ed. GuidelinesPage 12Parenthetical Citation Example: “Many of us understand all sorts of things but never have theopportunity to take the time to try them out” (Conner, 2004, p. 161).Narrative Citation Example: According to Conner (2004) “Many of us understand all sorts ofthings but never have the opportunity or take the time to try them out” (p. 161).Block quotations of 40 words or more. Start a block quotation on a new line and indent thewhole block 0.5 in. from the left margin. Double space entire quote. (8.27) Do NOT usequotation marks unless there are quotations within the quotation then use normal quotationmarks not additional ones. You must still give credit for source.Example (see page 272):Note periods or commas are within quotation marks when they are part of the quoted material. At endof quote, place period then page number.Page number must be given for direct quotes. If no page number is available, cite the paragraphnumber using the abbreviation para. (instead of the symbol ¶). If no page or paragraph numbers areavailable, cite the heading and paragraph number in which the information is found. (8.28)WHAT IS A CITATION?A “citation” is the way you tell readers certain material came from another source. It also gives readersthe information necessary to find the source again, including (8.1 – 8.9): information about the authorthe title of the workthe name and location of the company publishing the sourcethe date copy was publishedthe page numbers of the material Why should I site sources?Giving credit to the original author by citing sources is the only way to use other people’s work withoutplagiarizing. But there are a number of other reasons to cite sources: Citations are extremely helpful to anyone who wants to find out more about your ideas andwhere they came from.Not all sources are good or right – your own ideas may often be more accurate or interestingthan those of your sources. Proper citation will keep you from taking the rap for someone else’sbad ideas.Citing sources shows the amount of research you have done.Citing sources strengthens your work by lending outside support to your ideas. Doesn’t citing sources make my work seem less original?APA 7th ed. GuidelinesPage 13Not at all. On the contrary, citing sources actually helps the reader distinguish your ideas from those ofyour sources. This will actually emphasize the originality of your own work.When do I need to site?Whenever you borrow words or ideas, you need to acknowledge their source. The following situationsalmost always require citation: Whenever you use quotesWhenever you paraphraseWhenever you use an idea someone else has already expressedWhenever you make specific reference to the work of anotherWhenever someone else’s work has been critical in developing your own ideas. Do I have to cite sources for every fact I use?No. You do not have to cite sources for facts that are not the result of unique individual research. Factsreadily available from numerous sources and generally known to the public are considered “commonknowledge,” and are not protected by copyright laws. You can use these facts liberally in your paperwithout citing authors. If you are unsure whether or not a fact is common knowledge, cite your sourcejust to be safe.GUIDELINES FOR CITING REFERENCESIn-text citations have two formats: parenthetical and narrative. In parenthetical citations, the authorname and publication date appear in parenthesis. In narrative citations, this information is incorporatedinto the text as part of the sentence. (8.11)Do not include the publisher location in the reference. (9.29)References are in alphabetical order by author name. (9.44)If no author, the title takes the place of the author and the reference is alphabetized by the first letter ofthe first word of the title i.e., Study finds. (2005). In-text citation, use quotation marks (“Study Finds,”2005). If work is designated as “Anonymous”, in-text cite and reference list as so. Do not list the authoras anonymous or unknown unless the work is signed “Anonymous” (9.49)When citing two to 20 provide surnames and initials. For 21 or more authors, include the first 19authors’ names, insert an ellipsis (but no ampersand) and then add the final author’s name. (9.8)In-text citation, for work with one or two authors, include the author name(s) in every citation. For workwith three or more authors, include the name of only the first author plus “et al.” in every citation. (8.17)(Table 8.1 Basic In-Text Citation Styles) Author typeParenthetical citationNarrative citationOne author(Luna, 2020)Luna (2020)Two Authors(Salas & D’Agostino, 2020)Salas and D’Agostino (2020) APA 7th ed. GuidelinesPage 14 Three or more authors(Martin et al., 2020)Martin et al. (2020)Group author with abbreviationFirst citationSubsequent citations(National Institute of MentalHealth [NIMH], 2020)(NIMH, 2020)National Institute of MentalHealth (NIMH, 2020)NIMH (2020)Group author withoutabbreviation(Stanford University, 2020)Stanford University (2020 When citing periodicals, if the volume number is 22, the issue is 3, and the page range is 23 through25. Write the information as follows: 22(3), 23-25. Do not use the words Volume or Vol., Issue or Iss.,orPages, p. or pp. (9.25)Following the author’s name is the publication date. The date (in parentheses) is always the secondpart of a reference. (9.4) List the date as follows:• (year only). For example: (2009).• (year, month). For example: (2007, January). Note: Do not use month abbreviations.• (year, month, day). For example: (1998, June 16).• (range of dates (e.g., range of years, range of exact dates) (9.13)• (n.d.). Use n.d. for works without a publication date (9.17)Capitalize only the first word of titles, proper nouns (such as names of people, places, studies, etc.),and subtitles following a colon (:). (6.29)Italicize the name of books, reports, webpages, and other stand-alone works (6.22) journals,magazines, or newspapers (10.1 ex.3), but do not italicize the name of an article. (10.1 ex.5)Book: Learn more now: 10 simple ways to learning better, smarter & faster. (10.2)Journal: Journal of Social Psychology (10.1 ex.1)Magazine: Newsweek (10.1 ex.15)Newspapers: The New York Times (10.1 ex.16)New Guidelines for Citing References: Keep the format as simple as possible. No retrieval dates needed unless the source material may change over time. (9.16)For electronic references, give the DOI, if no DOI is assigned provide the URL. (9.34)For works associated with specific location, include the location such as conferencepresentations, include the location, (Example: New York, NY) (9.31) The Digital Object Identifier (DOI)The digital object identifier (DOI) is an alphanumeric string identifying content providing a link tolocation on the Internet. Give DOI for journal articles, books, or book chapters accessed online. Noperiod at the end of the string. Do not use the phrase retrieved from. Do not give a retrieval date. TheDOI is typically located on the first page of the electronic journal article, near the copyright notice. (9.34)For electronic references, give the DOI, if assigned. DOI’s always begin with the number 10. Databasenames are no longer needed. If no DOI assigned, provide the URL of the journal or book publisher.APA 7th ed. GuidelinesPage 15For electronic references, give the DOI, if assigned. DOI’s always begin with the number 10. Databasenames are no longer needed. If no DOI assigned, provide the URL of the journal or book publisher.Search for a DOI: Go to a free DOI lookup:•• WORKSTable 10.1 Periodicals Template SourceAuthorDateTitlePeriodicalinformationDOI or URLAuthor, A. A., &Author, B. B.Name of Group.Author, C. C.[username].Username.(2020).(2020, January).(2020, February16).Title of articleTitle of Periodical,34(2), 5-14Title of Periodical,2(1-2), Article 12.Title of Periodical (10.1 ex.1) Journal Article Reference with DOI ExampleLast name, Initials. (yyyy of journal volume). Article title. Journal, volume number, (issuenumber), pages. doi: xx.xxxxxRoy, A.J. (1982). Suicide in chronic schizophrenia. British Journal of Psychiatry, 96(1), 171-177. doi: xx.xxxxIt should be noted using the words Volume or Vol., Issue or Iss., or Pages, p. or pp. are not acceptablein the reference citation. Also, the journal title and volume number are italicized.***Note: For electronic references, give the DOI, if assigned, if not include the URL.(10.1 ex.2) JOURNAL ARTICLE REFERENCE WITHOUT DOI EXAMPLELast name, Initials. (yyyy of journal volume). Article title. Journal, volume number, (issuenumber), pages.Roy, A.J. (1982). Suicide in chronic schizophrenia. British Journal of Psychiatry, 96(1), 171-177.It should be noted using the words Volume or Vol., Issue or Iss., or Pages, p. or pp. are not acceptablein the reference citation. Also, the journal title and volume number are italicized.Note: Provide URL if DOI is not available. (9.35)(10.1 ex. 3) Journal Article ExampleLast name, Initials. (Date). Title of article. Title of Periodical vol(#), p#. Source location if avail.Anderson, M. (2018). Getting consistent with consequences. Educational Leadership. 76(1), 26-33APA 7th ed. GuidelinesPage 16(10.1 ex.17) Blog Post ExampleLast name, Initials. (Date). Title of article. Title of Blog. Source locationKlymkowsky, M. (2018, September 15). Can we talk scientifically about free will? Sci-Ed. 10.2 Books and Reference Works Template SourceAuthorDateTitlePublisherInformationDOI or URLAuthor, A. A., &Author, B. B.Name of Group.Editor, E. E.(Ed.).Editor, E. E., &Editor, F. F.(Eds.).(2020).Title of book.Title of book (2nd ed., Vol,4).Title of book [Audiobook].Title of book (E. E. Editor,Editor, Ed.).Title of book (T. Translator,Trans,; N. Narrator, Narr.).Publisher Name.First PublisherName; SecondPublisher Name (10.2 ex.20) Book Reference ExampleLast name, Initials. (yyyy). Title of book. Publisher Name. DOI (or URL)Brown, L. S. (2018). Feminist therapy (2nd ed.). American Psychological Association. ex.22) Authored ebook (e.g., Kindle book) or audiobook without a DOI, with a nondatabaseURLLast name, Initials (yyyy) Title of ebook (Last name narrator.) [Media]. Publisher name. DOI (or URL)Cain, S. (2012). Quiet: The power of introverts in a world that can’t stop talking (K. Mazur, Narr.)[Audiobook]. Random House Audio. 10.3 Edited Book Chapters and Entries in Reference Works Template SourceAuthorDateChapter titleEdited book InformationDOI or URLAuthor, A. A., &Author, B. B.Name of Group.(2020).Title of chapterIn E. E. Editor (Ed.), Title ofbook (pp.3-13). PublisherName.In E. E. Editor & F. F. Editor(Eds.), Title of book (3rd ed.,Vol. 2, pp. 212-255). PublisherName (10.3 ex.39) Chapter in an edited book without a DOI ExampleAPA 7th ed. GuidelinesPage 17Last name, Initials. (yyyy). Title of chapter. In E. E. Editor (Ed.), Title of book (if 2nd+ ed., pp. #).Publisher Name.Weinstock, R., Leong, G. B., & Silva, J. A., (2003). Defining forensic psychiatry: Roles andresponsibilities. In R. Rosner (Ed.), Principles and practice of forensic psychiatry (2nd ed., pp. 7-13). CRC Press.(10.3 ex.40) Chapter in an edited ebook (e.g., Kindle book) or audiobook without a DOI, withnondatabase URL ExampleLast name, Initials. (yyyy). Title of chapter. In E. E. Editor (Ed.), Title of book (if 2nd+ ed., pp. #).Publisher Name. URLTafoya, N., & Del Vecchio, A. (2005). Back to the future: An examination of the Native AmericanHolocaust experience. In M. McGoldrick, J. Giordano, & N. Garcia-Preto (Eds.), Ethnicity andfamily therapy (3rd ed., pp. 55-63). Guilford Press. (10.4 ex.50-59)Reports and Gray Literature; i.e., government agency or other organizationreports; grants; briefs; press releases. (10.5 ex.60-63) Conference Sessions and Presentations(10.6 ex.64-66) Dissertations and Theses(10.7 ex.67-69) Reviews; i.e., film, book, TV series episode(10.8 ex.70-74) Unpublished Works and Informally Published Works(10.9 ex.75-76) Data Sets(10.10 ex.77-80) Computer Software, Mobile Apps, Apparatuses, and Equipment(10.11 ex.80-83) Tests, Scales, and Inventories(10.12 ex.84-90) Audiovisual Works(10.13 ex.91-96) Audio Works(10.14 ex.97-102) Visuals Works(10.15 ex.103-109) Social MediaTable 10.15 Online Media Template SourceAuthorDateTitleSocialmedia sitenameURLTwitter andInstagram:(n.d.).Content of the post up to thefirst 20 words.Site Name.https://xxxxxxx APA 7th ed. GuidelinesPage 18 Author, A. A.[@username].Name of Group[@username].Facebook andothers:Author, A. A.Name of Group.Name of Group[Username].Username(2019,August, 8).Content of the post up to thefirst 20 words [Description ofaudiovisuals].[Description of audiovisuals].RetrievedAugust 27, 2020,fromhttps://xxxxx (10.16 ex.110-114) Webpages and WebsitesTable 10.16 Webpages or Websites Template SourceAuthorDateTitleSocialmedia sitenameURLAuthor, A. A. &Author, B. B.Name of Group.(2020).(2019, August).(2020, September 28).(n.d.).Title of work.Site Name.https://xxxxxxxRetrievedDecember 22,2020, fromhttps://xxxxx PLAGIARISMMany people think of plagiarism as copying another’s work, or borrowing someone else’s original ideas.But terms like copying and borrowing can disguise the seriousness of the offense:According to the Merriam-Webster OnLine Dictionary, to “plagiarize” means to steal and pass off (the ideas or words of another) as one’s ownto use (another’s production) without crediting the sourceto commit literary theftto present as new and original an idea or product derived from an existing source. In other words, plagiarism is an act of fraud. It involves both stealing someone else’s work and lyingabout it afterward.Can words and ideas really be stolen?APA 7th ed. GuidelinesPage 19According to U.S. law, the answer is yes. In the United States and many other countries, the expressionof original ideas is considered intellectual property, and is protected by copyright laws, just like originalinventions. Almost all forms of expression fall under copyright protection as long as they are recorded insome media (such as a book or a computer file).All of the following are considered plagiarism: turning in someone else’s work as your owncopying words or ideas from someone else without giving creditfailing to put a quotation in quotation marksgiving incorrect information about the source of a quotationchanging words but copying the sentence structure of a source without giving creditcopying so many words or ideas from a source making up the majority of your work, whetheryou give credit or not (see our section on “fair use” rules) Attention! Changing the words of an original source is not sufficient to prevent plagiarism. If youhave retained the essential idea of an original source, and have not cited it, then no matter howdrastically you may have altered its context or presentation, you have still plagiarizedMost cases of plagiarism can be avoided by citing sources. Simply acknowledging certain material hasbeen borrowed, and providing the audience with the information necessary to find the source, is usuallyenough to prevent plagiarism.APA 7th ed. GuidelinesPage 20APA Checklist Sections of an APA paper: title page, text of paper, and reference page. Title Page: Title Format: Center the title on title page in title case, bold, centered, andpositioned in the upper half of the title page. Author, Affiliation, Course, Instructor, DueDate, Page Number: one blank double-spaced line between the paper title and the author.Center – First name, middle initial(s), and last name; Center – Affiliation; Center – Course;Center – Instructor; Center – Due Date; Flush right header – Page-numbering for all pages. Begin paper by centering title at the top of page two. The title is uppercase and lowercaseletters and located directly under the 1” margin. Double space entire paper/Use 1-inch margin/Text is to be left aligned. One space after punctuation at the end of a sentence, comma, colons, and semicolons. Use the same font throughout the text of the paper. Options includeo 11-point Calibrio 11-point Arialo 10-point Lucindao 12-point Times New Romano 11-point Georgia Same font throughout with the exception of italicizing: (1) key terms or phrases (2) titles ofbooks, reports, webpages, and other stand-alone work. Numbers: zero through nine are expressed in words while numbers 10 and above are written asnumbers (Exceptions: numbers expressing approximate lengths of time written as words ex: 1hr 30 min; 12:30 a.m.; about 3 months ago; at the beginning of sentences). Punctuation when ending a Quote: If quotation is at the end of a sentence, close quote withquotation marks, cite the source in parentheses, and end with a period or other punctuationoutside the final parenthesis. Avoid using “etc.” at the end of a list or exclamation point unless it is part of the quotation. Ampersand: If the citation is in parentheses, use the ampersand (‘&’) instead of the word “and”in text of paper. Always use ampersand (&) in tables, captions and on reference page. Capitalize first letter following a colon if clause is a complete sentence. Use complete sentences and avoid slang. Use Spell Checker and proofread paper. First sentence of every new paragraph must be indented. Do not use contractions (it’s = it is; won’t = will not).APA 7th ed. GuidelinesPage 21 Always spell out acronym on first use. Example: APU = American Public University. Direct Quotes: must give page number. If no page numbers available, cite paragraph numberusing abbreviation para. (para. 4). If no page or paragraph numbers, cite heading andparagraph number where information found: (Discussion section, para. 2). For a work with one or two authors, include the author name(s) in every citation. For three ormore authors, include the name of only the first author plus “et al.” in every citation. Quotations of 40 words or more treat as block quotation. No quotation marks – indent the wholeblock .5 in from left margin. Double-space entire block quotation; (a) cite the source inparentheses after the quotation’s final punctuation or (b) cite the author and year in the narrativebefore the quotation and place only the page number in parentheses. Do not add a period afterthe closing parenthesis in either case. The reference page is the last page (unless appendix). Insert a page break at end of the finalparagraph to prevent distortion when edits are made. Double-Space the entire paper. Insert one space after periods or other punctuation marks at the end of a sentence, commas,colons, semicolons, periods that separate parts of a reference list entry, periods following initialsin names. Do not insert a space after internal periods in abbreviations (e.g., a.m., i.e., U.S.),after periods in identity concealing labels for study participants (F.I.M.), around colons in ratios(1:4). Title of Reference page: Centered – Reference(s) on page directly under the 1” margin. Do notunderling, italicize or make bold. Cite references in text of paper and include sources on reference page. PLEASE NOTE: Wikis(like Wikipedia) cannot guarantee the verifiability or expertise of entries, and therefore are notconsidered scholarly sources. DO NOT USE WIKIS AS PRIMARY SOURCES. Always haveadditional sources if using Wiki’s to reaffirm Wiki’s accuracy. References are in alphabetical order by author(s) last name on the reference page; list lastname, then first and middle initials (if applicable) only. Author. Date. Title. Source. When authoris unknown or cannot reasonably be Determined, move the title of the work to the authorposition followed by a period before the date of the publication, i.e., Anderson, M. (2018).Getting consistent with consequences. Educational Leadership, 76(1), 26-33. or Anonymous.(2017). or Generalized anxiety disorder. (2019). respectively. When citing a book on the reference page, capitalize the first word of the title only (with theexception of proper names). Also, italicize the name of the book. i.e., Meadows, D. H. (2008).Thinking in systems: A primer (D. Wright, Ed.). Chelsea Green Publishing. Capitalize the FIRST word of all proper names in the title of books and articles and after a colon.APA 7th ed. GuidelinesPage 22 Italicize the name of books, journals, and magazines, but do NOT italicize the name of thearticle. Do not use the words Volume or Vol., Issue or Iss,. or Pages, p. or pp. on reference page. The name of the journal and volume number are italicized. Pay attention to punctuation. Citing a source within a source (secondary sources) example: In-text—Bennett (as cited inRudman, 1999) defined. Reference list: Rudman, R. (1999). Human resources management in New Zealand. (3rd ed.).Auckland, N.Z.: Addison Wesley Longman Citing references on reference page: use the hanging indent. Highlight the citations and pressCtrl T automatically formats. For electronic references, give the DOI or digital object identifier, if assigned. DOI’s alwaysbegin with the number 10. Database names are no longer needed. If no DOI assigned, providethe URL or uniform resource locator of the journal, book, source referenced. Use 3rd person point of view (unless opinion paper) avoiding pronouns such as I, we, my, our(1st person) and you, yours, your, us, we (2ndperson). Deal with facts, thus, providing citationswithin paper and reference page. Focus on subject; not feelings about the subject. The use of3rd person retains a formal tone: Academic writing is more formal than casual conversation.Please be familiar with the exceptions to this rule in Chapter 4. (4.16) Cite all references in paper AND on reference page. If listed on reference page MUST havecited within paper. No retrieval dates, retrieved from, or database name needed on reference page. Examples: (Not to format scale)ReferencesAssembly of the minds. (2008, April 28). Mind and Body, 77(2), 526-528. doi:10.1057/1024- 1027.29.4.123Fenchel, J. (2009, October). Diving into the 21st century technology. School Talk, 15(1), 3-5.Gelb, M. (2003). Discover your genius: How to think like history’s ten most revolutionaryminds. doi: 10.1045/2457-8953-85.2.452.McKee, A., & Krueger, B. (2004). Learning multimedia principles. Journal of MultimediaTechnology, 21(4), 223-333. doi: 10.1234/5432-8989-34.8.456.Rasmusen, A. J. (2008). Technology today . British Journal of Multimedia, 96(1), 171-177.Stielow, F. J. (2003). Building digital archives. New York, NY: Neal-Shuman.What’s your learning style. (2009). Retrieved from 7th ed. GuidelinesPage 23SEVENTH EDITIONQUICK REFERENCE GUIDEScholarly Writing and Publishing Principles 1.1 – 1.101.11-1.171.18-1.201.21-1.25Types of Articles and PapersEnsuring the Accuracy of Scientific FindingsProtecting the Rights and Welfare of Research Participants & SubjectsProtecting Intellectual Property Rights Required Elements2.1 Student Paper Required ElementsPaper Elements2.3 Title Page2.4 Title2.5 Author2.6 Author Affiliation2.11 Text (Body) 2.12FormatReference List 2.16 Importance of Format2.17 Order of Pages2.18 Page Header2.19 Font2.20 Special Characters2.21 Line Spacing2.22 Margins2.23 Paragraph Alignment 2.24OrganizationParagraph Indentation 2.26 Principles of Organization2.27 Heading LevelsJournal Article Reporting Standards3.1 – 3.18 Reporting Standards (JARS)EFFECTIVE SCHOLARLY WRITINGContinuity and Flow4.1 Importance of Continuity and Flow4.2 Transitions4.3 Noun StringsConciseness and Clarity4.4 Importance of Conciseness and Clarity4.5 Wordiness and Redundancy4.6 Sentence and Paragraph Length4.7 Tone4.8 Contractions and Colloquialisms4.9 Jargon4.10 Logical ComparisonsAPA 7th ed. GuidelinesPage 244.11 AnthropomorphismGRAMMAR AND USAGEVerbs4.12 Verb Tense4.13 Active and Passive Voice4.14 Mood 4.15PronounsSubject and Verb Agreement 4.16 First-Versus Third-Person Pronouns4.17 Editorial “We”4.18 Singular “They”4.19 Pronouns for People and Animals (“Who” vs. “That”)4.20 Pronouns as Subjects and Objects (“Who” vs. “Whom”)4.21 Pronouns in Restrictive and Nonrestrictive Clauses (“That” vs. “Which”)Sentence Construction4.22 Subordinate Conjunctions4.23 Misplaced and Dangling Modifiers4.24 Parallel ConstructionStrategies to Improve Your Writing4.25 Reading to Learn Through Example4.26 Writing From an Outline4.27 Rereading the Draft4.28 Seeking Help From Colleagues4.29 Working with Copyeditors and Writing Centers4.30 Revising a PaperBias-Free Language5.1 – 5.10 Bias-Free Language Guidelines for Reducing BiasPunctuation6.1 Spacing After Punctuation Marks6.2 Period6.3 Comma6.4 Semicolon6.5 Colon6.6 Dash6.7 Quotation Marks6.8 Parentheses6.9 Square Brackets 6.10SpellingSlash 6.11 Preferred Spelling 6.12CapitalizationHyphenation 6.13 Words Beginning a Sentence6.14 Proper Nouns and Trade Names6.15 Job Titles and PositionsAPA 7th ed. GuidelinesPage 256.17 Titles of Works and Headings Within Works 6.19ItalicsNouns Followed by Numerals or Letters 6.22 Use of Italics6.23 Reverse ItalicsAbbreviations6.24 Use of Abbreviations6.25 Definition of Abbreviations6.26 Format of Abbreviations6.27 Unit of Measurement Abbreviations6.28 Time AbbreviationsTables and Figures7.1 – 7.36 Guidelines for Tables and FiguresWhen to Cite8.1 Appropriate Level of Citation8.2 Plagiarism8.3 Self-Plagiarism8.4 Correspondence Between Reference List and Text8.5 Use of the Published Version or Archival VersionWorks Requiring Special Approaches to Citation8.7 Interviews8.8 Classroom or Intranet Sources8.9 Personal CommunicationsIn-Text Citations8.10 Author-Date Citation System8.11 Parenthetical and Narrative Citations8.12 Citing Multiple Works8.13 Citing Specific Parts of a Source8.14 Unknown or Anonymous Author8.15 Translated, Reprinted, Republished, and Reissued Dates8.16 Omitting the Year in Repeated Narrative Citations8.17 Number of Authors to Include in In-Text Citations8.18 Avoid Ambiguity in In-Text Citations8.19 Works with the Same Author and Same Date8.20 Authors With the Same Surname8.21 Abbreviating Group Authors8.22 General Mentions of Websites, Periodicals, and Common Software and AppsParaphrases and Quotations8.23 Principles of Paraphrasing8.24 Long Paraphrases8.25 Principles of Direct Quotation8.26 Short Quotations (Few Than 40 Words)8.27 Block Quotations (40 Words or More)8.28 Direct Quotations of Material Without Page Numbers8.29 Accuracy of Quotations8.30 Changes to a Quotation Requiring No ExplanationAPA 7th ed. GuidelinesPage 268.31 Changes to a Quotation Requiring Explanation8.32 Quotations That Contain Citations to Other Works8.33 Quotations That Contain Material Already in Quotation Marks8.34 Permission to Reprint or Adapt Lengthy QuotationsReference Categories9.1 Determining the Reference Category9.2 Using the Webpages and Websites Reference Category9.3 Online and Print ReferencesPrinciples of Reference List Entries9.4 Four Elements of a Reference9.5 Punctuation Within Reference List Entries9.6 Accuracy and Consistency in ReferencesREFERENCE ELEMENTSAuthor9.7 Definition of Author9.8 Format of the Author Element9.9 Spelling and Capitalization of Author Names9.10 Identification of Specialized Roles9.11 Group Authors 9.12DateNo Author 9.13 Definition of Date9.14 Format of the Date Element9.15 Updated or Reviewed Online Works9.16 Retrieval Dates 9.17TitleNo Date 9.18 Definition of Title9.19 Format of the Title Element9.20 Series and Multivolume Works9.21 Bracketed Descriptions 9.22SourceNo Title 9.23 Definition of Source9.24 Format of the Source Element9.25 Periodical Sources9.26 Online Periodicals With Missing Information9.27 Article Numbers9.28 Edited Book Chapter and Reference Work Entry Sources9.29 Publisher Sources9.30 Database and Archive Sources9.31 Works With Specific Locations9.32 Social Media Sources9.33 Website Sources9.34 When to Include DOIs and URLs9.35 Format of DOIs and URLs9.36 DOI and URL Shorteners9.37 No SourceAPA 7th ed. GuidelinesPage 27Reference Variations9.38 Works in Another Language9.39 Translated Works9.40 Reprinted Works9.41 Republished or Reissued Works9.42 Religious and Classical WorksReference List Format and Order9.43 Format of the Reference List9.44 Order of Works in the Reference List9.45 Order of Surname and Given Name9.46 Order of Multiple Works by the Same First Author9.47 Order of Works With the Same Author and Same Date9.48 Order of Works by First Authors With the Same Surname9.49 Order of Works With No Author or an Anonymous Author9.50 Abbreviations in References9.51 Annotated Bibliographies9.52 References Included in a Meta-AnalysisREFERENCE EXAMPLESTextual Works10.1 Periodicals10.2 Books and Reference Works10.3 Edited Book Chapters and Entries in Reference Works10.4 Reports and Gray Literature10.5 Conference Sessions and Presentations10.6 Dissertations and Theses10.7 Reviews10.8 Unpublished Works and Informally Published WorksData Sets, Software, and Tests10.9 Data Sets10.10 Computer Software, Mobile Apps, Apparatuses, and Equipment10.11 Tests, Scales, and InventoriesAudio Visual Media10.12 Audiovisual Works10.13 Audio Works 10.14Online MediaVisual Works 10.15 Social Media10.16 Webpages and WebsitesLegal References11.1-11.10 Guidelines for Legal ReferencesPublication Process12.1-12.24 Publication Process


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