basics of Harvard referencing | My Assignment Tutor

©ICTM Referencing Style Guide V01 March 2018 Page 1 of 11ICON College of Technology and ManagementREFERENCING STYLE GUIDE©ICTM Referencing Style Guide V01 March 2018 Page 2 of 11Introduction: The basics of Harvard referencingWelcome to the first edition of the ICON College Referencing Style Guide. The examples given in thisguide follow the Harvard referencing system. It should be noted that there are several variations ofreferencing including those of Harvard referencing. The correct style will depend on a University orCollege faculty/department’s ‘House style’ as well as individual preferences.The ICON College Referencing Style Guide is based on the ‘Harvard’ style of referencing.What is referencing?Referencing is the process of acknowledging the sources you have used in writing your assignment,dissertation or piece of work. It allows the reader to access your source documents as quickly andeasily as possible in order to verify, if necessary, the validity of your arguments and the evidence uponwhich they are based. You identify these sources by citing them in the text of your assignment (calledcitations or in-text citations) and referencing them at the end of your assignment (called thereference list).Why should you reference?There are several reasons why it is essential to reference your work:• To avoid plagiarism by acknowledging all the sources you have used. Plagiarism is the term usedto describe taking other peoples’ ideas or writing and using them as your own.• To allow the reader to locate cited references easily and thus evaluate your interpretation of thoseideas. Anyone marking or reading your work can follow up references or check whether you haveunderstood the authors’ views/perspectives and the works you have cited• To show the reader or marker that you have selected relevant and respected information sourcesfor your research into the topic.• To show that you have read widely in your subject area and gives your own writing authority.• To support an argument, to make a claim or to provide evidence.• To avoid losing marks!PlagiarismICON College defines plagiarism as “The unacknowledged use of someone’s work. This includesmaterial or ideas from any (published or unpublished) sources, whether print, Internet-based or audiovisual”.Using the words or ideas of others without referencing your source would be classified as plagiarismand is a very serious academic offence. It is regarded as stealing intellectual property.How should you reference?There are two stages of referencing sources for a piece of academic writing using the author-date orHarvard system.1. Refer to the source in your text (the citation).©ICTM Referencing Style Guide V01 March 2018 Page 3 of 112. Give full details of the source in your list of references (or ‘reference list’) or bibliography at theend of your work (the reference).When you are searching the literature on your chosen subject, save or note down all the requireddetails of the sources that you find at that time. If you don’t do this, you might not be able to accuratelydescribe the sources you have used, and you will have additional work when you need to list these inyour list of references or bibliography.Citing within your workThe citation within the text of your work is a brief acknowledgement to a source you have used. If youare using a direct quotation or are referring to a specific idea or assertion by an author, you need to letthe reader know where you found this information by giving the author’s surname, the year and thepage number (for book sources). The page number is important, as one of the main functions ofreferencing is to enable the reader to quickly locate the information you have used and to verify theconclusions you have drawn.If you are not referring to a specific idea or assertion, but are referring to work by an author in itsentirety or to a more general agreement you only need to include the author’s surname and the year, forexample, (surname, year).If you have named the author in the flow of your text, you only need to provide the year and pagenumber (if applicable), for example (year, page).Paraphrasing or citing a specific idea…Pizam’s research has shown a direct relationship between crime and tourist numbers to a destination(2012: 34)….It is best to paraphrase the sources you have used in your work, outing the author’s words intoyour own and crediting them with the idea through the citation.Citing a short quotation…whilst it is possible that “mental health issues affect young people from dysfunctional backgrounds, itis has a profound effect on an individual’s social relationship” (Heath, 2012: 4).Citing a long quotationThe methodology required for a through literature review requires an understanding of a number ofdifferent sources:…it is important to be familiar with the tertiary sources, which will help you to identify the secondarysources (such as bibliographies, indexes and abstracts), which will then lead you to the primary sourcesfor your review (Saunders, 2016: 27).©ICTM Referencing Style Guide V01 March 2018 Page 4 of 11There is no need to use quotation marks for long citations. Instead, start a new line and indentthe quotation (for quotations longer than 3 sentences).If you are citing more than one source, you can separate them with a semi-colon.Citing more than one source…there are many factors that affect tourist numbers to a destination. Smith (2015: 84) has suggestedthat value for money is the main factor; others believe a more complex relationship exists (Pizam, 2010;Walters & Brice, 2012). Referencing figures/tablesWhen including figures and/or tables (even if they have been adapted) as part of your text, make surethat you provide a full reference source below the figure/table. For example:Table 2.2 Challenges for DMOsSource: Adapted from Gronroos, G. (2015). Searching for the future: Challenges faced by destinationmarketing organisations. Journal of Travel Marketing, 22(4): 116-127. ChallengesFactorsAdapting to technological changeLack of human and financial resourcesCompetitionFight for market shareManaging expectationsNeed for community relationsFinding new measures of successIncreased need for accountability Reference list and bibliographyWhat is the difference between a references list and a bibliography?The references list (or ‘list of references’) includes all of the sources cited within your work. It is not thesame thing as a bibliography. A bibliography uses the same referencing style, but also includes allmaterial, for example background readings, used in the preparation of your work, (it is not referred to inthe text).In your reference list, you only include details of the sources you have read and directlyconsulted.References list: a list of all sources that you have cited within your workBibliography: a list of everything that you have cited and everything that you have consulted to helpimprove your understanding of the topic.References must be listed in alphabetical order by the author’s surname or the name of thecreator/company.©ICTM Referencing Style Guide V01 March 2018 Page 5 of 11Remember to note down the complete reference details for any source that you use, whether it is abook, journal, website, newspaper article or a source that you have photocopied.Elements of a reference AuthorAn individual or organisation responsible for creating the source.Year ofpublicationThe year the source was published, for example, the edition year or thecopyright © date on a website.Title ofarticle/chapterWhen you are referring to a section of a bigger piece of work, you may need togive the title of the section that you’re looking at, for example a book chapter.Publication titleThe name of the source, for example, book title or journal name.Place ofpublicationLocation listed on the source, for example the office address of the bookpublisher. This should be a town or city, not a country. Use the first place listed.PublisherNormally a company who has produced the information and made it publiclyavailable.Edition orvolumeinformationThis is to indicate if it is a part of a series or if a source replaces an earlier copy.A second edition of a book is an update to the first. For example, it may includemore or different information to the earlier version. A journal will produce anumber of issues a year, so you need to include the volume and issue number todemonstrate where in the series this source comes from.Page spanIf you are referring to something within a larger piece of work, you should includethe first and last page of that section, for example, of the book chapter.URL or webaddressIf you have accessed something from the Internet, you will need to include thefull web address for that information. You can copy and paste this from yourbrowser bar, into your reference. What do you do if publication details are not given?Occasionally, you will come across documents that lack basic details. In these cases it is necessary toindicate to the reader that these are not available. A series of abbreviations can be used and aregenerally accepted for this purpose. Missing publicationAbbreviationAuthor not givenuse [Anon.]no dateuse [n.d.]no place [sine loco]use [s.l.]no publisher [sine nomine]use [s.n.]not knownuse [n.k.] Examples of sources (citations and referencing) using the Harvard style1. Books (including eBooks)1.1 Printed booksDifferent types of books©ICTM Referencing Style Guide V01 March 2018 Page 6 of 11There are different types of printed book that you may want to reference in your assignment ordissertation. These can be broadly described as:i. books where all of the chapters are written by the same author (or authors); andii. books with an editor (or editors) – chapters are written by different authors.Looking at the front cover of the book will give you an indication of whether the book is an authoredbook (number i. above) or an edited book (number ii. above). It will state ‘Editor’ after the authorname(s). In addition, you will be able to see from the ‘Contents page’ of the (Edited’ book) that there aredifferent authors for each chapter.Citation order:• Author/editor• Year of publication (in round brackets)• Title (in italics)• Edition (only include the edition number if it is not the first edition)• Place of publication: publisherExamples1.1.1 Book with one authorJones, P. (2016). Internet Marketing. Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann.1.1.2 Book with two or more authorsKotler, P., Armstrong, G., Wong, V. & Saunders, T. (2015). Principles of Marketing, 15th edn. NewJersey: Prentice-Hall.1.1.3 Books with an EditorGroonroos, R. (2016). (Ed.). Services Marketing, 3rd edn. Oxford: Oxford University Press.1.1.4 Chapter(s)/sections of edited books (this is known as a ‘secondary reference’)Parker, R. (2015). ‘Management of the problem’. In: D. Butcher. (Ed.). The Definitive Guide toManagement. London: Butterworth-Heinemann, pp. 23-25.A secondary reference is when you refer to someone cited with another source, i.e. you have not readthe original work.1.2 eBooksThe content of an eBook is identical to the content of a print book with the same author, title, andpublication date; but includes details about when it was accessed and where from.Citation order:• author/s (surname/s, initials)• year (in round brackets)• title (in italics)• name of e-book collection in italics (e.g. Netlibrary)• [online]• Available at: URL (for e-Books)• (Accessed: date, month, year) (for e-Books)©ICTM Referencing Style Guide V01 March 2018 Page 7 of 11In-text citationsExamples (for both printed and eBooks)book with one authorAccording to Bell (2015: 23), the most important component of research is…book with two or three authorsGoldsmith and Barrett (2014: 114) suggested that…book with three or more authorsThis was supported by Young et al. (2015: 74)…. (N.B. et al. should be written in italics followed by afull-stop).et al. is from the Latin abbreviation for et (“and”) and alii (“others”). It should be used when youare citing the work of three or more authors (3>). Usually all authors are listed in the first citation andthen et al. thereafter. et al. should be written in italics and followed by a full-stop. In the list of referencesall authors should be listed regardless of the number.2 Journal articlesCitation order:• Author/editor• Year of publication (in round brackets)• Title of article• Title of journal (in italics)• Volume (in italics), issue, page numbers• Available at: URL or VLE (for e-journals)• (Accessed: date) (for e-journals)2.1 JournalsExampleHolt, D. (2016). Branding in the age of social media. Harvard Business Review, 94(3): 11- 23.2.2 E-journal articlesExampleHolt, D. (2016). Branding in the age of social media. Harvard Business Review [Online], 94(3): 11- 23.Available at: [Accessed: 21st August, 2018].3 Newspaper articlesCitation order:• Author/byline• Year of publication (in round brackets)• Title of article (in single quotation marks)• Title of newspaper (in italics – capitalise first letter of each word in title, except for linking wordssuch as and, of, the, for)• Edition if required (in round brackets)• Day of month©ICTM Referencing Style Guide V01 March 2018 Page 8 of 11• Page reference (for printed version)3.1 Printed newspaperExampleIn-text citationFinancial incentives were offered to scientists…. (Mansell & Bloom, 2015).Reference listMansell, W. & Bloom, A. (2015). ‘£10,000 carrot to tempt science experts’, The Guardian, 20 June, p. 5.3.2 Online version of a newspaper (without pagination)ExampleIn-text citationSouth Africa miners’ strike affects global economy (Roberts, 2016).Reference listRoberts, P. (2016). South African mining companies seek resolution with striking miners. Independent[Online], 10 May. Available athttp//[Accessed: 7 September, 2016].4 Conferences4.1 Full conference proceedingsCitation order:• Author/editor• Year of publication (in round brackets)• Title of conference: subtitle (in italics)• Location and date of conference• Place of publication: publisherExampleIn-text citationThe conference (Institute for Small Business Affairs, 2016)….Reference listInstitute for Small Business Affairs. (2016). Small firms: Adding the spark: The 23rd ISBA National smallfirm, policy and research conference. Robert Gordon University, Aberdeen, 15-17 November. Leeds:Institute for Small Business Affairs.4.2 Individual conference papersCitation order:• Author of paper• Year of publication (in round brackets)• Title of paper (in single quotation marks)• Title of conference: subtitle (in italics)• Place of publication: publisher• Page references for the paper©ICTM Referencing Style Guide V01 March 2018 Page 9 of 11ExampleIn-text citationCook (2016) highlighted examples….Reference listCook, P. (2016). ‘Developing franchised businesses in East London’, Small firms: Adding the spark:The 23rd ISBA national small firms, policy and research conference. Robert Gordon University,Aberdeen, 15-17 November. Leeds: Institute for Small Business Affairs, pp. 127-136.5 Materials from BREOCitation order:• Author or lecturer/speaker• Year of publication (in round brackets)• Title of lecture (in single quotation marks)• Module code: module title (in italics)• Available at: URL of VLE• (Accessed: date)ExampleIn-text citationAccording to Bradshaw (2016) research should be….Reference listBradshaw, R. (2016). Week 2. ‘Lecture on referencing and plagiarism’ [Online], HND BusinessProgramme Moodle site. Available at: [Accessed: 22 August, 2018].6 Lectures (i.e. lecture notes)Citation order:• Lecturer/speaker• Year (in round brackets)• Title of lecture/communication (in italics)• Module code: module title (in italics)• Institution• Day/monthExampleIn-text citationThe need for preparation (Smith, 2016)….Reference listSmith, V. (2016). Session 7: Research Project class notes. BUS 324: Research Methods for BusinessManagement. ICON College. 24 June, 2018.When constructing PowerPoint presentations make sure that you source materials correctly inthe actual slides. This includes material such as quotes, paraphrases, statistics, tables, and figures.©ICTM Referencing Style Guide V01 March 2018 Page 10 of 117 PowerPoint presentationCitation order:• Author• Year of publication (in round brackets)• Title of presentation (in single quotation marks)• [PowerPoint presentation]• Module code: module title (in italics)• Available at: URL of VLE• (Accessed: date)ExampleIn-text citationThe presentation (Davies, 2015)….Reference listDavies, L. (2015). ‘History of tourism in East London’ [PowerPoint presentation]. TOUR4004: Tourismdevelopment and evolution: An introduction to Tourism studies, Available at: 11 October, 2018).Top Ten Tips for referencing1. Be aware: use this ICON College Referencing Style Guide and check with your tutor.2. Be positive: used properly, references strengthen your writing, demonstrating that you havespent time researching and digesting material and produced your own opinions and arguments.3. Be decisive about the best way to cite your sources and how you balance your use of directquotations, paraphrasing and summarising.4. Be willing to ask for help: library or your tutor offer support with referencing and academic skills.5. Be organised: prepare well and keep a record of all potentially useful sources as you find them6. Be prepared: read this ICON College Referencing Style Guide before you begin writing yourassignment or dissertation.7. Be consistent: use the ICON College Referencing Style consistently throughout your work.8. Be patient: make time and take your time to ensure that your referencing is accurate.9. Be clear: clarify the type of source you are referencing and check ICON College ReferencingStyle Guide for examples.©ICTM Referencing Style Guide V01 March 2018 Page 11 of 1110. Be thorough: check through your work and your references before submitting your assignment,ensuring that your citations all match with a full reference and vice versa. Read it through tocheck several times!BibliographyLeeds Beckett University. (2014). Quote, Unquote: A Guide to Harvard Referencing, 2nd edn. Leeds:Leeds Beckett University.Pears, R. & Shields, G. (2013). Cite Them Right: The Essential Referencing Guide, 9th edn. London:Palgrave Macmillan.Williams, K. & Carroll, J. (2009). Referencing & Understanding Plagiarism. London: PalgraveMacmillan.


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