Data Analysis Qualitative Data Quantitative Data (Next Week) Select a topic Formulate a thesis statement, Objectives andresearch questions Research and write a literature review Choose research method and research instrument Choose the types of analyses Operationalize concepts construct instruments Formulate the data collection strategy Collect data Prepare the data for processing & analysis Process & analyze data Interpret & make inferences about data Write the research report Present the research reportTypes of Data Audio responses to an interview or focus group Written responses to an online or paperquestionnaires Diary entries, documents, observation notes etc. Much of this data is in Words/Text and Numbers ,or can be turned into Words/Text or Numbers . Qualitative data does not simply count things, butis a way of recording people’s attitudes, feelingsand behaviours in greater depth. Provides depth and detail : looks deeper thananalysing ranks and counts by recordingattitudes, feelings and behaviours Creates openness: encouraging people to expandon their responses can open up new topic areasnot initially considered Simulates people’s individual experiences: adetailed picture can be built up about why peopleact in certain ways and their feelings about theseactions Attempts to avoid pre-judgements: if usedalongside quantitative data collection, it canexplain why a particular response was given Usually fewer people studied: collection ofqualitative data is generally more time consumingthat quantitative data collection and thereforeunless time, staff and budget allows it is generallynecessary to include a smaller sample size. Less easy to generalise: because fewer people aregenerally studied it is not possible to generaliseresults to that of the population. Usually exactnumbers are reported rather than percentages. Difficult to make systematic comparisons: forexample, if people give widely differing responsesthat are highly subjective. Dependent on skills of the researcher: particularlyin the case of conducting interviews, focusgroups and observation.1. Transcription of notes – This is usually the firstaction after you have collected your data fromquestionnaires, interviews, observation etc2. Initial processing – This is usually done once youtranscribed you notes, it usually involved readingand re-reading your notes looking for categoriesand themes3. Return to observe or ask further questions –This is usually done after you have done someinitial processing, and can then be done at anytime during your study if and when required4. Summary sheets for each response – This isusually done after you have transcribed your notes,summaries can then be used as a memory joggerwhen your are looking for categories and themes,or if you need to return to observe or ask furtherquestions5. Identify categories relating to patterns or themesidentified – This is usually done after you haveidentified the core categories of your study, whichare found in your transcribed notes6. Coding – This is usually done after you haveidentified categories relating to the patterns orthemes identified.7. Discussion – This usually takes place after youhave done some analysis of your data, when youhave found out if any interesting patterns orthemes have emerged8. Conclusions – Conclusions sum up the analysisyour have done of your data and any interestingdiscussions9. Recommendations – Recommendations tend tocome at the end of you study, they may includespecific recommendations relating to the findingsof your study or may suggest where extra datacollection and analysis activities are required Data can be coded according to categories andsub-categories identified by reading and rereading the data collected. Descriptive coding Analytic or Theoretical coding Coding usually starts with a summary of the textyou are examining. This kind of coding is called descriptivecoding because it essentially forms a summarydescription of what is in the transcript or text.Analysis of data on the basis of Themes, Topics Ideas, Concepts Terms, Phrases Keywords Coded into categories and sub-categories canhelp to find patterns and themes Simple counts to see if patterns, themes andtrends can be grouped to see stronger themesand patterns according to frequency ofoccurrence Establish similarities and differences between thedata groups and looked at interrelationshipsbetween different parts of the data. Build a logical chain of evidence which now needsto be written up and presented. This will depend on what you have been studying,the type of methods used and the best way topresent your findings.
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