EPE510 – Assignment 1 Part 1: Design a Lesson focused on Assessing Prior Knowledge Demographic of Students and Lesson Description of Student Cohort (paragraph) The lesson plan has been designed for year level 7 of which the classroom strength is 22 students. Out of those 22 students, 12 are boys and 10 are girls. The classroom consists of students from various backgrounds and cultures. 10% of the strength is indigenous, 50% is from Asian continent and 40% of the students are Australian. Most of the students are average performers; a few students are high achievers and some of the students consume a lot of time to learn new things but show consistency in putting efforts in the classroom. Active participation has been seen in the classroom from then end of all the students.Year Level: 7Length of lesson in minutes:60 minutesTopic/Theme: Linear and non-linear relationshipsCurriculum Learning Area: MathematicsStrand: Math: Number and AlgebraContent Descriptor and Code: Solve simple linear equations (ACMNA179 – Scootle )General Capabilities: Numeracy, critical and creative thinking, and personal & social capabilityLearning Intention (objective) Students are learning to: Understanding the real-life implications of Linear equationsSolving simple linear equationsUnderstanding each side of the equation properly Success Criteria (assessment): Students will be able to understand both side of equations and be able to verify the solutions via substitute method.Students will also learn different type of methods and strategies to solve the simple linear equations.They will learn about Balance model to solve linear equations Lesson Sequence: Timings:Teacher Activity: Student Activity: Resources Required for Each Part of the Lesson 10% of lesson (0-10 minutes)The teacher will solve the basic numerical of linear equations on the board. Both sides of the equation need to be explained and observed by the students carefully to see the similarities. 5+8= 13 6-5 = 1 4+7 = 10+1 X = 4 2x = x + x 4x = 2x +x+ x = x + x + x + x Students will be asked to notice and pay attention to both the side of the equation. The main objective of observation is to understand the importance of LHS and RHS to be equal for obtaining the correct equation. 20% of lesson (10-20 minutes) This video clip will be played in the classroom for enhancing the understanding of the topic to the students. It will give a basic introduction about solving linear equations and they will also learn about the basic terms associated with the topic. The teacher will describe all the terms associated with the topic and provide examples related to it Students will be asked to recall their fundamentals of mathematics like subtraction, addition, multiplication, and division for the use of solving the linear equations. -Equation: A statement expressing that the right-hand side of the equation is equal to the left-hand side. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_B3XdXYutpk I will show this image and ask the students that what does this weighing scale represent? students must watch the video with full attention and should gain understanding from it. Students can then ask questions and clear their doubts about the linear equations. Students are required to observe the image properly and tell the teacher about what this weighing scale indicates. They must focus that the scale is not balanced, and left-hand side is not equal to the right-hand side. Hence, this is not balanced 50% of lesson Pre- Activity (20-30 minutes) Activity 1. (30-45 minutes) I will solve a liner equation on the white board and will explain each step of it to the students with all the reasoning. Students can raise their hands and ask questions if they are unable to get the method of solving the equation. Now I will divide all the students in the group of 2 and provide each of them with a worksheet consisting of 2 questions. Everybody is required to solve the question on their own and then they must check their solutions with the paired student. Question 1. Find the value of X in the given equation. 3x + 4 = 10; x =? Question 2. Find the value of P in the given equation. 2P – 4 = 6; P =? During the activity I will follow how the students are doing their task and will ask them if they need any assistance or guidance in doing the task. I will then show the appropriate answers of the given question on the white board so that students can check if their solutions are correct or not. Answer 1. X = (10 – 4)/3; X = 2 Answer 2. P = (6 + 4)/2; P = 5 I will check weather all the students got their answers correct or not and will help those students who did not got their answers correct. Students are required to focus on how the equation is being solved, they must follow each step of it. Students need to make their pairs with other student sitting next to them and they need to solve the give worksheet. They can use calculator if they want for basic calculations. Students can ask for help by raising their hands whenever they want, they will be assisted anytime. Students will need to check their answers from white board and let the teacher know if they got it right or wrong in their worksheets. 20% of lessonConclusion/Summary (End) (45-60 minutes) Feedback RESOURCESI will conclude the lesson by including 6 questions of true and false. They will solve them on worksheet. Once the student is done doing the, i will write the answers on the white board. At last I will ask the students for their feedback on the topic and if they have any doubts or questions regarding it. Following resources were used for this lesson plan: – White board Writing material Internet Calculator Worksheets Projector Student will solve the true and false on the worksheet and they can use calculator for solving them. Students will share feedback of their understanding and thoughts on the topic to the teacher. Reflection/Notes: How do you know if the lesson went well? Content: These activities will help students learn the meaning of linear equations and they will also learn how to solve linear equations. Class layout: the group activity in the classroom will help the students gain better understanding of the topic, there will be 2 students in a group. Working in a team will enhance their collaboration skills. Students involvement: students will be asked to raise hands if they are unable to understand the solution of the equations and they will be participating in classroom by doing worksheets in a group. Assessment task: educator will give assessment activity to the students for evaluating the performance of the class. Students will be assessed by their performance in Activity 1. worksheet and the true and false worksheets. These assessments will help them match their success criteria. Part 2: Justification of Design Choices A: Context and Introduction From year 7 content descriptor of Australian curriculum, I have chosen the lesson of linear equation. In linear equation one or multiple variable are used, and variables are dependent on one another. In my perception, linear equations help learner in their daily lives as almost in every situation where quantity is not known and can be demonstrated by linear equation, like calculating income over a period, while estimating profit or calculating mileage rate. Peter was working for McDonalds and KFC and he was earning $360 in a week all together. Pay rate of KFC was twice of McDonalds. what was his pay rate in McDonalds? With the help of linear equation, we can assume pay rate of McDonald is x and pay rate of KFC is 2x and from both companies he is earning $360. To find pay rate equation would be x+2x=360; and the value of x will be 30. So, his pay rate in McDonalds is 30$ per hour. Hence, linear equation is used every day, whether people calculate with the help of any graph, figure or in their mind. Comprehension of linear equations is essential for learner as it helps in their daily life and strength their mathematical and reasoning skills. I designed the lesson plan based on the theory of realism and the psychological implication of cognitivism. Theory of realism states that to enable students to understand realities teacher should teach topics by making connection with the real life. Theory of cognitivism involves that learning is actively formulated by learners and is informed and learning must be constructed with the help of learner’s previous experience (O’ Donell, 2012) cited in (Duchesne & Mc Maugh, 2016). Aligning with theory, I also started the lesson by asking learners to recall their basic arithmetic skills like addition, multiplication, subtraction and division to solve basic arithmetic skills. Furthermore, as per cognitivist believe that learning is constructed with the active participation of learners, I will show them a you tube video to arouse their interest. You tube video will help to attain the attentions of students, so that they can actively participate in classroom. B: Learning Activity Design Choices I have planned my classroom in a powerful and productive way. Initially I will introduce the name of the topic to the students on the whiteboard. students will make the use of basic arithmetic principles of addition, subtraction and multiplication. In addition to that an interesting video will be shown on the linear equations for better understanding of the students and to gain their interests. I will advise them to watch the video carefully to recollect their basic arithmetic skills. I will solve a linear equation on whiteboard explaining each step involved. Students will be divided in a group of two to solve 2 equations on their own and check their answers from each other. This will help me give an idea of what the student is able to make out from the topic. In order to reinforce their learning, I will give ample amount of time to ask their queries and questions and will clarify their doubts and answer their queries in a delightful manner. I will observe them while solving the given equations and assist them if they need. After giving them reasonable time to solve their sums, I will solve the problem myself on the whiteboard so that they can match their answers. I will approach each student to check their worksheets and answers and identify the students with problem in solving the sum for clarification. At last students will be doing another small worksheet of true and false so that the concept will be clearer, and the success criteria could be achieved. A feedback from students will help them gain more confidence in the topic. C. Design of learning activities: Teachers use the backward designing approach which is procedure of using learning objectives of the course to create any activity material and content. The model asserts that teacher would understand learning goals and how to analyze students’ capabilities before starting any concept. Due to that, as compared to traditional design, backward design is more useful (Wiggins & McTighe 1998). Basically, backward design process has three steps. In my lesson plan, I followed the same pattern: Bloom’s Taxonomy: My lesson plan is structured according to the Bloom’s taxonomy as well. My lesson plan is completely aligned with this theory. There are six stages in Bloom’s taxonomy: remember, understand, apply, analyze, evaluate and create (LW Anderson, LA Sosniak-1994). As in the first stage students recall the basic arithmetic concepts such as addition and subtraction as these are bases of linear equation. In the next stage, with the help of video and teacher elaboration they will understand the concept of how to solve the linear equation and make left hand side equal to right hand side. Following the stage, students will apply their knowledge and with the teacher assistance will try to solve the give n equations. Then students will be analyzed based on their response which will help teacher to evaluate if the student grasp the concept and have successfully linked their previous knowledge while getting new one. In the end, students will play true false quiz based on their understanding and teacher will provide feedback (Christine Persaud, 2018). In last students will create new knowledge based on what they acquired in the class. D: choice in the design of learning activities Assessment helps teachers to evaluate the performance of students and even with the help of assessments students can analyze their own performance. With the help of assignment teacher can evaluate whether the pedagogy is helpful for learners or not. Assessments is done on basis of three elements: assess, diagnose and remedy. Before designing any pedagogy, teacher must consider the capabilities of all students only then teacher can be successful in meeting with the goal of education system. Well-structured methods of assessment provide deep understanding of learning. With the help of assessment teacher can know what learner already know, what they need to know, where are they lagging. In Australian curriculum, ICT resources has been intractably woven along with other resources to use in the classroom. In my lesson plan, along with other traditional resources such as whiteboard, worksheet, I incorporated ICT resources also to design the assessment. Some assessments which I used is you tube video, whiteboard and worksheets. Through these I will ask questions from students and inform them about their performance through worksheet. Students will feel excited while performing the activity. There are three different approaches which help to analyze the students’ performance (Duchesne & McMaugh, 2018). They have been described below: Assessment of learning: These kinds of assessments are summative which includes test, quiz, essays and other techniques by which teacher give grade to students based on their performance. They are generally accumulative and often taken at the end of unit or course. Within any specific time period or course teachers use these assessments to calculate the grades of student. Assessment for learning: it generally addresses the formative kind of assessments by which students get feedback or input based on their performance. With the help of these assessments’ teachers come to know the confusions and problems that student is facing, and they try to fill those gaps. Eventually through it, teacher can know if any student has specific need in learning and according to that they design their pedagogies. During school hours teacher can either provide face to face feedback, through email or by giving comments on their written work (Earl & Katz, 2006).Assessment as learning: with it, students can evaluate themselves or their knowledge which is also known as metacognition. By evaluating their self -knowledge learner can become curious learners and independent thinkers. Teacher needs to establish such an environment where learners are ready to accept any challenge and they feel free to take help of teacher wherever needed. E: Learning Activity Design Reflection The process of reflection involves the connection between a new knowledge and the previous knowledge which symbolises to the process of something that what we learnt from any situation, experienced outside the classroom (Costa & Kallick, 2008). Reflection of teaching means that teacher pays concentration on what she has done in the classroom, for example why she has designed the particular activity; to what extent it was helpful for learners. In fact, reflective teaching helps teacher in their professional growth. Teacher reflect is essential for any teacher as it helps teacher to make record and evaluate of everything happened classroom. With the self -reflection teacher evaluates his or her techniques and look that what initiative he should take to make improvement in learning. I have designed my lesson plan in a way that can make my teaching more reflective Firstly, I ensure that I must engage learner into the learning and putting my whole efforts to create an active classroom environment. This will help teacher to build a sense of care and belongingness between students and teacher. Which eventually will help teacher to know students better. Secondly, my classroom environment will be built on principle of motivation which is keystone for strong foundation of learning. Even this helps learner to participate more in class. Thirdly, my principle of teaching is to support peer teaching support and group teaching as through discussion teachers can learn from each other as well. Eventually, I will try to build amicable environment to support teaching learning process within classroom. F: Reference: Costa, A., & Kallick, B. (2008). Learning Through Reflection. Retrieved 9 June 2020, from http://www.ascd.org/publications/books/108008/chapters/Learning-Through-Reflection.aspx Duchesne, S., & McMaugh, A. (2018). Educational Psychology for Learning and Teaching. In S. Duchesne, & A. McMaugh, Educational Psychology for Learning and Teaching (p. 9-15,576). Earl, L., & Katz, S. (2006). Three Purposes of Assessment. Retrieved from https://www.edu.gov.mb.ca/k12/assess/wncp/section2.pdf Overbaugh, R. C., & Schultz, L. (1994). Bloom’s taxonomy. Sue Duchesne, A. M. (2016). Educational psychology for learning and teaching; 5th edition. Cengage Learning Australia. Persaud, C. (2018). Bloom’s Taxonomy | The Ultimate Guide To Bloom’s | Top Hat. Retrieved 9 June 2020, from https://tophat.com/blog/blooms-taxonomy-ultimate-guide/ Wiggins, G., & McTighe, J. (2008). Understanding by design. Alexandria, Va.: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.

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