Formulate a thesis statement | My Assignment Tutor

 Select a topic Formulate a thesis statement, Objectives andresearch questions Research and write a literature review Choose research method and research instrumentChoose the types of analyses Operationalize concepts construct instruments Formulate the data collection strategy Collect data Prepare the data for processing & analysis Process & analyze data Interpret & make inferences about data Write the research report Present the research report A Research Instrument is a tool used to collect,measure, and analyze data related to yourresearch interests. These tools are most commonly used in healthsciences, social sciences, and education to assesspatients, clients, students, teachers, staff, etc. Interviews Surveys Checklists Tests Must gather data suitable for and relevant to theresearch topic Able to test hypothesis and/or answer proposedresearch questions under investigation Free of bias and appropriate for the context,culture, and diversity of the study site Contains clear and definite instructions to use theinstrument Valid and reliable Based on a conceptual framework, or theresearcher’s understanding of how the particularvariables in the study connect with each otherInterviews Interviews or the interaction where verbal questions areposed by an interviewer to elicit verbal responses froman interviewee. Structured Interview: A formal set of questions posed toeach interviewee and recorded using a standardizedprocedure. Unstructured Interview: A less formal set of questions;the interviewer modifies the sequence and wording ofquestions.Observation Observation (watching what people do) is a type ofcorrelational (non-experimental) method whereresearchers observe ongoing behavior. Structured Observations: Research conducted at aspecific place, time, where participants are observed ina standardised procedure. Rather than writing a detailed description of allbehaviors observed, researchers code observedbehaviors according to a previously agreed upon scale. Surveys can take many forms. A survey of theentire population would be known as a census. Usually surveys are restricted to a representativesample of the potential group that the researcheris interested in, Why Representative Sample? Practicality and cost-effectiveness. Surveys that are carried out at a just one point intime are known as a cross-sectional in design. A longitudinal survey rather than taking a snapshot, paints a picture of events or attitudes overtime. This may be a matter of months or years. There may be only two discrete surveys or theremay be many repeated waves over a long periodof time.Longitudinal surveys usually take one of two forms: Cohort surveys – which follow the same group ofindividuals over time, or · Trend surveys – which take repeated samples ofdifferent people each time but always use thesame core questions.Questionnaire is a form of survey. What makes a questionnaire a good questionnaire? What steps should be taken into account to designa questionnaire? Validity in data collection means that yourfindings truly represent the phenomenon you areclaiming to measure. INTERNAL VALIDITY is affected by flaws within thestudy itself such as not controlling some of themajor variables (a design problem), or problemswith the research instrument (a data collectionproblem). EXTERNAL VALIDITY is the extent to which youcan generalize your findings to a larger group orother contexts. If your research lacks external validity, thefindings cannot be applied to contexts other thanthe one in which you carried out your research. Inter-Observer ReliabilityUsed to assess the degree to which differentraters/observers agree when measuring the samephenomenon simultaneously. Test-Retest ReliabilityCompares results from an initial test withrepeated measures later on, the assumptionbeing that the if instrument is reliable there willbe close agreement over repeated tests if thevariables being measured remain unchanged.Parallel-Forms or Alternate-Forms ReliabilityUsed to assess the consistency of the results oftwo similar types of test used to measure thesame variable at the same time Population Sample To obtain a random (or probability) sample, thefirst step is to define the population from which itis it be drawn. This population is known as thesampling frame or population size. To be a ‘random’ sample, every individual in thepopulation must have an equal probability ofbeing selected. Quota sampling is a technique for samplingwhereby the researcher decides in advance oncertain key characteristics which s/he will use tostratify the sample. Interviewers are often setsample quotas in terms of age and sex. So, forexample, with a sample of 200 people, they maydecide that 50% should be male and 50% shouldbe female; and 40% should be aged over 40 yearsand 60% aged 39 years or less. Visit the website to use the calculator to calculatethe sample size


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