collect qualitative data and research | My Assignment Tutor

•Definition of qualitative research.•Qualitative research methods and application.•Definition of quantitative research.•Quantitative research methods and application.•Activities:•Brainstorm activity – how to collect qualitative data andresearch.•Students investigate qualitative research methods.•Small group activity – present methods and highlightbenefits and limitations for each method.•Brainstorm activity – how to collect quantitative data andresearch.•Students investigate quantitative research methods.•Small group activity – present methods and highlightbenefits and limitations for each method.•Students discuss and review case study examples.Qualitative / Quantitative research methods and application  A primary source is an original (direct or first-hand information,evidence, object, document). It is a material produced in the time that you may be investigating. A secondary source is something written about a primary source. Usuallythe author of a secondary source will have studied the primary sourcessuch as an historical period or event and will then interpret the“evidence” found in these sources. The internet is taking over the traditional libraryComputing Research Project3 1PrimaryDefinition• Original document, experiment,artefact during the researchCharacteristics• First-hand, observation, viewpointof the timeExamples• Interviews, reports, news, diariesSecondaryDefinition• Works that analyse, assess orinterpret which utilised a primarysourcesCharacteristics• Interpretation of information, areview or critiques of an event orexperimentExamples• Journals articles, literary criticism,book reviews, textbooksComputing Research Project4PrimaryAdvantages• Ability to control how the data is collected• Ability to specify the data to be collected• More dynamic with your data collectedbased on previously recorded data entriesDisadvantages• You need to get it yourself – this can taketime• The amount of data could be smallcompared to a secondary sourceSecondaryAdvantages• can get a large range of data• can get data from a range ofproviders/source• can get data immediately if it has alreadybeen collected• some analysis may have already beencarried out on the dataDisadvantages• may not be able to tell if it is biased• you cannot be sure if the data is accurate• you may not have all the facts about how itwas collected which means it might not besuitable for your needComputing Research Project5 Ask yourself some questions: How does the author know these details? Was the author present at the event or soon on the scene? Where does this information come from—personal experience,eyewitness accounts, or reports written by others? Are the author’s conclusions based on a single piece of evidence, orhave many sources been taken into account?Computing Research Project6 Read sources critically. Ask questions about the credentials and reputation of the author andthe place of publication. What do you learn about the writer’s purpose and the audiencewhom the author is addressing? Ask questions about the ideas you read: an easy way to do this is towrite your annotations in the margins, and/or if you get a sense ofdoubt, make a note of what troubles you. Be on the lookout for assumptions that may be faulty. If you arereading an article on home-schooling and the writer favors homeschooling because it avoids subjecting students to violence inschools, the unstated assumption is that all schools are violent places.Computing Research Project7 Make sure the writer’s evidence is adequate and accurate.For example, if the writer is making a generalisation aboutall Chinese students based on a study of only three, you havecause to challenge the generalisation as resting oninadequate evidence. Note how the writer uses language. Which terms does thewriter use with positive—or negative—connotations,signalling the values the writer holds? Does the writerflamboyantly denigrate and dismiss the views of others withsuch phrases as “a ridiculous notion” or “laughably ineptpolicies?” Be alert for sweeping generalisations, bias, and prejudice:“Women want to stay home and have children.” “Men loveto spend Sundays watching sports.”Computing Research Project8 Scholarly articles are not usually found in magazines in adentist’s office. Scholarly articles are peer reviewed—that is, other scholarsread all the articles and approve them for publication. These articles have section headings, abstracts, and“summary” and/or “conclusion” headings. They determinethe author’s main idea. They refer to works of other scholars (Reference Page, intext citations, author credentials, notes, in depth analysis,uses academic or technical language for informed readers,appears in journals that don’t include colourfuladvertisements, etc.Computing Research Project9Computing Research Project10 1Computing Research Project11 Primary sources may include historical, legal, object, documents, eyewitness accounts,results of experiments, statistical data, pieces of creative writing, audio and videorecordings, speeches, and art objects It can be classified based on subject to be studiedComputing Research Project12 SourcesHumanitiesSciencesPrimary• Original, first-hand account of anevent or time period• Usually written or made during orclose to the event or time period• Original, creative writing or worksof art• Factual, not interpretive• Report of scientific discoveries• Results of experiments• Results of clinical trials• Social and political science researchresults• Factual, not interpretiveSecondary• Analyses and interprets primarysources• Second-hand account of anhistorical event• Interprets creative work• Analyses and interprets researchresults• Analyses and interprets scientificdiscoveries Computing Research Project13 Advantages Primary sources provide a window into the past—unfiltered access tothe record of artistic, social, scientific and political thought andachievement during the specific period under study, produced bypeople who lived during that period these unique, often profoundly personal, documents and objects cangive a very real sense of what it was like to be alive during a longpast era. Disadvantages Questions of creator bias, purpose, and point of view may challengestudents’ assumptions. Primary sources are often incomplete and have little context.Students must use prior knowledge and work with multiple primarysources to find patterns In analyzing primary sources, students move from concreteobservations and facts to questioning and making inferences aboutthe materials.Computing Research Project14 Advantages Secondary sources can provide analysis, synthesis, interpretation, orevaluation of the original information. Secondary sources are best for uncovering background or historicalinformation about a topic and broadening your understanding of atopic by exposing you to others’ perspectives, interpretations, andconclusions Allows the reader to get expert views of events and often bringtogether multiple primary sources relevant to the subject matter Disadvantages Their reliability and validity are open to question, and often they donot provide exact information They do not represent first hand knowledge of a subject or event There are countless books, journals, magazine articles and web pagesthat attempt to interpret the past and finding good secondary sourcescan be an issueComputing Research Project15  Qualitative research is a methodology which focuses on howpeople feel; what they think and why they make certainchoices. it’s a research method which is semi-structured in its output,ensuring that the discussion – either one-on-one or within afocus group – stays on track and relevant to provide theinsight you are looking for. Qualitative research is exploratory and seeks to explain ‘how’ and ‘why’a particular phenomenon operates it often investigates Qualitative research often investigates i) local knowledge and understanding of a given issue or programme; ii) people’s experiences, meanings and relationships and iii) social processes and contextual factors (e.g., social norms and culturalpractices) that marginalise a group of people or impact a programme. Qualitative data is non-numerical, covering images, videos, text andpeople’s written or spoken words. Qualitative data is often gatheredthrough individual interviews and focus group discussions using semistructured or unstructured topic guides.Computing Research Project17 Quantitative market research tends to be more structuredthan qualitative research methods due to its statistical nature Quantitative research typically explores specific and clearly definedquestions that examine the relationship between two events, oroccurrences, where the second event is a consequence of the firstevent.Such a question might be: ‘what impact did the programme have onchildren’s school performance?’ To test the causality or link between theprogramme and children’s school performance, quantitative researchers will seek to maintain a level of control of thedifferent variables that may influence the relationship between eventsand recruit respondents randomly. Quantitative data is often gathered through surveys andquestionnaires that are carefully developed and structured to provideyou with numerical data that can be explored statistically and yield aresult that can be generalised to some larger populationComputing Research Project18 1Computing Research Project19Computing Research Project20 QualitativeQuantitativeOverview:• Deals with descriptions• Based on meaning expressed throughwords• Data can be observed but notmeasured (Colours, textures smells,tastes, appearance, beauty, etc..)• Collection results in non-standardiseddata requiring classification intocategories• Analysis conducted through the use ofconceptualisation• QualitativeOverview• Deals with numbers• Based on meanings derived fromnumbers• Data which can be measured (length,height, area, volume, weight, cost,ages, temperature, etc..)• Collection result in numerical andstandardised data• Analysis conducted through the use ofdiagrams and statistics• Quantitative The Water Paint• Blue green colour, gold frame• Smells old and musty• Texture shows brush strokes of oil paint• Peaceful scene of country• Masterful brush strokesThe Water Paint• Picture is 22 by 38 cm• With frame 28 by 44 cm• Weighs 2.4 Kg• Surface area of painting is 836 cm2• Cost £412.00Lets try thisComputing Research Project21  The Coffee 16 ounces of coffeeRobust aromaTemperature is 67 oCColumbian fair-trade organicCost £2.55White cup and white lid2 teaspoon sugarI like the taste, even though it’s a little strongCup is 6 cm tallI’d recommend this coffee to a friendMethod used to collect data• Surveys• Laboratory experiment• Simulation• Mathematical modelling• Structured equation modelling• Statistical analysis• Econometrics• Action study research• Case study research• Ethnography• Grounded theory• Semiotics• Discourse analysis• Hermeneutics• Narrative and metaphor Computing Research Project22Computing Research Project23Computing Research Project24 Secondary sourcesComputing Research Project25 DataQualitativeQuantitativeAnalysisQualitativeUnderstanding contextand goalsFinding meaning in the resultsof quantitative analysisQuantitativeDeveloping andadministering surveyand/or interviewsStatistical and mathematicalanalysis of results Computing Research Project26SeminarBrainstorm activity – how to collect qualitative data and research.Students investigate qualitative research methods.Small group activity – present methods and highlight benefits and limitations for each method.Brainstorm activity – how to collect quantitative data and research.Students investigate quantitative research methods.Small group activity –present methods and highlight benefits and limitations for each method.Students discuss and review case study examples.TEAM: Together Everybody Achieves MoreBooksCornford, T. (2005) Project Research in Information Systems: A Student’s Guide. Paperback. Macmillan.Costley, C., Elliot, G. and Gibbs, P. (2010) Doing Work Based Research: Approaches to Enquiry for Insiderresearchers. London: SAGE.Fink, A. (2009) Conducting Research Literature Reviews: From the Internet to Paper. 3rd Ed. Sage Inc.Flick, U. (2011) Introducing Research Methodology: A Beginner’s Guide to Doing a Research Project.London: SAGE.Gray, D. (2009) Doing Research in the Real World. 2nd Ed. London: SAGE.Saunders, M, Lewis, P and Thornhill, A. (2012) Research methods for Business Students. 6th Ed. Harlow:Pearson.Wellington, J. (2000) Educational Research: Contemporary Issues and Practical Approaches. ContinuumInternational Publishing Group Ltd.Foss, S. 2015. “Developing your itinerary: the preproposal”. Destination dissertation: a traveller’s guide to adone dissertation. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield. 35-76.JournalsInternational Journal of Quantitative and Qualitative ResearchQualitative Research Research Project28, Melanie. “Elementary Lessons for Primary and Secondary Sources.”Digital Wish. Digital Wish, n.d. Web. 19 Nov. 2014..“Primary vs. Secondary Sources.” – Twin Cities Library, Saint Mary’s University ofMinnesota. Saint Mary’s University, 2014. Web. 19 Nov. 2014..“Why Use Primary Sources?” The Library of Congress. Library of Congress, n.d.Web. 18 Nov. 2014..Saint Mary’s University of MINNESOTA, Primary vs. Secondary Sources of congress,Why Use Primary Sources? Research Project29


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