Foundation of Organizational Culture | My Assignment Tutor

1Schein’s Model ofOrganizational CultureLecture 9•Foundation of Organizational Culture•Layers of Organizational Culture•Four Functions of Organizational Culture•Types of Organizational Culture•Outcomes Associated with Organizational Culture•How Cultures are Embedded in Organizations•Embedding Organizational Culture ThroughSocialization Processes and Mentoring.•A Three-Phase Model of Organizational Socialization•Practical Application of Socialization Research•Attitudes•Using Mentoring to Your Advantage2-1aChapter Two Outline2Organizational Culture Is“The set of shared, taken-for-granted implicitassumptions that a group holds and thatdetermines how it perceives, thinks about, andreacts to its various environments.”– Edgar ScheinConceptual Framework forUnderstandingOrganizational CultureFigure 2-1 (p41) shows the building blocks oforganizational culture and its outcomes3The Layers of Organizational CultureSource: Adapted from E H Schein, Organizational Culture andLeadership, 2nd ed (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1992), p 17.ObservableArtifactsEspousedValuesBasicUnderlyingAssumptionsArtifacts & Behaviorsi.e., Relaxed, creative atmosphereValuesi.e., Value for innovationBasic Assumptionsi.e., Change is goodi.e., bonuses for new ideasi.e., suggestion boxesi.e., Value adaptabilityLikelayers ofan Onion4 Organizationalculture Sense-makingdeviceOrganizationalidentitySocial systemstabilityCollectivecommitmentFour Functions of Organizational CultureConstructive Self-actualizing Value self-developmentand creativityType of NormativeCulture Belief CharacteristicsConstructive Achievement Goal and achievement orientedConstructive Humanistic-Participative, employeeencouraging centered, and supportiveAffiliativeHigh priority on constructiveinterpersonal relationships, Constructive and focus on work groupsatisfactionTypes of Organizational Culture5Passive- Conventional Conservative, bureaucratic, andDefensive people follow the rules Type ofNormativeCulture Belief CharacteristicsPassive-DefensiveApprovalAvoid conflict, strive to be likedby others, and approval oriented Passive- Dependent Nonparticipative, centralizedDefensive decision making, and employeesdo what they are toldPassive- Avoidance Negative reward system andDefensive avoid accountabilityTypes of Organizational Culture (cont)Aggressive- Power Nonparticipative, take charge ofDefensive subordinates and responsive tosuperiorsType of NormativeCulture Belief CharacteristicsAggressive- Oppositional Confrontation and negativismDefensive rewardedAggressive- Competitive Winning is valued and a winDefensive lose approach is used.Aggressive- Perfectionistic Perfectionistic, persistent, andDefensive hard-workingTypes of Organizational Culture (cont)6• Formal statements of organizationalphilosophy, mission, vision, values, andmaterials used for recruiting, selectionand socialization• The design of physical space, workenvironments, and buildings• Slogans, language, acronyms, and sayings• Deliberate role modeling, training programs,teaching and coaching by managers andsupervisors• Explicit rewards, status symbols (e.g., titles),and promotion criteria• Stories, legends, and myths about key peopleand eventsEmbedding Organizational CultureEmbedding Organizational Culture(cont)• The organizational activities, processes, oroutcomes that leaders pay attention to,measure, and control• Leader reactions to critical incidents andorganizational crises• The workflow and organizational structure• Organizational systems and procedures• Organizational goals and the associatedcriteria used for recruitment, selection,development, promotion, layoffs, andretirement of people7A Model of Organizational Socialization1. AnticipatorysocializationLearning that occursprior to joining theorganizationPhases• Anticipating realitiesabout the organizationand the new job• Anticipating organization’sneed for one’s skillsand abilities• Anticipating organization’ssensitivity to one’s needsand valuesPerceptual and SocialProcessesA Model of Organizational Socialization(cont.)2. EncounterValues, skills andattitudes start to shiftas new recruitdiscovers what theorganization is trulylikePhases• Managing lifestyleversus-work conflicts• Managing intergrouprole conflicts• Seeking role definitionand clarity• Becoming familiarwith task and groupdynamicsPerceptual and SocialProcesses8A Model of Organizational Socialization(cont.)3. Change and acquisitionRecruit masters skills androles and adjusts to workgroup’s values and normsPhases• Competing role demandsare resolved• Critical tasks aremastered• Group norms and valuesare internalizedPerceptual and SocialProcessesA Model of Organizational Socialization (continued)Phases 1. Anticipatory socialization2. Encounter3. Change and acquisition OutsiderSocializedInsiderBehavioral Outcomes• Performs role assignments• Remains with organization• Spontaneously innovatesand cooperatesAffective Outcomes• Generally satisfied• Internally motivated towork• High job involvement9Have you Been Adequately Socialized?• What is a new student’s role in the socializationprocess?• Does your school adequately socializeemployees?• How do high levels of socialization impact anew student’s satisfaction? Explain.• Have you been adequately socialized inthis College?MentoringFunctions of Mentoring• Career Functions– Sponsorship– Exposure and visibility– Coaching– Protection– Challenging assignments• Psychosocial Functions– Role modeling– Acceptance and confirmation– Counseling– FriendshipThe process of forming and maintaining intensive andlasting developmental relationships between a varietyof developers (i.e., people who provide career and psychosocialsupport) and a junior person (the protégé, if male; orprotégée if female).10Developmental Networks Associated withMentoringSource: M Higgins and K Kram, “Reconceptualizing Mentoring atWork: A Developmental Network Perspective,” Academy ofManagement Review, April 2001, p. 270Developmental relationship diversityLowrangeHighrangeWeak ties Strong tiesDevelopmental relationship strength •D2D1••PReceptive•D2D1••PTraditionalD1•D3••D2•D4Opportunistic•PD1•D3••D2•D4Entrepreneurial•P Key: D, developer; P, protégé.Building an EffectiveMentoring Network Become the perfect protégé Engage in 360-degree networking Commit to assessing, building, and adjusting the mentornetwork Develop diverse, synergistic connections Realize that change is inevitable11Adapted from:…/BA%20361D%20lecture%20%20ch2.ppt


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