impact on organisational behaviour | My Assignment Tutor

Factors That Impact How YourEmployees Respond to Change 15/10/20181Understanding and leading changeLecture: 04, LO: 02Change and the impact on organisationalbehaviourPsychological impact of change onpeople: Positive The efficiency and productivity of the organization are increased, Facilitating the achievement of the organization’s goals and mission. Individual and group morale are improved and there is an overall sense ofcohesion and well-being.15/10/201823IBUS 681, Dr. YangPsychological impact of change onpeople: Negative Fear of being unemployed Fear of emotion and thus reduced pay Fear of reduced work hours and consequently less pay Security Status quo Peer pressure Disruption of interpersonal relations Social displacementEffects of negative reactions Disrupt the structure and function of the organization Creates a general sense of anxiety and stress that may escalate to anger andfrustration Resistance is understood as a psychological attempt to lessen the intensity ofdysphoria Eventually, growing sense of withdrawal and isolation within the group Suspiciousness also occurs within the organization. The motives for change may be questioned or misinterpreted, resulting in adistrust of leadership and the appearance of “conspiracy theories”15/10/20183Effects of negative reactions Increase the level of collective unease. Organizational dynamics are disrupted and lead to the emergence ofcompeting factions that attempt to mitigate change or position themselvesfavourably vis-à-vis the organizational leadership. The resulting power struggles further erode confidence in leadership andincrease the anxiety level within the group. As this process escalates, there is an unwillingness to work together whichoften leads to loss of key personnel. When these negative effects go unchecked, a gradual but progressivestagnation and disintegration of the organization occurs.Factors That Impact How Your EmployeesRespond to Change Control: The amount of input and influence the employee has around the change,goals, processes, and outcomes. In other words, the more control an employee hasin any situation, the more change, challenge, and uncertainty they can handlewithout becoming stressed out. Predictability: The degree of clarity around what will happen and when it willhappen; and the ability to connect cause and effect. knowing what will happencreates the feeling of control, as opposed to the helplessness of not knowing whatis going to happen. Clarity: The degree of clarity around organizational and departmental goals,possible scenarios, current state of affairs, how the changes will affect theemployee, the mechanics of the change, and how the employee’s performancecontributes to business goals. Understanding: How well employees understand the reasoning behind the change;i.e. the “Why.”15/10/20184  Meaning: How employees explain to themselves what the change means in termsof their leaders’ character, and their leaders’ attitudes toward employees. Time Frame: The time lapse between when change is announced and when ittakes place, as well as the amount of time employees have to adjust to thechange. The less time people have to prepare themselves for change, whethertactically or emotionally, the more stressed out they will become. Degree of Change Previously Experienced: The amount of stability and securityemployees have previously experienced and come to expect; and conversely, theamount of change they’ve had to adapt to already in the recent past. Organizational Climate: The overall mood and emotional ambience of theorganization, and the degree of goodwill between employees and management. Factors That Impact How YourEmployees Respond to Change  Relationship with Supervisor: The level of trust, respect, and goodwill theemployee feels toward their supervisor, and how open they feel they can be withtheir supervisor. Organizational Relationships: Good relationships mitigate stress and its effects.Because relationships play such an important role in resilience, the stronger therelationships in the organization, the more resilient the workforce. Personal Relationships: The quality of the employee’s family and social network,and the amount of support one can count on from their network. An employee’spersonal relationships can have either a net positive or net negative effect onstress level. The Ability/Opportunity to “Work Through” One’s Response: Employees’ ability todiscuss his or her thoughts and feelings about the change to the point where theycan “move on” to the next step.15/10/20185 Factors That Impact How YourEmployees Respond to Change  Current Stress Load: How much stress an employee is currently experiencingfrom work and his or her personal life. If their current stress load is alreadyhigh, their capacity for handling more challenge will be less than a personwith a lower stress load. Self-Efficacy: The employee’s perception of how adequate his or her skill setwill be in meeting the challenges and new requirements brought about by thechange. The greater a person’s self-efficacy, the more they have a “Bring iton; I can handle it!” response to change. Resilience: The employee’s overall capacity for dealing with stress, pressure,and change. With greater resilience comes an increased ability to handlechange, challenge, and uncertainty. Source: by NN 10Areas for Change: PeopleHuman resources is the vehicle for changingknowledge, skills, perceptions & behavioursneeded for a job. It utilises: Recruitment & selection Training Performance appraisal Reward systems.15/10/20186Compiled by NN 11Change Management ProcessRecognition of opportunityor problemLine up powerful sponsorsDevelop and communicatea visionEmpower others toact out the visionPrepare to overcome resistancePlan for & reward visible progressConsolidate improvements &facilitate further changeMonitor & institutionalise changeReading 8.4 covers detailed information on change management process.Managing Change:Managing Resistance To ChangeWhy do employees resist change? Self-interest: not fear change but fear loss (what are losses?) Security Competence: do not know how to do with the new job Relationships: afraid of the familiar contact with peoplelike customers, co-workers or managers can disappear;afraid of losing their sense of belonging to a team orgroup Sense of direction Territory It is important to understand employees’ fears of loss caused bychange as it is a normal part of transition and leaders have to assistthem overcome these fears.15/10/20187Compiled by NN 13Why does individual resist change? Misunderstanding Lack of trust Differential assessment Ability to adjust LazinessCompiled by NN 14What are emotions accompanying change? Disbelief Annoyance Avoidance Disappointment Blaming Given up Hostility and sabotage Acceptance Optimism15/10/20188Managing Resistance To ChangeManaging resistance to change: Freeze cycle approach (Kurt Lewin 1947 )UnfreezingInitial awareness of need for change is developedChangingFocus on learning needed new behavioursFreezingReinforcing new learned behaviours by positiveresults, feelings of achievement, and rewards fromothers.Managing Resistance To ChangeOvercoming resistanceMETHODS(Kotter & Schlesinger)Participation &Education & involvementcommunicationFacilitation &supportNegotiation &Manipulation & agreementcooptationExplicit &implicit coercion15/10/20189Managing Resistance To ChangeOvercoming resistance to changeForce -Field Analysis (Kurt Lewin)‘a method involving analysing the two types of forces,driving forces and restraining forces,that influence any proposed change, thenassessing how best to overcome resistance.’Driving forcesFactors pressuringfor aparticularchangeRestrainingforcesFactorspressuringagainst a changeCHANGEManaging Resistance To Change Driving forces are factors pressuring for aparticular change Restraining forces are factors pressuringagainst a change The status quo is a condition of equilibriumbetween the two forces Change occurs by increasing driving orreducing restraining forces that is reducingresistance to change15/10/201810 Compiled by NNCurrent highCost levelhigh cost level at Xerox plant (p.587)19 Good union relationsForeign competitionRecent lossesCheaper outside sourcesUnion desire to save jobsCompany reluctance to save jobsDeteriorating company-union relationsStringent work rulesCurrent benefit costsCurrent pay costsEmployee absenteeism levelsCompany desire for flexibilityin layoff decisionsDesired lowCost levelDriving forces for change Restraining forces against changeForce-field analysis of the forces maintainingCompiled by NN 20Ongoing challenge of making changesuccessfully Change process do not always work the way theyshould, instead an organisation needs to embracechange, be ready for change all the time (be achange-capable organisation) Managers need to act as change agents (changeleaders) and build an effective change agent team Get all organisational members involved-encourageemployees to be change agents


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