All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced in a retrieval system, or transmitted, inany form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without theprior permission of the publisher.Understandingmanagement andleadership stylesChecklist 256IntroductionIf managers are to be effective in their role it is important for them to think consciously about how theymanage – what kind of management style suits them best and will work well in their team and organisation.Adopting an appropriate style helps managers to establish rapport, trust and respect, engage their teammembers and build good working relationships. Conversely, adopting an inappropriate style may lead toemployees becoming disengaged or demotivated. Similarly, managers who adopt a style that is at odds withthe ethos of their organisation are unlikely to be successful.In the twentieth century management style was seen as primarily about how managers exercised theirauthority to get work done and successfully meet objectives. There was also a perception that there was onebest way to manage which would achieve the best results in every situation. Before the 1980s a ‘commandand control’ style was generally seen as the norm. Later, more collaborative and coaching styles began to befavoured with the aim of promoting motivation and engagement among employees. Today there is certainly astronger emphasis on management style as the way in which managers relate to people, especially thosewho report to them. There is now also a growing belief that managers need to find a style which is authenticfor them and that they will need to adjust their style according to the context – the culture of the organisationwhere they work, the nature of the tasks to be completed and the characteristics and expectations of theirteam members.The use of the term ‘leadership style’ has become much more common in recent years and has largelyreplaced the term ‘management style’ in the work of management thinkers. Often the distinction between thetwo is unclear. There is an ongoing debate about the concepts of management and leadership with someseeing them as different and distinct and others seeing leadership as an aspect of management which is notjust the prerogative of senior managers but can be exercised by everyone in their area of responsibility. Onehelpful approach has been put forward by Henry Mintzberg in his book Managing. Here he suggests thatalthough management and leadership are conceptually distinct it is difficult to separate the two in day to daypractice.For these reasons, this checklist does not attempt to define management as opposed to leadership style butintroduces a range of the most well-known models and approaches, as well as providing an action checklistto help managers assess, develop and adapt their personal management practice and style.DefinitionManagement or leadership style is the manner in which managers exercise their authority in the workplaceand ensure that their objectives are achieved. It covers how managers plan and organise work in their areaof responsibility and, in particular, about how they relate to, and deal with their colleagues and teammembers. The key components of management and leadership style are attitudes and behaviours, including:what a manager says; how they say it; the example they set; their body language; and their general conductand demeanour.All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced in a retrieval system, or transmitted, inany form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without theprior permission of the publisher.Some models of management and leadership stylesRensis LikertEarly theories about management and leadership style focused primarily on the manner by which authoritywas exercised. Based on research carried out at the University of Michigan in the 1950s, Rensis Likertidentified four different styles: exploitative/authoritative – the leader has little trust or confidence in his subordinates, manages byissuing orders and uses fear and punishment as motivators benevolent/authoritative – the leader has some trust in his workers but treats them in acondescending and paternalistic manner consultative – the leader shows trust and confidence towards subordinates, seeks their opinionsand ideas, but retains decision making power participative – the leader trusts his subordinates completely, seeks and acts on their ideas andinvolves them in setting goalsLikert’s research suggested that consultative and participative styles were more effective, but he did notconsider the context in which management was being carried out.The Tannenbaum Schmidt Leadership ContinuumAn early contribution to the literature on leadership styles was made by Robert Tannenbaum and Warren HSchmidt back in the 1950s. They looked at the extent to which a manager exerts authority or control and thedegree to which subordinates have freedom to act on their own initiative. They proposed a ‘leadershipcontinuum’ consisting of seven stages moving from a situation where the manager makes all the decisions toa context where the manager permits team members make decisions independently within pre-designatedlimits. Seven styles are identified: tells, persuades, shows, consults, asks, shares and involves.They further suggested that a good manager will be able to judge the capabilities of the team and movebetween points on the continuum accordingly. Over time, as abilities develop, the manager may choose toaccord a greater level of freedom while retaining overall responsibility for the work.Theory X and theory YDouglas McGregor, working in the 1960s, believed that management style was determined by the manager’sassumptions about human nature. Based on his research, he identified two broad sets of beliefs which helabelled theory X and theory Y.Theory X suggests that human beings have an inherent dislike of work and need to be controlled anddirected if they are to achieve objectives. This leads to autocratic and paternalistic management styles.Theory Y sees work as a natural part of life from which people gain a sense of satisfaction. Workers can bemotivated to give their best by respect and recognition. This leads to more consultative and participativemanagement styles.McGregor believed that while both styles could be effective, theory X management could lead todemotivation and low levels of performance, whilst conversely, theory Y management could produce highlevels of motivation and performance.The managerial gridWorking in the 1950s and 60s, Robert R Blake and Jane S Mouton identified two drivers of managerialbehaviour: concern for getting the job done and concern for the people involved. To demonstrate how anindividual manager’s style is affected by their level of concern for these two factors, they used a nine by ninegrid. (See Related models below). This showed five basic management styles:1. Impoverished management – little concern for either the task or the people. This style involves littlemore than going through the motions, doing only enough to get by.2. Authority-obedience – high levels of concern for task and low for people.This represents a controlling style, close to the traditional ‘command and control’ approach, but runsthe risk of damaging human relationships.All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced in a retrieval system, or transmitted, inany form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without theprior permission of the publisher.3. Country club leadership – high levels of concern for people and low for task.This is seen as accommodating – it may create a warm and friendly working environment but at thecost of getting the job done efficiently. 4.Team management – high levels of concern for both task and people.This is seen as the most effective style with the potential for high achievement. 5. Middle of the road management – moderate level of concern for task and people.This achieves a balance between task and performance but is likely to perpetuate the status quorather than achieve notable success.William B Reddin’s 3D theoryReddin (1970) also focused on concern for the task and concern for people, which he defined as TaskOrientation (TO) and Relationship Orientation (RO). He introduced the idea that particular styles might bemore appropriate in some contexts than others. Starting from four basic styles: related (high RO), integrated(high RO and TO), dedicated (low RO) and separated (low RO and TO), he added a third dimension,depending on how appropriately and therefore efficiently the style was used. (See Related Models). StyleInappropriately usedAppropriately usedRelatedMissionaryDeveloperIntegratedCompromiserExecutiveDedicatedAutocratBenevolent autocratSeparatedDeserterBureaucrat Situational leadershipFollowing on from the work of Bill Reddin, Paul Hersey and Ken Blanchard, writing in the late 1980s, furtherdeveloped the idea that different situations require different types of leadership. As the name suggests, theirsituational leadership theory (See Related models below) states that leaders need to be ready to adjust theirstyle to suit the context. They saw the willingness and ability of subordinates to carry out the tasks allocatedto them as the key factor in selecting the most appropriate leadership style. Four leadership styles wereidentified, based on the level of support and direction required: a telling/directing style when they are both unwilling and unable a selling/coaching style when there is some competence but a lack of commitment a participating/supporting style where they are competent but unwilling or insecure a delegating style where competence and commitment are both highAction-centred leadershipAnother situational approach to leadership is action-centredleadership, made famous by John Adair. Action-centredleadership is perhaps more of an approach than a style, but it isvery widely-taught on management and leadership courses andused by leaders globally, particularly in the United Kingdom.Adair suggests that leaders need to be attentive to task needs,group needs and individual needs. The most effective leadersbalance all three areas, as demonstrated by the Venn diagrambelow. However, the leader may need to vary the degree ofemphasis given to each of the three components in response tothe situation at any point in time.Transactional leadershipIn the 1970s and 1980s the transactional model of leadership was dominant. This is based on an exchangebetween leader and follower where the interests of both parties are served. The efforts made by followers toachieve organisational aims are exchanged for specific rewards, which may be financial or non-financial.Whilst the idea of transactional leadership may lack the dynamism of other approaches, it may well be thecase that it accurately describes practice in many workplaces. Additionally, this kind of leadership can beparticularly effective in emergency or conflict situations when all parties are able to see a tangible benefit.All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced in a retrieval system, or transmitted, inany form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without theprior permission of the publisher.Bernard M Bass felt that effective leaders needed to exercise two transactional elements: contingent rewardand management by exception. Contingent reward refers to the agreed exchange process between leadersand followers (e.g. leaders giving a salary or a bonus, in exchange for the efforts and hard work of theirfollowers); whilst management by exception is characterised by corrective criticism and giving feedbackwhen things go wrong.Transformational leadershipThe term ‘transformational leadership’ was first used by James V Downton in 1973 and was popularised byJames MacGregor Burns in his 1978 book Leadership. It remains the predominant leadership approach inthe literature and has also had a significant impact on the way that modern leaders behave.Transformational leadership involves the engagement of followers and therefore transformational leaders areoften charismatic. Accounts of transformational leaders differ, but most focus on how the leader can fulfil thedevelopment needs of their followers. In uncertain times, it has been suggested, employees want to feelinspired and empowered by their leaders, and therefore transformational leadership fits well with the modernage.There has been a huge amount of writing devoted to transformational leadership over the past two to threedecades, so the focus here will be on the key thinkers:Bernard M Bass and Bruce J AvolioIn an echo of Robert Tannenbaum and Warren H Schmidt’s work, Bass devised a leadership continuum,from transformational leadership to laissez-faire leadership, with transactional leadership in the middle.Transformational leadership, for him, involved four factors:1. Idealised influence/charisma: The leader is a strong role model whom followers seek to emulate.Leaders have strong moral and ethical principles and as a result, are well-respected.2. Inspirational motivation: Followers are encouraged to do more than the bare minimum due to theinspirational communication and high expectations provided by the leader.3. Intellectual stimulation: The leader encourages followers to be creative, innovative and tochallenge their own beliefs and those of the organisation.4. Individualised consideration: A supportive climate is provided with coaches and advisors assistingfollowers. Delegation is encouraged to support the development of employees.James M Kouzes and Barry S PosnerJames M Kouzes and Barry S Posner describe five factors of excellent leadership that they believe anyonecan learn to incorporate into their leadership approach:1. Model the way: be clear about your values and philosophy2. Compelling vision: you need to create a vision that followers can use to guide both their day-to-daybehaviour and their own dreams and visions3. Challenge the process: willingness to challenge the status quo and innovate is seen as key4. Enable others to act: collaborate, trust and encourage others5. Encourage the heart: authentic reward and recognition is also seen as important.Warren Bennis and Burt NanusThe qualities of a transformational leader were identified by Bennis and Nanus as:1. Having a clear vision for the future2. Being “social architects” for their organisations: communicating a direction and form for theirorganisations that others could follow3. Trust created by consistency and clarity: leaders need to make their positions clear and stand bythem4. Positive self-regard: this is about having an awareness of your strengths and weaknesses – but thenconcentrating on what you’re good at, rather than dwelling on your weak points.All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced in a retrieval system, or transmitted, inany form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without theprior permission of the publisher.Transformational leadership is thus seen by all these authors as being characterised by certaincompetencies and qualities. Common themes of these qualities include: having a vision, emotionalintelligence, charisma and being consistent and clear.Daniel Goleman on leadership stylesIn an article for Harvard Business Review in 2000 (see Additional resources below), Goleman reported onresearch into the leadership styles of over 3,000 executives worldwide carried out by consulting firm HayMcBer. The findings revealed six distinct leadership styles, each emerging from varying elements ofemotional intelligence: coercive leader – one who demands the instant compliance of others authoritative leader – one who marshals others towards their vision affiliative leader – one who creates emotional connections and seeks harmony democratic leader – one who seeks consensus achieved through participation pacesetting leader – one who expects excellence from others; encouraging self-direction coaching leader – one who seeks to develop and equip others for the futureGoleman believes that leaders need a multitude of styles to fit the context at any given time, with an ability toadapt when necessary. The modern style of ‘heroic leadership’ follows this multi-styled approach – the notionof the manager as a chameleon. However, managers need to be mindful that a constant switching of stylescan confuse those they are trying to lead.Modern literature on management and leadership styles puts emotional intelligence at the heart ofmanagement and leadership and argues that it is more effective to engage the voluntary effort of employeesrather than use coercion.. The development of ‘soft’ skills such as empathy, honesty, listening and trustbuilding are seen as the lynchpins for success today.Henry Mintzberg on managingIn his 2009 publication Managing (see Additional resources below), Mintzberg approaches management as apractice and introduces the art-craft-science triangle as a means of identifying the many different managerialstyles. art – this is an insightful management style grounded in intuition; focusing on visions and ideas craft – this is an engaging management style based upon experience science – this is a cerebral style, deliberated and analytical.Mintzberg raises the interesting question of whether personal styles are influenced by nature or nurture –innate character or experience and his answer is both. From his study of 29 managers across differentsectors, he discovered that personal style had remarkably little impact on what the managers did. This isbecause, he argues, context matters. Mintzberg challenges Goleman’s notion of the manager as thechameleon, believing rather that the most effective managers are a natural ‘fit’ with their work context. Whilsthe concedes that a degree of flexibility and adaptability is necessary, trying to be someone or something youaren’t, is not the most conducive way to manage.Mintzberg also looked at how managers view their role in the context of those they are managing. Heidentified three different views: at the top – in control and in authority in the centre – at the heart, with activities revolving around them throughout – operating in a network; forging links far and wideHow managers see their position has a strong bearing on the management style they are likely to adopt.Mintzberg points out that there are a myriad of combinations of management styles, and criticizes hispredecessors for attempting to pigeon-hole managers into specific categories when, in truth, one size doesn’talways fit all.All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced in a retrieval system, or transmitted, inany form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without theprior permission of the publisher.Authentic leadershipRecent corporate, financial and governmental scandals and misconduct have also led to a growing interest inthe related idea of authentic leadership. This focuses on being genuine, honest and trustworthy in yourleadership style. Authentic leaders must ‘live their values,’ showing that they practise what they preach, inorder for their followers to see them as authentic. An important aspect of an authentic leadership style is selfknowledge, although there is also a strong emphasis on knowing others and knowing your organisationalculture. This enables you to strike the right balance between being an authentic, true version of yourself andfitting in to your company or organisation. Key writers on authentic leadership include Rob Goffee andGareth Jones, and Bill George.Action checklist1. Know yourselfAssessing your personal management style can be an uncomfortable process. However it is important tounderstand what you actually are and how you actually behave not just what you think you should be orshould do. If you do not understand this, you will never know what needs to change.Looking at the models described above, ask yourself where you fit in. Think about which styles you feel mostcomfortable with. What are your preferred ways of working? What motivates you? How do you communicatewith your colleagues and team members? You may wish to complete a diagnostic test – tests administeredby HR professionals are generally recommended as opposed to online tests which may have no soundtheoretical basis – but you can also gain powerful insights by consulting with your colleagues. Consider thestyles you may need to adopt to suit your individual context as well as your natural approach to managingand think about what your organisation, team, peers and colleagues expect of you?2. Look at your work habitsHow do you manage your time? How do you set work priorities? How organised are you? Do you focus onformal team and one to one meetings or do you prefer to manage by walking about?3. Think about how others see youReflect on how your colleagues and team members interact with you. How do they react when you ask themto complete a task or comment on their performance? Look at times when things have gone well or badlyand try to identify how your own behaviour contributed to these outcomes.How we see ourselves may be at odds with how others do. Ask a few people whom you trust and respecthow they see your management style and seek opinions from superiors, peers and subordinates. In practice,the views of these groups may differ considerably so you will need to find a balance between them and behonest with yourself about which of them strike a chord with you.4. Take account of the context in which you workMintzberg (2009) comments on the importance of context in partnership with style and refers to a symbioticrelationship, where ‘style matters and context matters, but mostly they matter together’. Think first about theorganisation you work for. What kind of management structure is in place? How are objectives set and howis performance managed across the organisation? What are the accepted behavioural and cultural norms?Do you work in a high pressure environment or are things more informal and relaxed? How well do you thinkyou are fitting in? Then focus on the immediate context by asking questions such as: What motivates yourteam members? What do they expect from you? How much guidance and support do they need? Are theyused to working autonomously? The answers may vary depending on age, educational level or culturalbackground as well as experience and familiarity with the work. What may be acceptable to one person maynot be acceptable to another.5. Identify areas for adjustment or developmentThink about your strengths and weaknesses and any problems that have become apparent. Are there anyareas where you need to develop your skills, adjust to the team you are leading, or adapt to the wider cultureAll rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced in a retrieval system, or transmitted, inany form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without theprior permission of the publisher.of your organisation? Consider what you need to work on and decide how you will go about this. Can you getadvice from your line manager or can you find a mentor with whom you can talk things through? Wouldstructured training in skills such as time management, communication or presentation be appropriate?Remember that an element of flexibility will be needed. Monitor your approach to managing and leading on aregular basis. Be honest with yourself about what is working well and what is not effective. Always beprepared to make changes in line with changing circumstances and conditions.The key point is that if you understand yourself (i.e. your strengths and weaknesses and how you approachyour work) then it is easier to determine what adjustments or developments you need to make to suit thecurrent situation. If your management style is inconsistent with the dominant organisational norm, then youcannot hope to optimise your performance.Potential pitfallsManagers should avoid: ignoring the opinions of superiors, peers and subordinates when assessing managerial style trying to imitate others or squeezing themselves into a mould that works for other people riding roughshod over the accepted style and culture in their organisation sticking to one style rigidly regardless of situation and context not being authentic and true to themselves in whichever style they adoptNational Occupational Standards for Management and LeadershipThis checklist has relevance for the following standards:Unit AA1 Manage yourselfBA2 Provide leadership in your area of responsibilityAdditional resourcesBooksLeadership theory and practice, Peter G NorthouseThousand Oaks, Calif.: Sage, 2013A very short, fairly interesting and reasonably cheap book about studying leadership, 2nd ed, BradJackson and Ken ParryLondon: Sage, 2011A manager’s guide to leadership: an action learning approach, Mike Pedler, John Burgoyne and TomBoydellLondon: McGraw-Hill, 2010This title is also available as an e-bookLeadership styles, Tony KippenbergerOxford: Capstone, 2002Test your management style, John WilsonLondon: Hodder and Stoughton, 2000This is a selection of books available for loan to members from the CMI library. More information at:www.managers.org.uk/libraryAll rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced in a retrieval system, or transmitted, inany form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without theprior permission of the publisher.Journal ArticlesLeadership that gets results, Daniel GolemanHarvard Business Review, March/April 2000, vol 78 issue 2, pp 78-90Leadership styles: a powerful model, Pierre CasseTraining Journal, January 2011, pp 46-51This is a selection of journal articles available for members to download from CMI’s Library. More informationat: www.managers.org.uk/library.Related checklistsEmpowerment (048)Leading from the middle (041)Understanding organisational culture (232)Related thinkersDaniel Goleman Emotional intelligence (053)Douglas McGregor: theory X and theory Y (026)Henry Mintzberg: a great generalist (011)Robert R Blake and Jane Mouton: the managerial grid (038)Warren Bennis: leadership guru (039)Related modelsAdair action centred leadershipManagerial gridMcGregor’s theory X and theory YReddin’s 3D style modelSituational leadershipTannenbaum and Schmidt leadership continuumTransformational leadershipRevised August 2015This is one of many checklists available to all CMI members. For more information please contactt: 01536 204222 e: [email protected] w: www.managers.org.ukChartered Management InstituteManagement House, Cottingham Road, Corby NN17 1TT.This publication is for general guidance only. The publisher and expert contributors disclaim all liability forany errors or omissions. You should make appropriate inquiries and seek appropriate advice before makingany business, legal or other decisions.
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