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Authentic leadership: A review of the literature and research agendaWilliam L. Gardner ⁎, Claudia C. Cogliser, Kelly M. Davis, Matthew P. DickensTexas Tech University, USAa r t i c l e i n f o a b s t r a c tAvailable online 21 October 2011 The past decade has seen a dramatic increase in scholarly interest in the topic of authenticleadership. We review this literature with the goal of clarifying the state of knowledge in thefield. We begin with a historical overview of the construct’s definition and evolution. Next,we present the results of a content analysis of 91 publications that focus on authentic leadership. Specifically, we examined the publication type (theoretical, empirical, and practitioner),contributors (e.g., discipline, nationality, and institutional affiliation), theoretical foundations,research strategies, sample location/type, data collection methods, analytical procedures, andnomological network of authentic leadership. We conclude by presenting an agenda for futureresearch.© 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.Keywords:AuthenticityAuthentic leadershipContent analysis1. IntroductionSpurred by deep-rooted concerns about the ethical conduct of today’s leaders based on chilling examples of corporate and government malfeasance, popular leadership authors such as former Medtronic CEO Bill George (Authentic Leadership, 2003; True North,George & Sims, 2007) and leadership consultant Kevin Cashman (Leadership from the Inside Out, 1998, 2008; Awakening the LeaderWithin, 2003) called for a new type of genuine and values-based leadership — authentic leadership (AL). Sharing these concerns,Luthans and Avolio (2003, p. 244) expressed “a need for a theory-driven model identifying the specific construct variables and relationships that can guide authentic leader development and suggest researchable propositions”; henceforth they introduced an initial model for this purpose. Interdisciplinary summits were hosted in 2004 and 2006 by the Gallup Leadership Institute (GLI) of theUniversity of Nebraska-Lincoln with the goal of generating scholarly and practitioner interest in AL development. A subset of paperspresented at the 2004 Gallup Leadership Summit were published in a special issue of The Leadership Quarterly (2005, Volume 16,Issue 3) and an edited book (Gardner, Avolio, & Walumbwa, 2005b), further stimulating interest in the topic.The simultaneous proliferation of practitioner and scholarly writings has generated several competing conceptions of AL thathave created confusion about the construct. Anticipating these problems, Cooper, Scandura, and Schriesheim (2005) articulatedsome of the areas of conceptual ambiguity (e.g., levels of analysis) and cautioned scholars to avoid the pitfalls encountered in advancing prior leadership theories by carefully defining, measuring, and rigorously investigating the construct. More recently,Yammarino, Dionne, Schriesheim, and Dansereau (2008) examined the literature from a meso, multi-level perspective, notingseveral shortcomings, such as a primarily leader-centric focus operating at the individual level of analysis; they also provide specific recommendations for advancing AL theory at and across the individual, dyadic, group, and organizational levels of analysis.Unfortunately, the cautions of these authors have often gone unheeded, as the emergence of multiple practitioner and scholarly conceptions of AL has created ambiguity about what does and does not constitute AL, as well as the efficacy of strategies forits development. These problems are compounded by a limited amount of empirical research, which makes it difficult to assessthe validity of assertions regarding the positive effects of AL that are commonly advanced by its proponents. Nonetheless, theThe Leadership Quarterly 22 (2011) 1120–1145⁎ Corresponding author at: Institute for Leadership Research, Rawls College of Business, 15th & Flint, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409, USA. Tel.: +1806 742 1055; fax: +1 806 742 2308.E-mail address: [email protected] (W.L. Gardner).1048-9843/$ – see front matter © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.doi:10.1016/j.leaqua.2011.09.007Contents lists available at SciVerse ScienceDirectThe Leadership Quarterlyjournal homepage: www.el sevier.com/locate/ leaquascholarly literature has seen a recent upsurge in empirical investigations of AL that show promise for alleviating some of the conceptual confusion.The purpose of this manuscript is to review the scholarly literature on AL with the goal of clarifying the construct and ourknowledge about its antecedents and outcomes. More specifically, we: (1) provide a historical overview of the construct of authenticity; (2) discuss the underpinnings and milestones in the emergence and refinement of AL theory; (3) describe the content analysismethodology employed to codify the various theoretical perspectives, research methods, and findings reflected in the literature;(4) present our findings regarding the underlying theoretical foundations for AL; (5) review the available empirical research onAL, focusing attention on the measurement of the construct and mapping out the nomological network; and (6) recommend futuredirections for the study and practice of AL.2. Authenticity and AL defined2.1. AuthenticityAuthenticity can be traced back to ancient Greek philosophy and is reflected by the Greek aphorism “Know Thyself”which was inscribed in the Temple of Apollo at Delphi (Parke & Wormell, 1956). Indeed, the etymology of the word authentic can be traced to the Greek word, authento, “to have full power” (Trilling, 1972), reflecting the notion of authenticfunctioning whereby an individual is “the master of his or her own domain” (Kernis & Goldman, 2006). An early referenceto authentic functioning is Socrates’ focus on self-inquiry as he argued that an “unexamined” life is not worth living. Aristotle followed with a view of ethics that focused on one’s pursuit of the “higher good” achieved through self-realizationwhen the activity of the soul is aligned with virtue to produce a complete life (Hutchinson, 1995). Such self-realization istied to one’s well-being or “eudaimonia,” a form of happiness that, in contrast to hedonism which seeks happinessand pleasure as desired end states, arises from successfully performing activities that reflect one’s true calling (Kernis &Goldman, 2006).Harter (2002) describes authenticity as owning one’s personal experiences, including one’s thoughts, emotions,needs, desires, or beliefs. Hence, it involves being self-aware and acting in accord with one’s true self by expressingwhat one genuinely thinks and believes (Luthans & Avolio, 2003). While the attainment of complete authenticity is anideal, Erickson (1995) cautions that authenticity should not be conceived as an either/or condition, since peopleare never completely authentic or inauthentic. Thus, it is more realistic to describe a person as being more or lessauthentic.The modern conception of the construct emerged in the past 85 years (Erickson, 1995). As Kernis and Goldman (2006, p. 284;italics in the original) note, “contemporary psychological views of authenticity owe a great deal of debt to the works of philosophy” where “authenticity is loosely set within topics, such as metaphysics or ontology, firmly entrenched in particular movements,such as existentialism or phenomenology, and localized to specific authors like Sartre or Heidegger.” While a complete exposition ofthe philosophical basis for modern conceptions of authenticity lies beyond the scope of this review, the interested reader is referred to the work of Erickson (1995), Harter (2002), Kernis and Goldman (2006), and Novicevic, Harvey, Buckley, Brown, andEvans (2006) for historical overviews of this literature.Based on their review of the historical literature, Kernis and Goldman (2006) conclude that it documents a range of mentaland behavioral processes that explain how people discover and construct a core sense of self, and how this core self is maintainedacross situations and over time. Moreover, they assert that this literature reflects four central themes: “authentic functioning ofpeople’s (1) self-understanding, (2) openness to objectively recognizing their ontological realities (e.g., evaluating their desirableand undesirable self-aspects), (3) actions, and (4) orientation towards interpersonal relationships” (p. 284). Moreover, thesethemes are consistent with their conceptualization of authenticity as encompassing four key components: (1) awareness (i.e.,knowledge and trust in one’s thoughts, feelings, motives and values); (2) unbiased processing (i.e., objectivity about and acceptance of one’s positive and negative attributes); (3) behavior (i.e., acting based on one’s true preferences, values, and needs ratherthan merely acting to please others, secure rewards, or avoid punishments); and (4) relational orientation (i.e., achieving and valuing truthfulness and openness in one’s close relationships; Kernis, 2003; Kernis & Goldman, 2006). This multi-component conceptualization of authenticity, in turn, has provided the theoretical foundation for several theories of AL (Gardner, Avolio, Luthans,May, & Walumbwa, 2005; Ilies, Morgeson, & Nahrgang, 2005; Spitzmuller & Ilies, 2010; Walumbwa, Avolio, Gardner, Wernsing, &Peterson, 2008) as described below.2.2. Definitions of authentic leaders and ALA variety of definitions of leader authenticity or AL have been advanced over the years (summarized in Table 1). The earliestphilosophical conceptions of authenticity within the leadership literature arose in the 1960s and reflected an assumption that anorganization’s authenticity is manifest through its leadership (Novicevic et al., 2006). This is illustrated well by Rome and Rome’s(1967) description of authenticity in a hierarchical organization presented in Table 1. For Halpin and Croft (1966), organizationalauthenticity is posited to be a function of the openness of the organizational climate and is manifest by the degree to which members resist personal change when enacting their leadership and professional roles. Finally, Seeman (1966) proposed that the extent to which leaders are authentic is a function of their ability to reduce ambivalence about their leadership role.W.L. Gardner et al. / The Leadership Quarterly 22 (2011) 1120–1145 1121Table 1Definitions of authentic leaders and authentic leadership.Source DefinitionRome and Rome (1967, p. 185) “A hierarchical organization, in short, like an individual person, is ‘authentic’ to the extent that,throughout its leadership, it accepts finitude, uncertainty, and contingency; realizes its capacity forresponsibility and choice; acknowledges guilt and errors; fulfills its creative managerial potential forflexible planning, growth, and charter or policy formation; and responsibly participates in the widercommunity.”Henderson and Hoy (1983, pp. 67–68) “Leadership authenticity is therefore defined as the extent to which subordinates perceive their leaderto demonstrate the acceptance of organizational and personal responsibility for actions, outcomes,and mistakes; to be non-manipulating of subordinates; and to exhibit salience of self over role.Leadership inauthenticity is defined as the extent to which subordinates perceive their leader to be‘passing the buck’ and blaming others and circumstances for errors and outcomes; to be manipulative of subordinates; and to be demonstrating a salience of role over self.”Bhindi and Duignan (1997, p. 119) “In this article the authors argue for authentic leadership based on: authenticity, which entails thediscovery of the authentic self through meaningful relationships within organizational structuresand processes that support core, significant values; intentionality, which implies visionary leadershipthat takes its energy and direction from the good intentions of current organizational members whoput their intellects, hearts and souls into shaping a vision for the future; a renewed commitment tospirituality, which calls for the rediscovery of the spirit within each person and celebration of theshared meaning, with purpose of relationship; a sensibility to the feelings, aspirations and needs ofothers, with special reference to the multicultural settings in which many leaders operate in the lightof the increasing globalizing trends in life and work.”Begley (2001, p. 353) “Authentic leadership may be thought of as a metaphor for professionally effective, ethically sound,and consciously reflective practices in educational administration. This is leadership that isknowledge based, values informed, and skillfully executed.”George (2003, p. 12) “Authentic leaders use their natural abilities, but they also recognize their shortcomings, and workhard to overcome them. They lead with purpose, meaning, and values. They build enduringrelationships with people. Others follow them because they know where they stand. They areconsistent and self-disciplined. When their principles are tested, they refuse to compromise. Authentic leaders are dedicated to developing themselves because they know that becoming a leadertakes a lifetime of personal growth.”Luthans and Avolio (2003, p. 243) “[W]e define authentic leadership in organizations as a process that draws from both positivepsychological capacities and a highly developed organizational context, which results in bothgreater self-awareness and self-regulated positive behaviors on the part of leaders and associates,fostering positive self-development. The authentic leader is confident, hopeful, optimistic, resilient,transparent, moral/ethical future-oriented, and gives priority to developing associates into leadersthemselves. The authentic leader does not try to coerce or even rationally persuade associates, butrather the leader’s authentic values, beliefs, and behaviors serve to model the development ofassociates.”Avolio, Luthans et al. (2004, p. 4) as cited in Avolio,Gardner et al. (2004, pp. 802, 803)Authentic leaders are “those individuals who know who they are, what they think and behave andare perceived by others as being aware of their own and others’ values/moral perspective,knowledge, and strengths; aware of the context in which they operate; and who are confident,hopeful, resilient, and of high moral character.” Begley (2004, p. 5)“Authentic leadership is a function of self-knowledge, sensitivity to the orientations of others, and atechnical sophistication that leads to a synergy of leadership action.” Ilies et al. (2005, p. 374) “Authentic leaders are deeply aware of their values and beliefs, they are self-confident, genuine, reliable and trustworthy, and they focus on building followers’ strengths, broadening their thinkingand creating a positive and engaging organizational context.”Shamir and Eilam (2005, p. 399) “[O]ur definition of authentic leaders implies that authentic leaders can be distinguished from lessauthentic or inauthentic leaders by four self-related characteristics: 1) the degree of person rolemerger i.e. the salience of the leadership role in their self-concept, 2) the level of self-concept clarityand the extent to which this clarity centers around strongly held values and convictions, 3) theextent to which their goals are self-concordant, and 4) the degree to which their behavior is consistent with their self-concept.”George and Sims (2007, p. xxxi) Authentic leaders are “genuine people who are true to themselves and to what they believe in. Theyengender trust and develop genuine connections with others. Because people trust them, they areable to motivate others to high levels of performance. Rather than letting the expectations of otherpeople guide them, they are prepared to be their own person and go their own way. As they developas authentic leaders, they are more concerned about serving others than they are about their ownsuccess or recognition.”Walumbwa et al. (2008, p. 94) “[W]e define authentic leadership as a pattern of leader behavior that draws upon and promotes bothpositive psychological capacities and a positive ethical climate, to foster greater self-awareness, aninternalized moral perspective, balanced processing of information, and relational transparency onthe part of leaders working with followers, fostering positive self-development.”Whitehead (2009, p. 850) “In this article, a definition of an authentic leader is adopted as one who: (1) is self-aware, humble,always seeking improvement, aware of those being led and looks out for the welfare of others;(2) fosters high degrees of trust by building an ethical and moral framework; and (3) is committedto organizational success within the construct of social values.”1122 W.L. Gardner et al. / The Leadership Quarterly 22 (2011) 1120–1145The first attempt to formally define and operationalize the constructs of leadership authenticity and leadership inauthenticityper se was made by Henderson and Hoy (1983). As Table 1 indicates, these authors view leadership authenticity as encompassingthree components: (1) acceptance of personal and organizational responsibility for actions, outcomes and mistakes; (2) the nonmanipulation of subordinates; and (3) the salience of the self over role requirements. Leadership inauthenticity involves lowlevels of these components, i.e., a lack of accountability, manipulation of subordinates, and salience of role over self. Althoughthe components overlap somewhat with the dimensions of authenticity proposed by Kernis and Goldman (2006), they also appear to be confounded with other constructs such as abusive supervision (Tepper, 2007), organizational politics (Ferris & Kacmar,1995) and accountability (Hall, Blass, Ferris, & Massengale, 2004). Of the three dimensions proposed, salience of self over rolecomes closest to the philosophy-based conception of authenticity, as it “refers to the tendency to behave in a genuine mannerrelatively unconstrained by traditional role requirements. Such a person is viewed as being real and authentic” (Henderson &Hoy, 1983, p. 66).Fourteen years elapsed before AL reemerged as a focus of interest within the social sciences, again within the field of education(Begley, 2001, 2004, 2006; Bhindi & Duignan, 1997; Duignan & Bhindi, 1997). As Table 1 indicates, Bhindi and Duignan (1997)defined AL as being composed of four components: authenticity, intentionality, spirituality, and sensibility. Begley (2001) introduced an alternative perspective that is both broad in scope and narrow in context, as it equates AL with effective and ethicalleadership and is confined to the context of education administration (see Table 1). He argued that “[a]uthentic leadership impliesa genuine kind of leadership — a hopeful, open-ended, visionary and creative response to circumstances” (p. 354). Hence, Begley’sAL view encompasses some components (e.g., hopefulness; Luthans & Avolio, 2003) that are shared by subsequent definitions.Moreover, his later definition (Begley, 2004, p. 5; see Table 1) recognizes the importance of self-knowledge, a quality central tomost conceptions of authenticity (Kernis & Goldman, 2006) and AL (e.g., Gardner, Avolio, Luthans et al., 2005; George, 2003;Ilies et al., 2005; Ladkin & Taylor, 2010; Luthans & Avolio, 2003; Shamir & Eilam, 2005; Sparrowe, 2005).As noted earlier, George’s books (George, 2003; George & Sims, 2007) have contributed greatly to the emergence of both practitioner and scholarly interest in AL. Given his practitioner background, it is not surprising to see that his definitions of authenticleaders and AL are primarily descriptive (see Table 1). Nevertheless, they do an excellent job of vividly capturing popular conceptions that reflect many of the central components of scholarly definitions. For George, the five dimensions of AL are: (1) pursuingpurpose with passion; (2) practicing solid values; (3) leading with heart; (4) establishing enduring relationships; and (5) demonstrating self-discipline. While the language is different, several of these align well with the components of authenticity thatwere identified by Kernis and Goldman (Kernis, 2003; Kernis & Goldman, 2006). For example, establishing enduring relationshipsis consistent with a relational orientation, and practicing solid values coincides with authentic behavior.The work that has been most instrumental in reigniting scholarly interest in AL is Luthans and Avolio’s (2003) conceptualization of AL and its development. As these authors explain, the theoretical underpinnings of their AL model include positive organizational behavior (POB) (Luthans, 2002), transformational/full-range leadership (Avolio, 1999), and ethical perspective-taking(Kegan, 1982). Because of this confluence of perspectives, their definition of AL (see Table 1) includes POB states such as confidence, hope, optimism, and resilience that later became the basis for Luthans, Avolio, Avey, and Norman’s (2007) psychologicalcapital (PsyCap) construct. This is also true of Avolio, Luthans, and Walumbwa’s (2004) refined definition [as cited in Avolio,Gardner, Walumbwa, Luthans, and May (2004)] (see Table 1). As a consequence, the distinction between AL, psychological capital, and transformational leadership, is not clear from these definitions, raising early concerns about discriminant validity(Cooper et al., 2005). However, these definitions also encompass the core components of self-awareness, positive selfregulation, positive self-development, and/or a positive moral perspective that are often reflected, either explicitly or implicitly,in prior and subsequent conceptions of AL.Through their research agenda, GLI associates Bruce Avolio, William Gardner, Fred Luthans, Doug May, Fred Walumbwa, andtheir colleagues worked on a more refined definition of AL (Avolio & Gardner, 2005; Gardner et al., 2005b). This research programyielded a model of AL development (Gardner, Avolio, Luthans et al., 2005) that is grounded in Kernis’ (2003) multi-componentconception of authenticity. As a testament to the scientific process, Ilies and colleagues (2005) independently developed amodel of AL (see Table 1 for their definition) that is likewise based on Kernis’ perspective, and thereby reinforced the utility ofthis framework. The GLI research program culminated with the definition of AL advanced by Walumbwa et al. (2008). As the definition presented in Table 1 indicates, this perspective identifies four primary components of AL – self-awareness, balanced processing, relational transparency, and an internalized moral perspective – that are based on the awareness, unbiased processing,relational orientation, and behavior/action components described by Kernis and Goldman (2006).Some refinements were made to the four components to reflect both conceptual and empirical insights about their composition. Specifically, the unbiased processing component was renamed balanced processing (Gardner, Avolio, Luthans et al., 2005)out of recognition that all humans are inherently biased and flawed processors of information, particularly regarding selfrelevant information (Tice & Wallace, 2003). The behavior/action component was renamed internalized moral perspective to better reflect the leader’s commitment to core ethical values. Additionally, two dimensions of AL – internalized regulation and a positive moral perspective – that had previously been posited to be conceptually distinct (Gardner, Avolio, Luthans et al., 2005), werecombined to form the internalized moral perspective component. The rationale for combining these is based on a content analysisof open-ended descriptions by GLI doctoral students of a person they deemed to be an authentic leader. The results revealed thatthese dimensions could not be reliably distinguished because both involve the display of behavior that is consistent with internalstandards and values (Walumbwa et al., 2008, p. 97). The four-component model of AL was subsequently operationalized andvalidated by Walumbwa and colleagues (Walumbwa et al., 2008) through the Authentic Leadership Questionnaire (ALQ; to bediscussed further below).W.L. Gardner et al. / The Leadership Quarterly 22 (2011) 1120–1145 1123Table 1 includes Shamir and Eilam’s (2005) definitions of the terms authentic leader and AL, which reflect an alternative to theperspectives based on Kernis and Goldman’s (2006) conceptions of authenticity. Specifically, Shamir and Eilam (2005) propose alife stories approach to the development of authentic leaders. In defining the authentic leader construct, they apply the dictionarydescription of the word authentic as “original,” “genuine,” and “not fake” to identify a set of four defining characteristics. First,“authentic leaders do not fake their leadership” (p. 396). Instead, they lead as an expression of their “true” and “real” self. Second,they lead from conviction in pursuit of a value-based mission or cause. Third, “[a]uthentic leaders are originals, not copies” (p. 397)who are driven by deeply rooted values that they experience to be true, not values imposed by others. Finally, because they take actionbased on their values and convictions, there is consistency between what they say and do. Shamir and Eilam (2005) also note that theirconception of authentic leaders says nothing about the content of the leader’s values, in contrast to other definitions that include considerations of morality.Shamir and Eilam’s (2005, p. 398) definition rests on leaders’ self-concepts and the relationships between their self-conceptsand behaviors. They describe authentic leaders as those who possess high degrees of person–role merger (i.e., the leadership roleis salient in their self-concept), self-concept clarity, self-congruence, and behavioral consistency. They define AL as a process thatincludes not only the authentic leader, but also encompasses authentic followership, as followers choose to follow the leader forgenuine reasons to form an authentic relationship. Finally, in advancing their life stories approach to AL development, they describe how leaders’ life stories can produce insight into the meanings they attach to key life events and which, over time, facilitatepositive self-development through reflection.Other notable alternatives to those based in Kernis and Goldman’s (2006) conception of authenticity include: Sparrowe’s(2005) application of hermeneutic philosophy to describe the narrative process whereby the leader’s authentic self develops;Michie and Gooty’s (2005) exploration of the role that self-transcendent values and positive other-directed emotions play inthe development of AL; Eagly’s (2005) application of role incongruity theory to explain why incongruities between gender roleand leader role requirements sometimes make it difficult for women to achieve authenticity as leaders; and Ladkin and Taylor’s(2010, p. 64) consideration of the “ways in which a somatic sense of self contributes to the felt sense of authenticity, and howthrough engaging with somatic cues, leadership can be performed in a way which is experienced as authentic, both to the leaderand to those he or she seeks to lead.” Finally, Whitehead (2009) recently introduced a definition of AL that includes three components: (1) self-awareness, other awareness, and a developmental focus; (2) the creation of high levels of trust built on a firmethical and moral framework; and (3) commitment to organizational success grounded in social values (see Table 1). While thecontent and labels for these dimensions differ somewhat from earlier definitions, there is also clear overlap. We consider thesealternative perspectives in more detail below as part of our content analysis of the AL literature.3. Content analysis of AL publications3.1. SampleTo identify publications for inclusion in our review, we searched EBSCO/Host databases using specific keywords linked to ALsuch as “authentic leadership” and “authenticity” paired with “leader”, “follower”, or “leadership.” We also issued a call for papersthrough the Academy of Management’s LDRNet and used a snowball approach by searching the references of relevant publications to further identify those for inclusion in the review. As with any extensive search, these attempts yielded additional publications, such as those that discuss only authenticity or leadership. Therefore, we established guidelines for relevancy and accuracypurposes. For a publication to be included in this review, it had to discuss authenticity in leaders and/or followers. Articles that didnot meet these criteria were eliminated from the dataset. We also made a decision to focus on scholarly publications, with thecut-off date of December 31, 2010. Any conference papers, dissertations, and working papers, as well as most practitioner publications, were removed from the collection. The final sample included 91 AL publications.Our rationale for limiting our review to publications stemmed from a belief that conference papers, working papers, and dissertations have not been subjected to the peer review process and may not be fully developed and/or based on sound theory andempirical methods. Accordingly, including theory or findings generated from these works in our review could potentially undermine the development of the field. Our rationale for excluding practitioner publications is based on the recognition that theyserve a different purpose (sharing leadership insights with practicing managers) from scholarly publications, which seek to advance knowledge in the field. Given our interest in assessing the evolution of the field, we concentrate our attention on scholarlywork. However, we did make some exceptions for practitioner publications (e.g., May, Chan, Hodges, & Avolio, 2003) that wererepeatedly identified by scholars as having influenced their thinking about AL.3.2. Coding schemeTo conduct our content analysis, we applied many of the methods described by Gardner, Lowe, Moss, Mahoney, and Cogliser(2010) in their recent content analysis of articles published in The Leadership Quarterly during the journal’s second decade. Foreach article at least three members of the author team recorded: (1) author names, disciplines, institutional affiliation, type of affiliation (academic, consultant, or practitioner) and country of affiliation at the time of publication; (2) theoretical paradigm (positivist, interpretive, critical); (3) theoretical foundations of AL; (4) foundational citations for AL; (5) the purpose of the article(develop new theory, extend/link current theory, contradict current theory, or summarize/review existing theory); and (6) whether1124 W.L. Gardner et al. / The Leadership Quarterly 22 (2011) 1120–1145or not AL was central to the article. For theoretical articles, we recorded research questions, propositions, and any models included inthe article.For empirical qualitative articles, we developed an original classification scheme based on Lee’s (1999) descriptions of qualitative methods to code: (1) the research methodology; (2) if the data were recorded and/or transcribed; (3) interview type (ifinterview methods were employed); (4) data analysis techniques; and (5) whether or not credibility, transferability, or dependability were discussed. For empirical quantitative articles, we again followed Gardner and colleagues’ (2010) example and applieda classification scheme developed by Scandura and Williams (2000) to code: (1) study hypotheses; (2) research strategy; (3)sample location and type; (4) data collection methods; (5) operationalization of AL; (6) how AL was modeled (as an independentvariable, dependent variable, moderator, or mediator); and (7) the analytic methods employed.Once the coding was completed, we conducted reliability checks of the recorded data. The initial inter-rater percent agreement values for subjectively coded categories were 76% for research strategy, 76% for research tradition, 80% for theoretical purpose, 80% for theoretical foundations, and 84% for AL centrality. All authors participated in the reconciliation of codingdiscrepancies through discussion and consensus, resulting in 100% inter-rater agreement. Finally, the data for each article wassummarized by five time periods and aggregated for a summation across time periods. Our findings are presented in the followingsections.3.3. Type of authentic leadership publications over timeWe coded the type of publications into three primary types: theoretical, empirical, and practitioner. Although our interest centers on scholarly publications that fall within the first two categories, there are several practitioner-oriented publications by ALscholars (Avolio & Wernsing, 2008; Champy, 2009; Gardner & Schermerhorn, 2004; George, Sims, McLean, & Mayer, 2007; Goffee& Jones, 2005; Hannah, 2007; May et al., 2003) that surfaced through our literature search. While we excluded these practitionerworks from further content analyses that focused on the development and empirical evaluation of AL theory, we retained themin our data-base because they: 1) serve as a rough (but incomplete, due to the exclusion of practitioner books) benchmark forpractitioner interest in AL; 2) were identified through our content analysis of scholarly articles as foundational publications(George et al., 2007; Goffee & Jones, 2005; May et al., 2003); and/or 3) communicate findings from the scholarly literature to practitioner audiences (Avolio & Wernsing, 2008; Gardner & Schermerhorn, 2004; Hannah, 2007).A graphical depiction of the number of theoretical, empirical, and practitioner publications focused on AL is presented in Fig. 1.A complementary summary of publication type across time that also distinguishes between journal articles and book chapters ispresented in Table 2. The earliest publications on AL by Henderson and Hoy (1983); Hoy and Henderson, 1983) focused on thedefinition and operationalization of a measure of leader authenticity. Following their work, there was a lull in interest in thetopic until Bhindi and Duignan (1997) and Begley (2001) reintroduced AL to the education literature, and Bass and Steidlmeier(1999) made the distinction between authentic and pseudo-transformational leadership which inspired subsequent distinctionsbetween more versus less authentic leadership.Stimulated by the publication of George’s Authentic Leadership and Luthans and Avolio’s call for scholarly research in 2003, theensuing years saw a sharp increase in activity. As Fig. 1 indicates, three additional theoretical articles (Avolio, Gardner et al., 2004;Begley, 2004; Zhu, May, & Avolio, 2004) and one practitioner article (Gardner & Schermerhorn, 2004) were published in 2004.Further stimulation was provided by the 2004 Gallup Leadership Summit, which produced a 2005 spike of 24 publications thatFig. 1. AL publications by year and type.W.L. Gardner et al. / The Leadership Quarterly 22 (2011) 1120–1145 1125focused on theory development, many of which appeared in a special issue of The Leadership Quarterly (Volume 16, Issue 3) andElsevier’s Monographs in Leadership and Ethics series (Gardner et al., 2005b). This latter outlet accounted for the majority (14 publications) of the refereed book chapters devoted to the construct. The year 2005 is also noteworthy for the appearance of two publications that offer empirical findings (Eigel & Kuhnert, 2005; Pittinsky & Tyson, 2005), which represented the first sinceHenderson and Hoy’s (1983) and Hoy & Henderson (1983) articles. Although 2005 represents the watershed for AL scholarship,the ensuing years have seen a steady stream of theoretical (four to seven per year) and empirical (two to eight per year) publications, with empirical publications (eight) exceeding the number of conceptual publications (four) in 2010 for the first time.Thus, there is evidence that activity in the field may be shifting from a primary emphasis on theory generation to theory testing.A framework for interpreting the progression of AL research is provided by Reichers and Schneider’s (1990) three-stage model forthe evolution of constructs. We draw upon this framework and the work of Hunt (1999) and other scholars (Cogliser & Brigham,2004; Gardner et al., 2010) who used it to examine the field of leadership in general and various approaches or domains withinthe field. The three stages are: (1) concept introduction and elaboration; (2) concept evaluation and augmentation; and (3) conceptconsolidation and accommodation.The first stage involves efforts to legitimize the construct and inform others through publications about the newly developedor newly borrowed construct. Preliminary findings are presented as evidence that the construct is genuine. During the secondstage critical reviews emerge that identify problems related to the definition and operationalization of the construct. Concernsabout the validity of empirical findings are raised, and in response mediators and moderators are introduced to clarify the processes underlying the phenomenon. In the final stage a few generally accepted definitions emerge, meta-analytic studies are conducted, and the construct appears as a moderator and mediator in more general models within the field.Using this model as a lens for interpreting the data presented in Fig. 1 and Tables 1 and 2, the research on AL appears to fallwithin the first stage. Although a variety of AL definitions have been introduced, no one generally agreed-upon definition exists.In addition, the majority of the scholarly publications seek to develop or extend theory, rather than to test it through empiricalresearch. The presence of an uptick in empirical research in 2010 and the emergence of a few critical reviews (Cooper et al.,2005; Yammarino et al., 2008) suggest some initial movement toward the second stage. Moreover, the adoption of authentic leadership as a foundational theory for a new model of responsible leadership introduced by Higham, Freathy, and Wegerif (2010)further testifies to the maturation of the construct.3.4. Author attributesTo learn more about the authors who publish on AL, we examined their affiliations and biographical sketches for the publications included in our review to identify the total number of authors credited, their country of affiliation, discipline, and type (academic, consulting, practitioner). A summary of author attributes by publication period is provided in Table 3.3.4.1. Number of author creditsThe number of authors represents the total number of author credits identified, rather than the number of unique authors. Because many authors published multiple articles/book sections, they were included in the count for each of the publications attributed to them. Table 3 reveals that the number of author credits increased from 12 prior to 2003, to 18 in 2003–2004, and spiked at73 in 2005–2006, before declining but leveling off at a reduced but comparative high level of activity (49 to 51) in the ensuingtime periods. These findings are consistent with the preceding analysis of AL that revealed 2005 as the watershed year forwork in the area that stimulated an elevated level of research activity thereafter.Table 2Publication type by time period for authentic leadership publications.Publication type Time periodPre-2003 2003–2004 2005–2006 2007–2008 2009–2010 Total TheoreticalJournal articles441411841Book chapters01132218Total4527131059EmpiricalJournal articles30251323Book chapters002002Total30451325PractitionerJournal articles021115Book chapters000202Total021317Grand total7732212491 1126 W.L. Gardner et al. / The Leadership Quarterly 22 (2011) 1120–11453.4.2. Author country, affiliation, and typeTable 3 also reveals that most authors have academic affiliations (196; 96.6%), identify with the management (132; 65%), business in general (18; 8.9%), or education (17; 8.4%) disciplines, and reside in the United States (152; 74.8%) or Canada (16; 7.9%).The overrepresentation of academic authors is not surprising given our decision to focus on scholarly work in the area. However,the high proportion of North American scholars with management, business, or educational training raises some concerns, particularly given that the construct of authenticity has deep roots in other disciplines (e.g., philosophy, art, psychology, sociology)and European and Asian cultures (Erickson, 1995; Harter, 2002; Novicevic et al., 2006). These findings suggest that work byscholars with more diverse disciplinary and cultural backgrounds might facilitate the application of alternative theoretical perspectives for understanding how AL is manifest within and across cultures.Table 4Publication purpose, authentic leadership centrality, and theoretical foundations by publication period.Time period Pre-20032003–20042005–20062007–20082009–2010TotalPublication purposeDevelop new theoryExtend/link theoryContradict/critique theoryReview/summarizeIs AL central?Yes430014112271211504119139684105424151866No2386625Theoretical foundationAuthentic leadership theoryAuthenticity/self/identityAffective processesAttribution theory/social perceptionEthics/values/ethical leadershipNeo-charismatic leadershipPositive psychology/POB/POSa0400310420052231933624207113022381013578305418813Well-being/vital engagementOther/not applicable010034025289 a POB = Positive Organizational Behavior; POS = Positive Organizational Scholarship.Table 3Author country, discipline, and type by publication period.Time periodPre-2003 2003–2004 2005–2006 2007–2008 2009–2010 Total Number of authors1218734951203Author countriesAustralia402129Canada10141016China000011Finland000202France001001Israel002002New Zealand000011Pakistan000101Singapore000426Spain000011Switzerland000303Trinidad and Tobago000011United Kingdom001157United States718663328152Author disciplineBusiness00113418Education9112417Management216602727132Psychology003216Other11851530Author typeAcademic1218704848196Consulting001034Practitioner002103 W.L. Gardner et al. / The Leadership Quarterly 22 (2011) 1120–1145 11273.5. Publication purpose and AL centrality3.5.1. Publication purposeTo learn more about the purposes and centrality of AL to the focus of the publications identified, we coded these variablesacross time periods (see Table 4). The results revealed that the primary purpose for AL research is to extend and link theory(68; 75.7%), a finding that is consistent with the notion that the field is in the first stage of Reichers and Schneider’s (1990)model — concept introduction and elaboration. The small number (nine; 9.8%) of publications that develop new theory is not surprising given the difficulty of generating original conceptual frameworks. Sample publications from the “develop new theory” category for each time period include Henderson and Hoy (1983), Luthans and Avolio (2003), Shamir and Eilam (2005), Hansen,Ropo, and Sauer (2007) and Liu (2010). The first three of these each played important roles in articulating the AL construct, asreflected by the inclusion of their definitions in Table 1. The Hansen and colleagues (2007) article draws from AL theory and addresses issues of leader authenticity, but its primary purpose is to develop a theory of aesthetic leadership. Although it is too earlyto assess the impact of Liu’s (2010) article, her application of discourse analysis to generate a typology of leaders’ failures and theframing strategies they employ to construct and negotiate images of leadership style, effectiveness, and authenticity provides anoriginal lens for viewing leader authenticity. Moreover, the emergence of a limited number of critiques (Cooper et al., 2005; Price,2003; Shaw, 2010; Yammarino et al., 2008), and the increasing number of reviews/summaries (Avolio, 2010; Avolio, Walumbwa,& Weber, 2009; Avolio & Wernsing, 2008; Champy, 2009; Gardner, Avolio, & Walumbwa, 2005a; Gardner & Schermerhorn, 2004;George et al., 2007; Goffee & Jones, 2005; Hannah, 2007; Toor, Ofori, & Arain, 2007) reinforces our conclusion that the field may betaking some initial steps into the second stage of construct development — concept evaluation and argumentation (Reichers &Schneider, 1990).3.5.2. Centrality of ALA summary of publications that focused on AL as the central construct of interest is also provided in Table 4. Across time periods, AL has served as the primary focus for approximately three-quarters of the publications. This finding suggests that, befittingits first stage status, AL is not often invoked as a peripheral construct, such as a mediating or moderating variable within the context of a broader theory, as would be the case in Reichers and Schneider’s (1990) third stage of construct development, conceptconsolidation and accommodation.3.6. Theoretical foundationsAs part of our content analysis, each coder recorded the primary theoretical foundations they viewed as underlying the discussion of AL through an open-ended, qualitative coding process (Lee, 1999). The theories identified were subsequently grouped intonine categories through a data reduction process. These categories are: (1) AL theory; (2) authenticity/self/identity; (3) affectiveprocesses; (4) attribution theory/social perception; (5) ethics/values/ethical leadership; (6) neo-charismatic leadership theories;(7) positive psychology/positive organizational behavior (POB)/positive organizational scholarship (POS); (8) well-being/vitalengagement, and (9) other/not applicable. Next, these categories were used to code the theoretical foundations underlyingeach publication. Table 4 includes a summary of the results across time periods and Table 5 presents a summary of the citationsTable 5Foundational citations. CitationGardner, Avolio, Luthans et al. (2005)Number of times identified as foundation44Luthans and Avolio (2003)43Avolio and Gardner (2005)33Avolio, Gardner, et al., 200432Bass and Steidlmeier (1999)23George (2003)19May et al. (2003)19Ilies et al. (2005)17Harter (2002)15Shamir and Eilam (2005)13Kernis (2003)11Avolio, Luthans, et al., 200410Burns (1978)9Erickson (1995)9Luthans (2002a,b)9Walumbwa et al. (2008)9Avolio and Luthans (2006)8Deci and Ryan (1995)6Avolio (2005)5Bass (1985)5Markus and Wurf (1987)87 additional articles5b5 1128 W.L. Gardner et al. / The Leadership Quarterly 22 (2011) 1120–1145most frequently identified by one or more coders as a theoretical foundation for the publication reviewed. We provide a moredetailed discussion of these below.3.6.1. AL theoryTheories focused on AL and/or AL development per se, as opposed to authenticity in general, or theories that provided the conceptual underpinnings for AL theory, were grouped into this category. These include the perspectives previously examined duringour discussion of the AL definitions presented in Table 1. Hence many of the publications that advanced or extended initial modelsof AL fall within this category (e.g., Avolio, 2005; Avolio & Gardner, 2005; Avolio & Luthans, 2006; Avolio, Gardner et al., 2004;Bass & Steidlmeier, 1999; Bhindi & Duignan, 1997; Duignan & Bhindi, 1997; Gardner, Avolio, Luthans et al., 2005; George,2003; Ilies et al., 2005; Luthans & Avolio, 2003; May et al., 2003; Shamir & Eilam, 2005; Walumbwa et al., 2008); not surprisingly,they are also well represented among foundational citations in Table 5. An examination of Table 4 reveals that while the majority(31) of publications that built upon AL theory appeared during the fertile 2005–2006 time period, work in the area continues todraw upon these theories as the field matures.3.6.2. Authenticity/self/identityGiven that the construct of authenticity lies at the core of AL theory (Luthans & Avolio, 2003), theories of the self, identity, andauthenticity (Leary & Tangney, 2003), have played a key role in the development of the field. As Table 4 indicates, such theoriesare second only to AL theory (78) with regard to the number of times (30) they were coded as providing foundational support.Indeed, the influence of these perspectives has remained constant across time periods.Many of the AL publications (Avolio, Gardner et al., 2004; Gardner, Avolio, Luthans et al., 2005; Ilies et al., 2005; Luthans &Avolio, 2003; Shamir & Eilam, 2005) identified as foundational in Table 5 advanced models that incorporate self-based constructs(e.g., self-awareness, self-regulation, self-knowledge, self-esteem, self-verification, self-concept clarity, self-certainty, selfdetermination, self-congruence, self-consistency, self-concordance, self-expression) and identification processes described by social psychologists (Leary & Tangney, 2003). In addition, reflections on authenticity from other disciplines including hermeneuticphilosophy (Ricoeur, 1976), aesthetics (Baumgarten, 1750; reprinted in 1936), acting (Stanislavski, 1936), and management history (Barnard, 1938, 1948), respectively, inspired the novel perspectives of AL advanced by Sparrowe (2005), Hansen and associates (2007), Ladkin and Taylor (2010), and Novicevic, Davis, Dorn, Buckley, and Brown (2005). Given the diverse conceptions ofself, identity and authenticity available, we anticipate that theorists will continue to draw from a rich array of disciplines to generate new and intriguing perspectives on AL.3.6.3. Affective processesFoundational theories subsumed under this category include affective events theory (Weiss & Cropanzano, 1996), Ashkanasy’s(2003) multi-level theory of emotions, Oakley’s (1993) theory of morality and emotions, theories of emotional intelligence (Goleman,1995; Mayer, Caruso, & Salovey, 1999) and emotional labor (Ashforth & Humphrey, 1993; Grandey, 2000; Hochschild, 1983). To date,AL scholars have applied these affective process theories to clarify how: (1) followers’ attributions of AL elicit positive and negative emotional reactions (Dasborough & Ashkanasy, 2005); (2) positive other-directed emotions motivate authentic leaders to act on selftranscendent universal and benevolent values and exhibit self-transcendent behavior (Michie & Gooty, 2005); (3) emotional intelligencefosters self-awareness and thereby contributes to the development of AL (Klenke, 2005); and (4) display rules inherent to the leadershiprole exert pressures on leaders to engage in emotional labor that may compromise their quest for authenticity (Gardner, Fischer, & Hunt,2009; Hunt, Gardner, & Fischer, 2008). Although three out of five of these publications appeared during the 2005–2006 time period, theyhave yet to generate subsequent theoretical or empirical work. Nonetheless, given the importance of emotions to the experience, perception, and expression of authenticity (Harter, 2002; Hochschild, 1983), we consider further explorations of the affective processes underlying authentic leader–follower relationships to be crucial for the advancement of the field.3.6.4. Attribution theory/social perceptionFoundational theories grouped into this category include attribution theory (Heider, 1958; Kelley, 1973; Martinko, Harvey, &Douglas, 2007) and theories of social (e.g., Kenny, 1991) and leader (Lord & Emrich, 2000; Meindl, Ehrlich, & Dukerich, 1985) perception. Only four AL publications were identified as building upon models of attribution (Avolio & Walumbwa, 2006; Dasborough &Ashkanasy, 2005; Harvey, Martinko, & Gardner, 2006) and social perception (Fields, 2007) (see Table 4). Representative of the formeris Harvey and colleagues’ (2006) use of attribution theory to explain how an accurate and balanced attribution style can facilitate ALand how organizations can foster its development by heightening awareness of factors which promote inaccurate attributions. Fields(2007) applied Kenny’s (1991) Weighted Average Model of social perception to explain how the attributes and actions of a leader andaspects of the situation impact how much followers agree that a leader exhibits authenticity and integrity. Despite the modest use ofthese theories to date, they possess promise for clarifying the influence of attribution and perceptual processes on the creation of authentic leader–follower relationships.3.6.5. Ethics/values/ethical leadershipThere has been some disagreement within the AL literature about the inclusion of ethics as a core component. While there is a consensus that staying true to one’s values is important, Shamir and Eilam (2005) purposely avoided saying anything about the ethical content of the leader’s values. In contrast, Avolio and Gardner (2005) argued that the construct is inherently moral, and Walumbwa andcolleagues’ (2008) operationalized an internalized moral perspective as a basic component of AL. On balance, it appears that much ofW.L. Gardner et al. / The Leadership Quarterly 22 (2011) 1120–1145 1129“the literature strongly connects authentic leadership with moral leadership” (Ladkin & Taylor, 2010, p. 65). This helps to explain whytheories of ethics (e.g., Hutchinson, 1995; Kegan, 1982; Kohlberg, 1984), values (e.g., Oakley, 1993; Schwartz, 1992), ethical leadership(e.g., Brown & Trevino, 2006) and spiritual leadership (e.g., Fry, 2003, 2005) have exerted an important influence on the development ofthe field. Although Table 4 reveals that a relatively high number (18) of publications use ethical or values-based frameworks, the numberhas declined in recent years. Perhaps this trend is attributable to the explicit inclusion of an ethical component in most conceptions of AL,which precludes the need to reference the more foundational work as AL theory becomes further developed. Nonetheless, given the richness of ethical theory and the insights available from ongoing work on ethical leadership (Brown & Trevino, 2006), spiritual leadership(Fry & Whittington, 2005), and moral development (Ambrose, Arnaud, & Schminke, 2008), we encourage AL scholars to continue to explore the implications of these perspectives.3.6.6. Neo-charismatic leadershipThe term neo-charismatic leadership approaches was coined by House and Aditya (1997) to describe a newly emergent leadership paradigm that encompasses theories of charismatic, transformational, and visionary leadership. As previously noted, Bass andSteidlmeier’s (1999) discussion of authentic transformational leadership served as a stimulus for interest in the construct of AL. Similarly, Luthans and Avolio (2003) readily acknowledged the influence of transformational leadership on their conception of AL. Asthe field has matured, sharper distinctions between authentic and transformational leadership have been drawn. For example,Avolio and Gardner (2005) describe AL as a root construct that serves as the basis for all forms of positive leadership. They go onto assert that AL “can incorporate transformational, charismatic, servant, spiritual or other forms of leadership. However, in contrastto transformational leadership in particular, authentic leadership may or may not be charismatic” (p. 329). Furthermore, Walumbwaand colleagues (2008) demonstrated that the ALQ accounts for variance beyond measures of transformational (Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire, MLQ, Form 5x; Bass & Avolio, 1993) and ethical leadership (Brown, Trevino, & Harrison, 2005), thereby providing evidence for the discriminant validity of the AL construct. As such, perhaps it is not surprising that relatively few (eight) ALpublications identify neo-charismatic leadership theories as foundational, despite the early association of the constructs.An example of a recent article that explicitly specifies transformational leadership as foundational is Spitzmuller and Ilies(2010) empirical examination of the relationship between a leader’s relational authenticity and follower assessments of transformational leadership. They posited that a strong relational orientation by an authentic leader would foster open and trusting leader–follower relationships, follower identification with the leader, and attributions of leader integrity, yielding elevatedperceptions of individualized consideration, idealized influence, and inspirational motivation — three core components of transformational leadership. To test their hypotheses, Spitzmuller and Ilies administered Goldman and Kernis’s (2001) AuthenticityInventory as a measure of leader authenticity to 91 mid-level managers and the MLQ to 379 of their subordinates (4.17 per manager). As predicted, more as opposed to less relationally authentic leaders were rated as more transformational and producedgreater convergence in followers’ perceptions of transformational behavior. However, other components of leader authenticity,such as behavioral authenticity, were unrelated to transformational leadership.Overall, these findings indicate that while relational transparency on the part of an authentic leader serves to elicit perceptionsof transformational leadership, these constructs are nonetheless conceptually distinct. Moreover, they suggest that additional research that clarifies the relationships between transformational leadership, as well as charismatic, visionary and other forms ofneo-charismatic leadership, is warranted.3.6.7. Positive psychology/POB/POSAs noted earlier, Luthans and Avolio (2003) were inspired, in part, by the emergence of positive psychology (Harter, 2002;Seligman & Csikszentmihalyi, 2000), POB (Luthans, 2002) and POS (Cameron, Dutton, & Quinn, 2003). Indeed, they originally included the POB states of confidence, optimism, hope and resilience identified by Luthans (2002) as qualities of the authentic leader. Subsequent conceptions of the construct view these POB states as separate, but related constructs (Avolio & Gardner, 2005;Gardner et al., 2005a). The POB states that Luthans and associates (2007) later renamed psychological capital (PsyCap) continueto provide a theoretical foundation for AL research. Table 4 indicates that 13 publications identify POB, POS or PsyCap as foundational constructs, with interest in the relationships between these states and AL increasing over time (Avolio, Griffith, Wernsing, &Walumbwa, 2010; Brown & Gardner, 2007; Clapp-Smith, Vogelgesang, & Avey, 2009; Jensen & Luthans, 2006b; Klenke, 2005;Kolditz & Brazil, 2005; Macik-Frey, Quick, & Cooper, 2009; Shirey, 2009; Wong & Cummings, 2009a; Yammarino et al., 2008;Youssef & Luthans, 2005).Representative of this work is Clapp-Smith and colleagues’ (2009) investigation of the relationships between AL, trust in management, PsyCap, and performance at the group level using a sample of retail clothing stores. The results revealed that trust inmanagement mediated the relationship between PsyCap and performance, and partially mediated the relationship between ALand performance. Promising findings such as these demonstrate the relevance of PsyCap to AL and the utility of exploring theeffects of both constructs on trust and performance. We join Avolio and colleagues (Avolio, Gardner et al., 2004; Avolio et al.,2010; Gardner et al., 2005a) in advocating further research into the interactive effects of AL, PsyCap, positive ethical climates,trust, identification processes, and follower work attitudes on the attainment of veritable and sustained follower and organizational performance.3.6.8. Well-being/vital engagementDuring the peak of theory generation in 2005, three influential perspectives (see Table 5) were advanced by Gardner, Avolio,Luthans et al. (2005), Ilies and colleagues (2005), and Shamir and Eilam (2005), each of which identified follower and leader well-1130 W.L. Gardner et al. / The Leadership Quarterly 22 (2011) 1120–1145being and engagement as outcomes of AL. The reason for this confluence is that these scholars each recognized the documentedrelationships between authenticity, engagement, and well-being (Deci & Ryan, 1995; Kernis, 2003; Kernis & Goldman, 2006). AsTable 4 indicates, five recent publications (Gardner et al., 2009; Giallonardo, Wong, & Iwasiw, 2010; Macik-Frey et al., 2009;Walumbwa, Wang, Wang, Schaubroeck, & Avolio, 2010; Wong & Cummings, 2009a) have built on the work of these and otherscholars in exploring the relationships between AL and leader and/or follower engagement, empowerment and well-being.Representative of this work is Walumbwa and associates’ (2010) recent study of the direct and indirect effects of AL on followers’ work engagement and organizational citizenship behaviors (OCBs). Using a sample of managers and their direct reports,they showed that AL elicits elevated levels of follower work engagement and OCB, and that these relationships were mediated byfeelings of empowerment and identification with the supervisor, as posited by foundational AL models (Gardner, Avolio, Luthanset al., 2005; Ilies et al., 2005; Shamir & Eilam, 2005). Given both the theoretical and practical importance of work engagement andemployee well-being, we encourage research on the positive effects of AL on these and related outcomes (e.g., job satisfaction,organizational commitment, and employee and organizational performance).3.6.9. Other theoretical foundations/not applicableThis category encompasses theoretical foundations for AL research that were not subsumed by any of the preceding categories.As Table 4 indicates, nine publications identified theoretical foundations that fell into this category, one of which was classified as“not applicable” because it used an inductive, qualitative methodology that was not grounded in established theory (Dillon,2001). The foundational theories that were grouped into the “other” category, along with the AL publications associated withthese theories include: (1) social cognitive theory (Chan, Hannah, & Gardner, 2005); (2) political leadership (Pittinsky & Tyson,2005); (3) political skill (Douglas, Ferris, & Perrewe, 2005); (4) role incongruity theory (Eagly, 2005); (5) strategy making (Liedtka,2008); (6) organizational learning (Crossan, Lane, & White, 1999); (7) method acting (Ladkin & Taylor, 2010), and (8) positive health(Macik-Frey et al., 2009). As a group, these publications demonstrate the utility of applying diverse theoretical frameworks to thestudy of AL to gain novel insights into the process.3.7. Research methods employed in empirical AL articlesDue to the nascent nature of AL research, only 25 empirical publications were identified through our literature search. Toprovide an assessment of the types of methods adopted by AL researchers, we distinguished between qualitative and quantitative studies to identify the research strategies employed across time periods. Table 6 presents a summary of the results.As the table indicates, nine and 16 studies, respectively, employed qualitative methods and quantitative methods. This represents a relatively high percentage (36%) of qualitative studies compared to the low amount (12.2%) identified by Glynnand Raffaelli (2010) in a recent content analysis of leadership publications appearing in three top tier journals (Academy ofManagement Journal, Administrative Science Quarterly, and Organization Science) and one special journal (The LeadershipQuarterly, LQ) over the past 50 years (1957–2007). It also compares favorably with the percentage (24.1%) identified byGardner and colleagues (2010) in their recent review of articles published in LQ during the journal’s second decade. In contrast, an earlier review of LQ’s first decade of research (Lowe & Gardner, 2000) reported a higher amount of qualitative studies(39%). Perhaps the shift in the numbers of qualitative versus quantitative studies published in LQ reflects a maturation ofthe leadership field, as many researchers favor the use of qualitative methods to generate new theories and quantitativemethods to test existing theories (Edmondson & McManus, 2007). This explanation may also account for the relativelyhigh percentage of qualitative studies of AL, given that the construct appears to be in Reichers and Schneider’s (1990) firststage of development.3.7.1. Qualitative researchFor the qualitative studies, we coded the method of data collection (focus group, case study, interview, narrative, and participant observation), country where the research was conducted, data analysis techniques (meaning condensation, meaning categories, and ad hoc methods), and whether issues of credibility, transferability, or dependability were discussed (Lee, 1999). Theresults, summarized in Table 6, indicate that no particular form of data collection method was favored, as focus groups (Pittinsky& Tyson, 2005), case studies (Bissessar, 2010; Branson, 2007; Dillon, 2001), interviews (Dillon, 2001; Endrissat, Muller, &Kaudela-Baum, 2007; Higham et al., 2010; Shirey, 2009), narrative analysis (Liu, 2010; Roche, 2010), and participant observation(Higham et al., 2010) were all employed. In addition, the research was conducted in a wide range of settings, from Trinidad andTobago to Australia and New Zealand.With respect to data analytic techniques (Lee, 1999), some studies focused on abstracting the most important themes from thedata through meaning condensation (Dillon, 2001; Endrissat et al., 2007; Higham et al., 2010; Roche, 2010), others used meaningcategorization methods to group the data into quantifiable categories (Dillon, 2001; Liu, 2010; Pittinsky & Tyson, 2005; Shirey,2009), and still others employed ad hoc methods (Bissessar, 2010; Branson, 2007). Only two studies (Dillon, 2001; Endrissatet al., 2007) addressed the issue of data credibility, as recommended by Lee (1999). Thus, while we commend scholars whohave applied qualitative methods to explore AL for the breadth of methods adopted, we encourage researchers to devote greaterattention to assessing the credibility, transferability, and dependability of their findings.W.L. Gardner et al. / The Leadership Quarterly 22 (2011) 1120–1145 1131Table 6Summary of research methods employed in empirical publications by time period.Time periodPre-2003 2003–2004 2005–2006 2007–2008 2009–2010 Total Publication typeQualitative101259Quantitative2033816Qualitative publicationsMethod of data collectionFocus group11Case study1113Interview123NarrativeParticipant observation2121Country of studyAustralia112New Zealand11Switzerland11Trinidad and Tobago11United States1113Not reported11Data analysis techniquesMeaning condensation1124Meaning categories1124Ad hoc methodsCredibility/transferability/dependabilityQuantitative publicationsResearch strategyField study-primaryField study-secondaryInterview1121122336141111Survey223815Scale development112Sample typePrivate/for profitPublic/governmentStudentMixed224213212142Not reported33Country of studyCanada33China112Singapore11United States22138Not reportedMixed (multiple countries)Time frameCross-sectionalLongitudinalReliability estimates provided?Construct validity assessment12311231612224232613Confirmatory factor analysis123Exploratory factor analysis12141Discriminant validity1Interrater reliability11Level of analysis for dependent variableIndividual132713OrganizationN/AAnalyses22411Analysis of variance22Linear regression134Content analysis11Correlation232613Nonparametric techniques11FactoringSEM/path analysis12227134Multi-level methods (HLM, WABA)1124 1132 W.L. Gardner et al. / The Leadership Quarterly 22 (2011) 1120–11453.7.2. Quantitative researchWe coded the quantitative studies with respect to the research strategy, sample type, country where the study was conducted,time frame (cross-sectional versus longitudinal), provision of reliability estimates, assessment of construct validity, level of analysis for the dependent variable, and method of statistical analysis. To code the research strategy, we adopted a categorizationscheme developed by Scandura and Williams (2000) which includes the following categories: sample survey, lab experiment, experimental simulation, field study-primary, field study-secondary, field experiment, judgment task, computer simulation, andcontent analysis. Surprisingly, 15 of the 16 studies used a field study methodology, with 14 of these collecting primary dataand one collecting secondary data. Another surprise was that 15 of 16 used survey methods and one used interviews. Thus, mirroring Scandura and Williams (2000) findings, one recommendation for future AL research is to use a wider array of methods.With respect to sample type, a balanced mixture of private/for profit (e.g., Clapp-Smith et al., 2009), public/government (e.g.,Hoy & Henderson, 1983), student (e.g., Tate, 2008) and mixed samples (e.g., Walumbwa et al., 2008) was revealed. In comparisonto other social science disciplines that have been criticized for overreliance on student samples (Gordon, Slade, & Schmitt, 1986),the predominance of field samples composed of working adults is a strength of AL research. While most (8) of the quantitativestudies were conducted in the United States, three used Canadian samples (e.g., Giallonardo et al., 2010), two used Chinese samples (e.g., Walumbwa et al., 2010), one used a sample from Singapore (Toor & Ofori, 2009), one used multiple country samples(Walumbwa et al., 2008), and three did not report the sample location (Brown & Gardner, 2007; Eigel & Kuhnert, 2005; Tate,2008).As is the case for leadership research in general (Gardner et al., 2010), most (12) of the quantitative studies employed crosssectional designs; only four used longitudinal designs (Clapp-Smith et al., 2009; Roche, 2010; Tate, 2008; Walumbwa et al., 2008).Accordingly, we echo the calls for more longitudinal designs that are often made by leadership scholars (e.g., Hunt, 2004). Moreover, the heavy reliance on cross-sectional designs and survey measures raises concerns about the susceptibility of the availableresearch to common method bias (Podsakoff, MacKenzie, Lee, & Podsakoff, 2003; Podsakoff & Organ, 1986). On a positive note, all13 of the studies that used surveys reported reliabilities for the instruments administered.Nine of the 16 quantitative studies reported some form of construct validity assessment, with exploratory factor analysis beingused most often (four studies), followed by confirmatory factor analysis (three studies), inter-rater reliability (one study), anddiscriminant validity (one study) assessments. Given that the field is at an early stage in the operationalization of AL measures,it is disconcerting that greater attention is not devoted to assessing the validity of these measures. One exception is theWalumbwa et al. (2008) study, which used multiple samples obtained from China, Kenya and the United States to perform multiple confirmatory factor analyses to assess the discriminant validity of the ALQ relative to existing measures of transformational(MLQ, Form 5X: Bass & Avolio, 1993) and ethical leadership (ELQ; Brown & Trevino, 2006). Still, further assessment of the ALQ’sconstruct validity is needed, as well as alternative (e.g., experimental, implicit measures) approaches to operationalizing theconstruct.Most (13) of the studies were conducted at the individual level of analysis, with four (Clapp-Smith et al., 2009; Henderson& Hoy, 1983; Hoy & Henderson, 1983; Roche, 2010) focused on the organizational level. The absence of research at the grouplevel is somewhat surprising, given the posited effects of authentic leadership on group processes (Avolio & Gardner, 2005;Gardner, Avolio, Luthans et al., 2005). This result reinforces an earlier finding of Yammarino et al. (2008) that most AL research focuses on the individual level of analysis. Accordingly, we join in their call and that of others (Cooper et al., 2005)for greater conceptualization and empirical attention to the operation of AL at, and across, the group and organizational levelsof analysis.Finally, our coding of the methods of statistical analysis employed revealed that simple correlations were used most often (13studies), followed by factor analytical techniques (seven studies), multi-level methods (e.g., HLM, WABA; four studies), linear regression (four studies), structural equations methods/path analysis (four studies), analysis of variance (two studies), content analysis (one study) and nonparametric techniques (one study). An examination of methods across time periods reveals that moresophisticated tools (e.g., analysis of variance, HLM/WABA, linear regression) have been adopted in recent years. This finding providesadditional evidence that the field is maturing, and perhaps taking initial steps toward stage two of Reichers and Schneider’s (1990)model, concept evaluation and augmentation.3.7.3. AL measuresAs noted in our historical review, the first attempt to operationalize leader authenticity was made by Henderson and Hoy(1983). Although Seeman (1966), Halpin and Croft (1966), and Brumbaugh (1971) had previously examined the constructs ofauthenticity and inauthenticity in organizations, including their implications for and manifestation through leadership, Halpinand Croft used subscales of the Organizational Climate Descriptive Questionnaire (OCDQ) to serve as proxy measures of individual(via the thrust scale) and organizational (via the esprit scale) authenticity, whereas Seeman and Brumbaugh used Seeman’s Ambivalence Toward Leadership Ideology (Inauthenticity) Scale to assess the inauthenticity of leaders.Henderson and Hoy (1983) developed a 32-item scale, the Leader Authenticity Inventory (LAI), as a tool for measuring each ofthe three components of leader authenticity they proposed. Using teachers and principals from elementary schools, limited support for the validity of the scale was provided by the positive correlations with the thrust and esprit scales of the OCDQ, aspredicted. Nevertheless, an examination of the scale’s items (e.g., “The principal is obsessed with rules”; “The principal nevertalks to teachers about personal concerns”; “The principal usually has teachers do things to make the principal look good”) raisesconcerns about its construct validity and generalizability. Specifically, the focus on perceived as opposed to felt leaderW.L. Gardner et al. / The Leadership Quarterly 22 (2011) 1120–1145 1133authenticity, follower manipulation, and the context-specific nature of the items may explain why this measure was not used extensively and interest in AL waned after its introduction.With the reemergence of scholarly interest in AL following Luthans and Avolio’s (2003) call for research, investigators havesought to operationalize the construct using alternatives to the LAI. A summary of the construct labels, conceptual definitions,and the operationalized dimensions and measures developed is provided in Table 7. Of the available measures, the ALQ, whichis grounded in Avolio, Gardner, Luthans, May, Walumbwa and colleagues (Avolio & Gardner, 2005; Gardner, Avolio, Luthanset al., 2005; Walumbwa et al., 2008) perspective of AL, which is in turn derived from Kernis and Goldman’s (2006) multicomponent conception of authenticity, is the most frequently used measure of AL (used in four publications and multiple samples). While psychometric support for Kernis and Goldman’s (2005, 2006) Authenticity Inventory (AI: 3) is also available, this instrument is designed to measure individual authenticity, as opposed to AL.Prior to the availability of the ALQ, researchers were faced with a dilemma when attempting to operationalize AL.Jensen and Luthans (2006a,b) did so by summing scores of selected items from the MLQ (Form 5X; Bass & Avolio, 1993),ENTRESCALE (Entrepreneurial Orientation; Knight, 1997); and Ethical Climate Scale (ECQ; Victor & Cullen, 1988). Wongand Cummings (2009b) used seven items from the Leadership Practices Inventory (LPI; Kouzes & Posner, 2003) to operationalize seven posited dimensions of AL, an approach that is troubling due to the limitations of single item scales. More generally, the adoption of items from existing scales as proxies for AL is problematic since these instruments were developed tooperationalize constructs that may overlap conceptually with AL, but are nevertheless distinct. Tate (2008) avoided thisshortcoming by creating an original measure of AL based on George’s (2003) conception of the construct. However, concernsabout this measure pertain to its theoretical underpinnings, given George’s (2003) practitioner focus, and the lack of validation evidence.The development of standardized and validated measures of authenticity and AL partially accounts for the upswingin empirical research, as the majority of recent studies have employed either the AI: 3 (Spitzmuller & Ilies, 2010; Toor& Ofori, 2009) or the ALQ (Clapp-Smith et al., 2009; Giallonardo et al., 2010; Walumbwa et al., 2010; Wong, SpenceLaschinger, & Cummings, 2010) to operationalize AL. We anticipate that access to these instruments will further stimulateempirical investigations of AL and its development. Evidence of such stimulation is provided by the submission of nearly600 inquiries to review the ALQ, which is made available at no cost to researchers at http://www.mindgarden.com/products/alq.htm. Based on an analysis of the abstracts submitted along with the request to use the ALQ, there are atleast several hundred or more ongoing research studies examining AL (B. Avolio, personal communication, January 24,2011). Still, further psychometric assessments and possible refinements of the AI: 3 and ALQ along the lines demonstratedby Schriesheim and Cogliser (2010) for the LMX-7 Scale (Graen & Uhl-Bien, 1995), is encouraged. Additionally, alternative operationalizations of the authenticity and AL constructs to facilitate triangulation (Neuman, 2002), is merited. Finally, research thatexamines the relationships between such measures would provide insight into the interplay between individual authenticityand AL.3.8. Mapping the nomological net for ALAn essential facet of the process of theory development is the establishment of the construct validity of the focal constructs ofinterest (Reichers & Schneider, 1990). Cronbach and Meehl (1955) assert that to provide evidence of construct validity, the nomological network for one’s measures must be developed. This network includes the theoretical framework that specifies thefocal constructs, the empirical framework that delineates how these constructs are operationalized, and the specification of thelinkages between and among these constructs.To explicate the nomological network for AL, we provide a summary of the constructs that have been posited to be antecedents and outcomes of AL in quantitative studies, as well as the degree of support obtained for the hypothesized relationships, inTable 8. At the outset, several limitations of the literature reviewed to establish this nomological network should be noted. First,we excluded studies that employed qualitative methods because such studies typically adopted inductive processes that do notposit a priori hypotheses or assess the strength of the relationships identified. Second, while our review of the theoretical publications revealed that authentic leadership has been conceptualized as an independent (nine times), dependent (five times), mediating (four times) and moderating (three times) variable, empirical investigations of the construct have predominately viewedit as an independent or a mediating variable. Indeed, none of the quantitative studies posited that AL serves as a moderator, andonly one examined AL as the dependent variable. Hence, only constructs that are hypothesized to serve as antecedents and outcomes of AL are presented in Table 8. Third, given the cross-sectional, non-experimental designs that dominant the extant literature, it is impossible to draw causal inferences about the relationships identified. Therefore, our use of the terms independentand dependent variable, as well as antecedents and outcomes, is potentially misleading, since the research designs employedin most cases simply identified variables that are significantly correlated with AL. Nonetheless, we based our conclusions aboutwhether a particular variable served as an antecedent or outcome of AL on the nature of the relationship posited by the authors,even if the research methods adopted preclude causal conclusions. Fourth, given the nascent state of AL research, we summarizethe posited relationships advanced in empirical articles and the degree of support obtained, without consistently assessing thequality of the research upon which such conclusions are based. In light of the limitations of the empirical research previously described in Sections 3.7.2 and 3.7.3, such findings should be considered tentative until they can be replicated using more sophisticated and diverse research designs.1134 W.L. Gardner et al. / The Leadership Quarterly 22 (2011) 1120–1145Table 7Summary of conceptual definitions and measures of authentic leadership used in quantitative empirical articles.Study and construct label Reported conceptual definition Operationalized dimensionality and measure usedHenderson and Hoy (1983)Leader Authenticity “The extent to which subordinates perceive their leader to demonstrate theacceptance of organizational and personal responsibility for actions, outcomes,and mistakes; to be non-manipulating of subordinates; and to exhibit salience ofself over role. Leadership inauthenticity is defined as the extent to which subordinates perceive their leader to be ‘passing the buck’ and blaming others andcircumstances for errors and outcomes; to be manipulative of subordinates;and to be demonstrating a salience of role over self” (Henderson & Hoy, 1983,pp. 67–68)Leader Authenticity Scale (LAS, developed for this study); 32 itemsHoy and Henderson (1983)Leader Authenticity “The extent to which subordinates described their leader as acceptingresponsibility for actions, as being non-manipulating, and as demonstrating asalience of self over role. In contrast, the inauthentic leader was viewed as onewho ‘passes the buck,’ blames others and circumstances for his/her errors, manipulates and uses subordinates, and is engulfed in the bureaucratic role requirements of the position” (p. 124; adapted from Henderson & Hoy, 1983).Leader Authenticity Scale (LAS, Henderson & Hoy, 1983); 32 itemsEigel and Kuhnert (2005)Leadership Development Level As leaders move from lower to higher LDLs [Leadership Development Level],there is a transition in the knowing self realm (intrapersonal) from an externallydefined understanding of self to an internally defined understanding of self, inthe knowing others realm (interpersonal) from self-focus to other-focus, and inthe knowing our world realm (cognitive) from simplicity to complexity…. Thehighest LDLs exhibit … a more authentic way to lead (p. 361).Leadership Development Level semi-structured interview (no citation provided);interview coded into 20 scores (five distinctions for each of the four LDLs)Jensen and Luthans (2006a)Authentic Leadership “A process that draws from both positive psychological capacities and a highlydeveloped organizational context, which results in both greater self-awarenessand self-regulated positive behavior on the part of leaders and employees, fostering positive self-development. The authentic leader is confident, hopeful, optimistic, resilient, transparent, moral/ethical, future-oriented, and gives priorityto developing employees to be leaders” (p. 647; from Luthans & Avolio, 2003,p. 243).Authentic Leadership (Jensen & Luthans, 2006b); summed scores from thefollowing 3 measures: 30 items from the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire(MLQ, Form 5X; Bass & Avolio, 1993); 8 items from the ENTRESCALE(Entrepreneurial Orientation; Knight (1997); and 7 items from the caring andreverse-scored items of the Ethical Climate Questionnaire (ECQ; Victor & Cullen,1988)Jensen and Luthans (2006b)Authentic Entrepreneurial Leadership “An authentic leader is one who is not only true to him/herself, but behaves insuch a way that followers are also able to gain self-awareness and psychologicalstrength” (p. 256; adapted from Luthans & Avolio, 2003). “An authentic leaderknows him/herself, and acts in accordance with those beliefs, creating a futureoriented ethical, follower-building climate” (p. 263; Avolio, Gardner et al., 2004;Avolio, Luthans et al., 2004; Luthans & Avolio, 2003).Authentic Leadership (Jensen & Luthans, 2006b); summed scores from thefollowing 3 measures: 30 items from the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire(MLQ, Form 5X; Bass & Avolio, 1993); 8 items from the ENTRESCALE(Entrepreneurial Orientation; Knight (1997); and 7 items from the caring andreverse-scored items of the Ethical Climate Questionnaire (ECQ; Victor & Cullen,1988)Brown and Gardner (2007)Authentic Leadership “A process that draws from both positive psychological capabilities and a highlydeveloped organizational context, which results in both greater self-awarenessand self-regulated positive behaviors on the part of both leaders and associates,fostering positive self development” (p. 56, from Luthans & Avolio, p. 243).Examined the positive role modeling component of the authentic leadershipprocess (Gardner, Avolio, Luthans et al., 2005) including leader integrity throughstructured and open-ended questions.Tate (2008)Authentic Leadership “…a form of leadership concerned with developing positive leader–followerrelationships (May et al., 2003), high moral standards, and integrity (Avolio,Gardner et al., 2004)” (p. 18). Authentic leadership measure was based onGeorge’s (2003) five dimensions of authentic leadership: demonstrating selfAuthentic Leadership (developed for this study). 17 items based on George’s(2003) conceptual dimensions of authentic leadership. Three subscales: selfdiscipline and ethical standards (9 items), establishing positive relationships (4items), and passion for purpose (4 items). 17 items summed to form compositeauthentic leadership score.(continued on next page)W.L. Gardner et al. / The Leadership Quarterly 22 (2011) 1120–1145 1135Table 7 (continued)Study and construct label Reported conceptual definition Operationalized dimensionality and measure useddiscipline, leading with heart, establishing enduring relationships, practicingsolid values, and passion for purpose.Walumbwa et al. (2008)Authentic Leadership “[A] pattern of leader behavior that draws upon and promotes both positivepsychological capacities and a positive ethical climate, to foster greater selfawareness, an internalized moral perspective, balanced processing of information, and relational transparency on the part of leaders working with followers,fostering positive self-development” (p. 94)Authentic Leadership Questionnaire (ALQ; developed for this study). 16 items. 4subscales: self-awareness (4 items), relational transparency (5 items), internalized moral perspective (4 items), and balanced processing (3 items). Four dimensions formed a higher-order Authentic Leadership factor.Clapp-Smith et al. (2009)Authentic Leadership “A process by which leaders are deeply aware of how they think and behave, ofthe context in which they operate, and are perceived by others as being aware oftheir own and others’ values/moral perspectives, knowledge, and strengths” (p.229; adapted from Avolio, Gardner et al., 2004; Avolio, Luthans et al., 2004)ALQ (Walumbwa et al., 2008). 16 items. 4 subscales: self-awareness (4 items),relational transparency (5 items), internalized moral perspective (4 items), andbalanced processing (3 items). 16 items summed to form composite authenticleadership score.Toor and Ofori (2009)Authentic Leadership “[A] pattern of leader behavior that draws upon and promotes both positivepsychological capacities and a positive ethical climate, to foster greater selfawareness, an internalized moral perspective, balanced processing of information, and relational transparency on the part of leaders working with followers,fostering positive self-development” (p. 301, from Walumbwa et al., 2008, p. 94).The 45-item Authenticity Inventory or AI:3 (Kernis & Goldman, 2005, 2006) 4subscales: self-awareness (12 items), unbiased processing (10 items), behavior(11 items), and relational orientation (12 items). Summed to form compositeauthenticity score.Wong & Cummings (2009a, 2009b)Authentic Leadership Authentic leadership is “a process that draws from both positive psychologicalcapacities and a highly developed organizational context, which results in bothgreater self-awareness and self-regulated positive behaviors on the part ofleaders and associates, fostering positive self-development” (p. 7, from Avolio &Gardner, 2005, p. 321).Single items reflecting 7 leadership behaviors (self-awareness, relationaltransparency, balanced processing, ethical behavior, trustworthiness,supportiveness, and empowering) selected from the Leadership PracticesInventory (LPI; Kouzes & Posner, 2003). Items used as single indicators for thelatent leadership concepts in a structural equations modeling (SEM) analysis.Giallonardo et al. (2010)Authentic Leadership “A process that ‘draws from both psychological capacities and a highly developedorganizational context, which results in both greater self-awareness and selfregulated positive behaviours on the part of leaders and associates, fosteringpositive self-development’” (p. 993, from Luthans & Avolio, 2003, p. 243).ALQ (Walumbwa et al., 2008). 16 items. Summed to form composite authenticleadership score.Spitzmuller and Ilies (2010)Leader Authenticity “Goldman and Kernis (2002) described relational authenticity as ‘involvingvaluing and achieving openness and truthfulness in one’s close relationships …and the development of mutual intimacy and trust’ (p. 19). Based on thisdefinition, Ilies et al. (2005) proposed that leaders with a relational authenticitywill strive for open and truthful relationships with their followers and suchorientation will have a number of positive outcomes” (p. 307).Leader Authenticity measured with 45 items from the Authenticity Inventory(Goldman & Kernis, 2001). 4 subscales: self-awareness (12 items), unbiasedprocessing (10 items), authentic behavior (11 items), and authentic relationalorientation (12 items). Summed to form composite authenticity score.Walumbwa et al. (2010)Authentic Leadership “Authentic leaders display four types of behaviors. These include balancedprocessing, internalized moral perspective, relational transparency, and selfawareness” (p. 902; from Gardner, Avolio, Luthans et al., 2005; Gardner et al.,2005a, 2005b; Ilies et al., 2005; Walumbwa et al., 2008).ALQ (Walumbwa et al., 2008). 16 items. 4 subscales: self-awareness (4 items),relational transparency (5 items), internalized moral perspective (4 items), andbalanced processing (3 items). 16 items summed to form composite authenticleadership score.Wong et al. (2010)Authentic Leadership Authentic leadership “focuses on the positive role modeling of honesty, integrityand high ethical standards in the development of leader–follower relationships”(p. 890).ALQ (Walumbwa et al., 2008). 16 items. 4 subscales: self-awareness (4 items),relational transparency (5 items), internalized moral perspective (4 items), andbalanced processing (3 items). 16 items summed to form composite authenticleadership score.1136 W.L. Gardner et al. / The Leadership Quarterly 22 (2011) 1120–11453.8.1. Antecedents of ALOnly two quantitative studies explored the relationships between selected antecedents and AL. In a partial test of Luthans andAvolio’s (2003) model of AL development, Jensen and Luthans (2006b) posited that the POB states of optimism, resiliency andhope, along with an aggregate measure of psychological capital (PsyCap) would be positively related to AL within a sample ofTable 8Summary of empirical findings: antecedents, outcomes, and mediators of authentic leadership.Variable Source Posited by vs. derivedfrom AL theoryPredicteddirectionFindings AntecedentsPsychological capital (PsyCap)HopeOptimismResiliencySelf-monitoringLeader outcomesContingent self-esteemEthical leadershipJensen and Luthans (2006b)Jensen and Luthans (2006b)Jensen and Luthans (2006b)Jensen and Luthans (2006b)Tate (2008)PositedPositedPositedPositedDerived++++–SupportedSupportedSupportedSupportedNot supportedToor and Ofori (2009)Walumbwa et al. (2008)DerivedDerived–+SupportedSupportedPerceptions of leadershipInitial perceptionsTate (2008)DerivedUnclearNot supportedChange in perceptionsPositive modeling (i.e., “thrust”)Psychological well beingTate (2008)Henderson and Hoy (1983)Toor and Ofori (2009)DerivedPositedPositedUnclear++Not supportedSupportedSupportedTransformational LeadershipIdealized influenceSpitzmuller and Ilies (2010)a; Walumbwa et al. (2008)Derived+SupportedIndividualized considerationSpitzmuller and Ilies (2010)a; Walumbwa et al. (2008)Derived+SupportedInspirational motivationSpitzmuller and Ilies (2010)a; Walumbwa et al. (2008)Derived+SupportedFollower outcomesBurnoutWong and Cummings (2009b)Posited–SupportedEmpowermentWalumbwa et al. (2010)Derived+SupportedEspritHenderson and Hoy (1983)Derived+SupportedIdentificationIdentification with supervisorWalumbwa et al. (2010)Posited+SupportedPersonal identificationWong et al. (2010)Posited+SupportedSocial identificationWong et al. (2010)Posited+Not supportedJob performanceWalumbwa et al. (2008);Wong and Cummings (2009b)Posited+Supported Job satisfaction Giallonardo et al. (2010);Jensen and Luthans (2006a);Walumbwa et al. (2008)Posited + SupportedOrg. citizenship behaviors (OCBs) Walumbwa et al. (2008);Walumbwa et al. (2010)Derived + Supported Organizational commitment Jensen and Luthans (2006a);Walumbwa et al. (2008)Posited++–+SupportedSatisfaction with supervisorStatus concernSupportive groupTrust in leadershipWalumbwa et al. (2008)Henderson and Hoy (1983)Wong and Cummings (2009b)Clapp-Smith et al. (2009);Wong and Cummings (2009b);Wong et al. (2010)DerivedDerivedDerivedSupportedSupportedSupported Posited + Supported Work engagement Giallonardo et al. (2010);Walumbwa et al. (2010)Posited++SupportedWork happinessJensen and Luthans (2006a)PositedSupportedOrganizational outcomesFirm financial performanceClapp-Smith et al. (2009)Hoy and Henderson (1983)Hoy and Henderson (1983)Derived++–SupportedOpenness of organizational climateDerivedSupportedPupil control orientationDerivedSupportedMediatorsAL→Follower empowerment→OCBWalumbwa et al. (2010)Derived+, +Supported AL→Identification withsupervisor→Work engagementWalumbwa et al. (2010) Posited +, + SupportedAL→Personal identification→Trust in managerWong et al. (2010) Posited +, + SupportedAL→Social identification→Trust in managerWong et al. (2010) Posited +, + Not supportedAL→Trust in leadership→Firm financial performanceClapp-Smith et al. (2009) Derived +, + SupportedAL→Work engagement→Job satisfactionGiallonardo et al. (2010) Posited +, + Partially supporteda Hypothesized relationship for the relational orientation dimension of leader authenticity.W.L. Gardner et al. / The Leadership Quarterly 22 (2011) 1120–1145 1137entrepreneurs. As previously noted, AL was operationalized by summing scores from selected items of the MLQ (Form 5X; Bass &Avolio, 1993), ENTRESCALE (Knight, 1997), and the ECQ (Victor & Cullen, 1988). The POB states were operationalized using existing measures of optimism (Shifren & Hooker, 1995), resiliency (Block & Kreman, 1996; Klohnen, 1996) and hope (Snyder et al.,1996); overall positive psychological capital (PsyCap) was operationalized by combining the standardized scores for the state optimism, resiliency, and hope measures. As predicted, both the separate POB states of optimism, resiliency, and hope and the overall measure of PsyCap were positively related to AL, providing support for Luthans and Avolio’s (2003) model. Nevertheless,because the measure of AL was created using items that were originally intended to measure other constructs (i.e., transformational leadership, entrepreneurial orientation, and ethical climate), these findings must be considered tentative until they are replicated using instruments specifically designed to measure AL, such as the ALQ.In a longitudinal study of perceptions of leadership within undergraduate student work groups over time, Tate (2008) predicted a negative relationship between self-monitoring and AL. Tate based this prediction on theory and research that suggestsboth authentic leaders (May et al., 2003) and low self-monitors (Gangestad & Snyder, 2000) behave in accordance with personalbeliefs and values. As Table 7 indicates, Tate operationalized AL using an original 17-item self-report measure based on George’s(2003) five dimension conception of AL. Although an exploratory factor analysis identified only three subscales (self-disciplineand ethical standards, establishing positive relationships, and passion for purpose) of the five dimensions conceptualized byGeorge, a composite AL score was derived by summing the 17 items was used for the analysis. Contrary to expectations, selfmonitoring was unrelated to AL.There are at least two possible explanations for this non-supportive finding. First, given that the AL measure Tate (2008) developed has not demonstrated psychometric adequacy, it is possible that the lack of support is due to limitations of the self-reportAL measure employed. Perhaps high self-monitors, who are highly responsive to social expectations (Gangestad & Snyder, 2000;Snyder, 1979), are just as likely to report themselves as authentic leaders as low self-monitors because they are responding tosocial desirable cues inherent to Tate’s measure.Second, Tate’s (2008) rationale for predicting that self-monitoring is negatively related to AL may be overly simplistic. Here, anexchange of theoretical letters between Arthur Bedeian and David Day (2004) titled “Can chameleons lead?” that appeared in TheLeadership Quarterly is particularly relevant. Consistent with Tate’s reasoning, Bedeian argues that the chameleon-like qualitiesassociated with high self-monitors are unlikely to elicit the feelings of trust among followers that promote effective and ethicalleadership. In contrast, Day notes that there is nothing inherent to high self-monitors that ensures they will act unethically or violate followers’ trust, nor is there any guarantee that the values that low self-monitors adhere to will be deemed ethical by followers. To the contrary, because high self-monitors are attuned to situational demands, they are very likely to exhibithigh ethical standards, provided the ethical climate of the organization identifies such standards as core values. Moreover,given Snyder’s (1979) assertion that the self-concept of high self-monitors is more multi-faceted than that of low selfmonitors, there is no inherent inconsistency in the notion that a high self-monitoring leader can present a self-facet that both conforms to follower expectations and reflects his or her “true self.” Hence, research that adopts a more sophisticated understandingof the self-monitoring construct is needed to fully explore the potentially complex relationship between self-monitoring and AL.3.8.2. Outcomes posited by extant models of ALIn comparison to the antecedents, the outcomes of AL, whether they are conceptualized as mediating or dependent variables,have received much greater empirical attention. We begin by examining empirical tests of relational outcomes that have beenposited by one or more models of AL. In Section 3.8.3, we discuss outcomes that, while derived from the AL literature, wereboth introduced and tested as AL consequences in the same empirical publication.Models of AL have identified a variety of outcomes including personal and social/organizational identification (Avolio, Gardneret al., 2004; Hannah, Lester, & Vogelgesang, 2005; Ilies et al., 2005), positive leader modeling (Gardner, Avolio, Luthans et al.,2005; Hannah et al., 2005; Ilies et al., 2005), trust in leadership (Avolio, Gardner et al., 2004; Chan et al., 2005; Douglas et al.,2005; Gardner, Avolio, Luthans et al., 2005; Gardner et al., 2009; Hannah et al., 2005; Hunt et al., 2008), follower job satisfaction(Avolio, Gardner et al., 2004), organizational commitment by followers (Avolio, Gardner et al., 2004), follower work engagement(Avolio, Gardner et al., 2004; Gardner, Avolio, Luthans et al., 2005), follower job performance (Chan et al., 2005; Gardner, Avolio,Luthans et al., 2005; Ilies et al., 2005), leader and follower well-being (Gardner, Avolio, Luthans et al., 2005; Gardner et al., 2009;Hunt et al., 2008; Ilies et al., 2005), and follower withdrawal behaviors (Avolio, Gardner et al., 2004), among others. As Table 8indicates, empirical tests of these posited relationships have generally produced supportive results. Specifically, AL has beenshown to be positively related to identification with supervisor (Walumbwa et al., 2010), personal identification (Wong et al.,2010), positive leader modeling (i.e., “thrust” or “the teachers’ perceptions of the principal’s efforts to motivate through personalexample”; Henderson & Hoy, 1983, p. 71), trust in leadership (Clapp-Smith et al., 2009; Wong & Cummings, 2009b; Wong et al.,2010), follower job satisfaction (Giallonardo et al., 2010; Jensen & Luthans, 2006a; Walumbwa et al., 2008), organizational commitment (Jensen & Luthans, 2006a; Walumbwa et al., 2008), follower work engagement (Giallonardo et al., 2010; Walumbwaet al., 2010), follower job performance (Walumbwa et al., 2008; Wong & Cummings, 2009b), and components of well-being, including leader psychological well being (Toor & Ofori, 2009) and follower work happiness (Jensen & Luthans, 2006a). In addition,Wong and Cummings (2009b) obtained support for a predicted negative relationship between AL and follower burnout, which isa negative indicator of well-being (Kernis, 2003).Only the positive relationship between AL and social identification proposed by Avolio, Gardner et al. (2004) failed to receivesupport (Wong et al., 2010). Thus, the prediction that AL would exert a direct effect on followers’ identification with their workgroup and the organization was not supported. However, AL was shown to exert an indirect effect on social identification through1138 W.L. Gardner et al. / The Leadership Quarterly 22 (2011) 1120–1145personal identification. Wong and colleagues (2010, p. 897) conclude that “[p]ersonal identification with authentic leaders influences followers’ workgroup and organizational identification, because the leader represents the interests of the group and workstowards achieving goals important to the organization (Ilies et al., 2005).”Other mediated relationships posited by AL theory that received empirical support include Avolio, Gardner et al.’s (2004) predictions that the relationships between AL and work engagement and trust in leadership, respectively, would be mediated by personal identification with the leader. Consistent with the former prediction, Walumbwa and colleagues (2010) confirmed thatidentification with supervisor fully mediates the AL→work engagement relationship. In terms of the latter prediction, Wonget al. (2010) demonstrated that personal identification mediates the relationship between AL and trust in leadership. However,contrary to Avolio, Gardner et al. (2004) model, social identification did not mediate the relationship between AL and trust inleader. Instead, personal identification mediated the relationship between AL and social identification, which in turn had a positive relationship with trust in leader. Wong and associates (2010) argue that an authentic leader can enhance follower identification with the work group only if followers first come to identify with the leader.3.8.3. Outcomes derived from extant models of ALIn addition to direct tests of relationships posited by the extant models of AL, several relationships that are purportedly derived from AL theory have been examined. Outcomes hypothesized as being positively associated with AL through extensionsof AL theory include transformational leadership (Spitzmuller & Ilies, 2010; Walumbwa et al., 2008), ethical leadership(Walumbwa et al., 2008), esprit (Henderson & Hoy, 1983), satisfaction with supervisor (Walumbwa et al., 2008), supportivegroup (Wong & Cummings, 2009b), organizational citizenship behaviors (OCBs; Walumbwa et al., 2008; Walumbwa et al.,2010), follower empowerment (Walumbwa et al., 2010), organizational climate (Hoy & Henderson, 1983), and firm financial performance (Clapp-Smith et al., 2009). In addition, negative relationships between AL and initial perceptions of leadership (Tate,2008), change in perceptions of leadership (Tate, 2008), status concern (Henderson & Hoy, 1983), pupil-control orientation ofschool (Hoy & Henderson, 1983), and contingent self-esteem (Toor & Ofori, 2009) have been proposed. Finally, Giallonardoand colleagues (2010) hypothesized that the positive relationship between AL and job satisfaction would be mediated by workengagement, and Clapp-Smith et al. (2009) posited that the relationship between AL and firm financial performance would bemediated by trust in the manager.With three exceptions, empirical support for all of these predicted relationships was obtained. Two of the exceptions includeTate’s (2008) failure to obtain support for his hypotheses that AL would be negatively related to: (1) initial perceptions of leadership and (2) change in perceptions of leadership. The rationale for the former hypothesis is based on the assumption that because more as opposed to less authentic leaders are less likely to engage in self-promotion, they are less likely to createperceptions of leadership early in a group’s tenure. The rationale for the latter hypothesis is based on the assumption that the behavioral integrity authentic leaders exhibit over time will foster perceptions of leadership later in the group’s tenure. Confusionregarding the predicted direction of these relationships arises from inconsistencies between Tate’s wording of these hypothesesand the directions depicted in his schematic model. Specifically, his hypotheses predict: (1) a negative relationship between ALand initial perceptions of leadership; and (2) an ambiguous relationship between AL and changes in perceptions of leadership(since such perceptions are posited to rise for high AL and fall for low AL). In contrast, his model depicts AL as being positivelyrelated to initial perceptions of leadership and negatively related to changes in leadership perceptions, respectively.Regardless of the direction of these relationships, we question his logic that high as opposed to low AL will produce lower initial perceptions of leadership, since AL theory proposes that the relational transparency of authentic leaders will rapidly engenderand solidify followers’ trust — a key determinant of perceived leadership. Therefore, it may be that self-promotion on the part ofless authentic leaders, and genuine self-presentations by more authentic leaders, produce roughly equivalent initial perceptionsof leadership. If perceptions of leadership rise over time for more authentic leaders, and decline over time for less authenticleaders, both may foster changes that are nevertheless operating in opposite directions. Thus, the lack of support for Tate’s latterhypothesis may stem from a failure to account for the direction of the change in leadership perceptions.The final exception pertains to Giallonardo and colleagues’ (2010) hypothesis that follower work engagement mediates thepositive relationship between AL and follower job satisfaction. Application of Baron and Kenny’s (1986) guidelines for assessingmediation revealed that work engagement partially, as opposed to fully, mediated this relationship since AL remained positivelyand significantly, albeit more weakly, related to job satisfaction even after work engagement was entered into the regressionanalysis.Taken as a whole, the available findings from quantitative studies provide support for the predictions advanced by and derivedfrom AL theory. As such, the nomological network of constructs empirically associated with AL is generally consistent with theextended theoretical framework, and thereby provides preliminary evidence for construct validity (Cronbach & Meehl, 1955).Nevertheless, it is important to reiterate that, given the limitations of the research designs used to test AL theory, the supportiveevidence generated to date must be considered tentative. Further research using more rigorous and diverse methods is needed tostrengthen confidence in the nomological validity of AL theory.4. An agenda for future AL researchThroughout this review we have identified directions for future research. We will not reiterate those directions here. Instead,we wish to offer more general observations and additional recommendations for enhancing AL theory and research. We outline afive-pronged agenda for future AL research below.W.L. Gardner et al. / The Leadership Quarterly 22 (2011) 1120–1145 11394.1. Stronger theory buildingAs Table 2 indicates, the majority (59 out of 91) of AL publications to date have been conceptual. Of these, 55 were identified asreflecting a positivist, as opposed to an interpretive (four publications) or critical (no publications), social science tradition (Neuman,2002). Of these 55 publications, only 30 presented conceptual models, and only 15 offered propositions — components of theorybuilding that positivists consider to be desirable for making a theoretical contribution (Bacharach, 1989). Given these shortcomings,it is perhaps not surprising that none of the theoretical AL publications have appeared in journals that would be considered top tieroutlets for management research (Gardner et al., 2010; Glynn & Raffaelli, 2010), although many have appeared in The LeadershipQuarterly, which is widely recognized as the top specialty journal in the field (Gardner et al., 2010; Glynn & Raffaelli, 2010; Lowe& Gardner, 2000).Perhaps the mixed level of rigor reflected in extant AL theoretical publications should be expected, given the nascent state ofthe field, and the strong influence of practitioner-oriented writings (Cashman, 1998, 2003, 2008; George, 2003; George & Sims,2007; George et al., 2007; Goffee & Jones, 2005). Indeed, the practitioner roots of the theory may serve to undermine the legitimacy of the construct with scholarly reviewers. Moving forward, however, we are encouraged by Corley and Gioia’s (2011) finding that Academy of Management Review articles that propose theories with greater “scope” in terms of scientific and practicalutility are particularly influential (based on citation counts). One implication of this finding is that the practitioner origins andfocus of AL theory may serve to enrich its potential theoretical contribution. On the other hand, to realize this potential, greaterattention to the basic components of theory, including the boundary conditions reflected by underlying assumptions aboutvalues, time, and space (Bacharach, 1989), is required.4.2. Expansion of the nomological network for ALAs the logical extension and a complement to theory building, theory testing is of crucial importance to moving a field of studyforward (Colquitt & Zapata-Phelan, 2007). Our content analysis revealed a recent rise in empirical AL publications followingefforts to develop and validate operational measures of authenticity (Kernis & Goldman, 2005, 2006) and AL (Walumbwa et al.,2008). Nevertheless, our assessment of AL’s nomological network revealed gaps between the theoretical and the empirical framework (Cronbach & Meehl, 1955). For example, although AL antecedents were proposed by both Luthans and Avolio (2003; e.g.,trigger events, positive psychological capacities, positive organizational context) and Gardner et al. (2005a; e.g., personal histories, trigger events, organizational climate), only Jensen and Luthans (2006b) explicitly investigated a predicted antecedent ofAL, PsyCap. Moreover, we were unable to locate any published studies that tested the interactive effects of the organization’s ethical climate and AL that these models propose.An example of specific contextual and individual difference factors to be considered in extending the nomological network for AL isprovided by a recent model of leader emotional labor and authenticity advanced by Gardner and colleagues (2009). These authorsapply Johns’ (2006) contextual model of organizational behavior to make a distinction between the omnibus (e.g., national and organizational culture; industry and occupation; organizational structure; time) and discrete (the particular situational variables that shapebehavior and attitudes) contexts that influence perceived and felt leader authenticity. In addition, they posit that the level of positivity/negativity, intensity, and display rules associated with affective events serve as stimuli for three forms of leader emotional displays thatreflect progressively higher degrees of authenticity: surface acting, deep acting, and genuine emotion (Grandey, 2000). They also propose that the individual difference variables of emotional intelligence (Goleman, 1995; Mayer et al., 1999), self-monitoring (Gangestad& Snyder, 2000; Snyder, 1979), and political skill (Douglas et al., 2005; Ferris & Kacmar, 1995) serve to moderate these relationships bymaking it less likely that the leader’s emotional displays will be genuine. Hunt and colleagues (2008) subsequently extended this modelby considered the implications of close versus distant leadership (Antonakis & Atwater, 2002; Shamir, 1995) for leader emotional laborand authenticity. We encourage research that considers the extent to which these and other contextual and individual difference variables serve as antecedents and moderators of the level of authenticity achieved in leader–follower relationships.More empirical research is also needed to explore the relationships of specific components of AL and various antecedents andoutcomes. While most conceptions and measures of authenticity (e.g., Kernis & Goldman, 2005, 2006) and AL (e.g., Walumbwaet al., 2008), posit that these are multi-component constructs, research that examines the separate relationships of these components with focal variables is rare (Spitzmuller & Ilies, 2010), and sometimes suspect (e.g., Wong & Cummings, 2009b, due to theuse of single items to operationalize AL components). Research that examines what components are most important in particularsituations and relationships and the dynamic interplay between the components is needed to develop a deeper understanding ofthe authentic leader–follower relationships. In addition, attention to the processes whereby specific components can be enhancedwould have important implications for leader and follower development (Avolio, 2010).4.3. More rigorous and diverse methodsOur content analysis revealed an overreliance on survey measures, cross-sectional designs, and single source data among thequantitative empirical studies. The susceptibility of such designs to bias arising from common method variance (Podsakoff &Organ, 1986; Podsakoff et al., 2003) may explain why only one empirical publication to date (Walumbwa et al., 2008) hasappeared in an outlet that is widely recognized as a top tier journal, the Journal of Management. By reporting findings from multiple studies that used geographically and occupationally diverse samples, multiple sources, and a mixture of cross-sectional andlongitudinal designs, this study serves as a model for future quantitative studies of AL. As was the case for many of the theoretical1140 W.L. Gardner et al. / The Leadership Quarterly 22 (2011) 1120–1145publications, greater rigor is required of empirical AL studies to establish the nomological validity and legitimize the construct inthe eyes of reviewers.We also encourage researchers to explore the utility of a wider range of methods, including implicit measures, experimental designs, and qualitative methods. Survey measures of authenticity and AL are problematic because self-report measures may be susceptible to social desirability bias (Podsakoff & Organ, 1986; Podsakoff et al., 2003), and other report measures tap only perceived, asopposed to felt, authenticity (Fields, 2007). In contrast, implicit measures of social cognition (Garwronski & Payne, 2010) may providea useful alternative, and when used in conjunction with survey or other measures, may serve to triangulate the findings (Neuman,2002). For instance, given Kernis’s (2003) assertion that authentic individuals possess optimal (secure and high as opposed to lowto moderate and/or fragile) self-esteem, measures of implicit self-esteem such as signature size (Stapel & Blanton, 2004) and the relative attractiveness of one’s initials (Dijksterhuis, 2004) may serve as effective proxies for authenticity.Experimental designs represent particularly promising approaches for teasing out the effects of situational influences on perceived and felt leader authenticity due to the high level of control and internal validity they provide (Neuman, 2002). Indeed, experimental manipulations of the discrete context (Johns, 2006), including affective display rules, ethical and cultural norms, orpeer pressure, may serve to clarify the interactive effects of situational variables and individual differences on experienced andperceived leader authenticity. Therefore, we echo the calls of other scholars (Brown & Lord, 1999; Gardner et al., 2010; Hunt,1999; Hunt, Boal, & Dodge, 1999; Lowe & Gardner, 2000; Wofford, 1999) who recommend greater usage of experimental designsto not only facilitate strong inferences about the causal relationships among leadership constructs, but identify potentially positive effects of AL that could accrue for individuals, groups, and organizations under the right circumstances (Mook, 1983).Our content analysis also revealed that studies of AL employed a higher proportion of qualitative designs than has historically beenthe case within the field of leadership (Gardner et al., 2010; Glynn & Raffaelli, 2010). Extensive evidence for the broad array of topics,themes, leadership roles and challenges to AL on which qualitative methods can shed light is provided by the qualitative studies examined in our review. These include: (1) Dillon’s (2001) case study of the leadership style, practices, relationships, and manifest authenticity of occupational therapy educator Sr. Genevieve Cummings of the College of St. Catherine; (2) Catherine Bissessar’s (2010)application of narrative analysis of speeches, e-mails, Facebook pages, and a party manifesto to examine the authentic leadership ofKamla Persad Bissessar, the Prime Minister of Trinidad and Tobago; (3) Endrissat and colleagues’ (2007) narrative analysis of the challenges of authentic leadership (e.g., understanding one’s own position; binding commitment to self and others, i.e., “walking the talk”;relationship to one’s business; social proximity to members of one’s team and community; and authenticity, “to be oneself”) perceived by Swiss business leaders; (4) Liu’s (2010) application of discourse analysis of media texts to construct a framework for understanding the ways by which leaders facing failure actively construct and negotiate images of authenticity, style, and effectiveness;(5) Pittinsky and Tyson’s (2005, p. 260) use of focus groups with a “gender-balanced, socially and geographically diverse cohortof African Americans from the Hip-Hop generation” to identify “authenticity markers” for African American political leaders; and(6) Shirey’s (2009) use of interviews and narrative analysis to explore the relationships between authentic leadership, positive andnegative organizational cultures, and healthy work environments. Clearly, such studies provide deep insights into the nature andmanifestations of authentic leadership across diverse contexts that are not readily amenable to discovery through quantitativemethods alone. Hence, we join Bryman (1995) and Conger (1998) in calling for more extensive use of qualitative methods to providethick narrative descriptions of leadership processes and contexts, including the dynamic interplay between authentic leadership,authentic followership, and positive ethical climates.4.4. Attention to authentic followershipFrom the outset, practitioner and scholarly authors have emphasized the importance of authentic followership (Gardner,Avolio, Luthans et al., 2005; George, 2003; Shamir & Eilam, 2005) as a central component of the AL process. For example, Gardnerand associates posited that a positive ethical climate would facilitate the development of authentic leaders and followers in acomplementary fashion, and thereby foster authentic relationships. We suspect that the authenticity of followers may be as important to the development of authentic leadership as the authenticity of the leader. Nevertheless, none of the empirical studiesreviewed focused explicitly on authentic followership. Hence, as Avolio and Reichard (2008) emphasize, empirical investigationsof the role that followers play in the formation of authentic relationships is critical.4.5. Focus on AL developmentRight from the start, Luthans and Avolio (2003) made authentic leadership development the cornerstone of their AL framework, as the subtitle of their chapter, “A Positive Developmental Approach,” makes clear. Because Avolio (2010) provides an extensive summary of the progress he and his colleagues have made in pursuing this research agenda, we chose not to make ALdevelopment a focal point for our review. Nevertheless, we echo his call for greater attention to the design and implementationof intervention strategies intended to foster the development of authentic leaders and their followers. We also second his plea formore systematic evaluations of the host of commercial and educational programs currently offered that promise to enhance thedevelopment of leaders, including their authenticity, integrity, and effectiveness. Without such evaluations, we run the risk ofunderutilizing the considerable promise of the AL construct, and the leverage it provides for producing veritable and sustainedimprovements in individual, group, and organizational performance.W.L. Gardner et al. / The Leadership Quarterly 22 (2011) 1120–1145 11415. Conclusion“Musicians must make music, artists must paint, poets must write if they are to ultimately be at peace with themselves. Whathumans can be, they must be. They must be true to their own nature” (Maslow, 1970, p. 22, original emphasis). This quotationfrom Maslow reflects a central premise of the authentic leadership literature that truly authentic leaders must lead, but theymust do so in a way that honors their core values, beliefs, strengths — and weaknesses. This assumption of authentic leadershiptheory that people in organizations can effectively lead, and follow, in a way that enables them to express their own unique identity and style, has created a sense of excitement among leadership scholars and practitioners. We hope that this review will provide a road map for further advancing authentic leadership theory, research, and practice, and thereby enable organizations tomore fully realize the elevated levels of sustained and veritable performance that a leadership process grounded in authenticityhas the potential to provide.ReferencesAmbrose, M. L., Arnaud, A., & Schminke, M. (2008). 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