strategies in writing academic Argument | My Assignment Tutor

28/09/20181• Classify / differentiate different level of high/low order thinking• Understand strategies in writing academic Argument• Understand the composition of an argument• Differentiate between Internal consistency, Logical consistency,Underlying assumptions and False premises• Deconstruct one’s biases• Reflect on one’s progress.• Academic Writing• ReferencingAcademic Writing SkillCheck-list for academic writing Consider the reader Provide a logical structure Use evidence & quotations appropriately Good command grammar, sentence structure, paragraphing Conduct appropriate research / information gathering Provide a strong argument Use an appropriate style Consider outcomes & consequences of any points raisedAcademic Writing Skill228/09/20182 Writing style WordsWrite clearlyWrite preciselyUse positive language SentencesUse a variety of sentence typesUse active and passive appropriately ParagraphsKeep paragraphs unified & coherentUse parallel structureControl paragraph lengthAcademic Writing Skill3 The Main headings in an academic writing Are:IntroductionMain Text (Body-Text)Conclusion Cover page (Title Page) Table of contents Headings (Heading Style & Levels ) Figures & Tables References & Bibliography AppendicesOxford dictionaries (Appendix typically has the pluralappendixes in the anatomical sense, and appendices whenreferring to a part of a book or document).Academic Writing Skill428/09/20183 Analysis – the process of breaking a complex topic or substanceinto smaller parts to gain a better understanding of it Reason – to think in a connected, sensible, or logical manner; tofind a rational motive for a belief or action Rationality – the state of having good sense and sound judgment Logic – the study of the principles of valid inference andargumentAcademic Writing Skill5Academic Writing Skill6 References are used to show to a reader: The source of a quotation Document or validate the source of the information used A reference to another part of your written text When do you need to give a reference? To show sources of inspiration (general) To show the source of specific theory, argument or viewpoint To use specific information – statistics, surveys, case studies For direct quotations (to illustrate a point) For information which you choose to paraphrase rather than quote.28/09/20184 Avoid Vagueness ( uncertain, indefinite, or unclear character or meaning) Being personal Conjunctions at beginning of sentences Apologies Certainty Personal pronouns Abbreviations & contractions Ensure Objectivity Meeting the needs of the reader Use of formal English Differentiation between facts, opinions and argumentsAcademic Writing Skill7pronouns in English ( I, you, he, she,it, we, they, me, him, her, us, andthem ) comprising a set that showscontrasts of person, gender, number,and case. Avoid Logical Fallacies be sure to avoid using opinion or logical fallacies (false logic) in place of scholarlyevidence. Logical fallacy: Video games cause obesity. Are all people who play video games obese? Are there other factors? Correlation doesnot mean that one action causes the other. Avoid Tautology The saying of the same thing twice over in different words, generally considered to bea fault of style (e.g. they arrived one after the other in succession). (OxfordDictionary) Tautology in Sentences Charlie told his mom he made it for her with his own hands She always over-exaggerates. Logical Tautology Either it will rain tomorrow or it won’t rain. Tautology in Acronyms HIV virus CD-ROM disc The World’s Greatest Spokesman in the World!Academic Writing Skill828/09/20185 Barriers to Effective Writing Ambiguity Jargon Style Structure Punctuation Write in your own words Use appropriately referenced material Develop a logical discussion /argumentAcademic Writing Skill9Academic Writing Skill10 References are used to show to a reader: The source of a quotation Document or validate the source of the information used A reference to another part of your written text When do you need to give a reference? To show sources of inspiration (general) To show the source of specific theory, argument or viewpoint To use specific information – statistics, surveys, case studies For direct quotations (to illustrate a point) For information which you choose to paraphrase rather than quote.28/09/20186ReferencingPlagiarism When do you need to give a reference? To show sources of inspiration (general) To show the source of specific theory, argument or viewpoint To use specific information – statistics, surveys, case studies For direct quotations (to illustrate a point) For information which you choose to paraphrase rather than quote.Academic Writing Skill1228/09/20187 WebsitesAuthorship or Source, Year. Title of web document or webpage. [type of medium] (date of update if available)Available at: include web site address/URL (UniformResource Locator) [Accessed date]. ExampleNHS Evidence, 2003. National Library of Guidelines. [online]Available at: [Accessed 10 October 2009 ].Academic Writing Skill13 Some useful phrases to introduce material from reference sources: To quote from Jones (1999), “…As Jones (1999) points out, …According to Jones (1999), …Jones (1999) suggests that, …In her article ‘name of article’, Jones (1999) makes the point that …In ‘book title’ Jones (1999) explains that …Writing in 1999, Jones proposed that ….Academic Writing Skill1428/09/20188Use quotations sparing, keep brief and ensure they make a valuable additionto your writingEnsure: Words are copied exactly Use three dots (…) to indicate any omitted words Put quotation marks around any individual words you quote Say exactly where the quotation comes fromIt is rarely necessary to quote more than one sentence. Other informationshould be paraphrased and utilised by yourself to justify your academicargument.Academic Writing Skill15All external sources referenced in the text must be included in a reference list.The information provided allows a reader to locate the source quickly andefficiently: Authors surname and initials or first name Date of publication Title of book, paper or article Place of publication PublisherThere are various established styles of referencing.Try to use the Harvard referencing style, but most importantly use a consistent styleAcademic Writing Skill1628/09/20189 BookAuthor, Initials., Year. Title of book. Edition. (only include this if not the firstedition) Place of publication (this must be a town or city, not a country):Publisher.In the textOrganisations have been found to differ (Baron, 2008) whenthere is …OrLeading social scientists such as Redman (2006) have noted … In reference page:Baron, D. P., 2008. Business and the organisation. Chester: PearsonBook 2nd EditionRedman, P., 2006. Good essay writing: a social sciences guide. 2nd ed.London: Open University in assoc. with Sage.Academic Writing Skill17 Book Multiple Authors In the textLeading organisations concerned with health (Adams, Weiss and Coatie,2010 ) have proved that…………OrA new theory (Barker, Kirk and Munday, 1988) has challenged traditionalthinking … In reference page:Adams, R. J.,Weiss, T.D. and Coatie, J.J., 2010. The World HealthOrganisation, its history and impact. London: Perseus.Barker, R., Kirk, J. and Munday, R.J., 1988. Narrative analysis. 3rd ed.Bloomington: Indiana University Press.Academic Writing Skill1828/09/201810ParaphrasingIn general, when writing for a professional publication, it is goodpractice to make reference to other relevant published work. Thisview has been supported in the work of Cormack (1994).Making direct reference :Cormack (1994, pp.32-33) states that ‘when writing for a professionalreadership, writers invariably make reference to already publishedworks’.Academic Writing Skill19 E-books and pdfsAuthor, Initials., Year. Title of book. [e-book] Place of publication:Publisher. Followed by Available through: Anglia Ruskin UniversityLibrary website [Accessed date]. ExampleFishman, R., 2005. The rise and fall of suburbia. [e-book] Chester:Castle Press. Available through: Anglia Ruskin University Librarywebsite [Accessed 12 May 2010].Carlsen, J. and Charters, S. eds. 2007. Global wine tourism. [e-book]Wallingford: CABI Pub. Available through: Anglia RuskinUniversity Library website [Accessed 9June 2008].Academic Writing Skill2028/09/201811 Oxford Dictionary definition: take and use (the thoughts, writings, inventions, etc. of anotherperson) as one’s own. pass off the thoughts etc. of (another person) as one’s own. New Webster’s Encycopedic Dictionary (1997) Plagiarism is “the unauthorized use of the language and thoughts ofanother author and the representation of them as one’s own”.Academic Writing Skill21Print journal articlesAuthor, Initials., Year. Title of article. Full Title of Journal,Volume number (Issue/Part number), Page number(s).Example :Boughton, J.M., 2002. The Bretton Woods proposal: a brieflook. Political Science Quarterly, 42(6), p.564.Cox, C., 2002. What health care assistants know about cleanhands. Nursing Today, Spring Issue, pp.647-85.Perry, C., 2001. What health care assistants know about cleanhands. Nursing Times, 25 May, 97(22), pp.63-64.Academic Writing Skill2228/09/201812Different forms of plagiarism Direct duplication, by copying (or allowing to be copied) another’s work,whether from a book, article, web site, another student’s assignment, etc. Paraphrasing of another’s work closely, with minor changes but with theessential form and/or progression of ideas maintained Piecing together sections of the works of others into a new whole Submitting one’s own work which has already been submitted forassessment purposes in another subject Producing assignments in conjunction with other people (e.g. anotherstudent, a tutor) which should be your own independent workAcademic Writing Skill23What does it include?Using words more or less exactly as they have been usedin articles, lectures, television programmes, books oranywhere else (without indicating that these arequotations)Using other people’s ideas or theories without sayingwhose ideas they areParaphrasing what you read or hear without stating whereit comes from(Cottrell, 2003, page 133)Academic Writing Skill2428/09/201813Intentional plagiarism is plagiarism which arisesfrom intention to deceiveUnintentional plagiarism is plagiarism whicharises from lack of knowledge or understanding ofthe concept of plagiarism, or lack of skill in usingthe relevant academic conventionsAcademic Writing Skill25 Analysis – the process of breaking a complex topic or substanceinto smaller parts to gain a better understanding of it Reason – to think in a connected, sensible, or logical manner; tofind a rational motive for a belief or action Rationality – the state of having good sense and sound judgment Logic – the study of the principles of valid inference andargumentAcademic Writing Skill2628/09/201814 Barriers to Effective Writing Ambiguity Jargon Style Structure Punctuation Write in your own words Use appropriately referenced material Develop a logical discussion /argumentAcademic Writing Skill27During marking all academic staff are looking to ensure that the worksubmitted is that of the student. The following is checked – Written in a style and language consistent with students normal style Answers the questions set, not some other question That answer is in the students own words Electronic files are submitted through turnitin, plagarism checking, software. Thereport is interpreted. This can identify the amount of the assignment actually writtenby the student in their own words, the amount of quotations, any un-attributedcopying from various information sources(see example of turnitin report)Academic Writing Skill2828/09/201815 Some definitions: Group work means a formally established project to be conducted bya number of students in common, resulting in a single piece ofassessment or a number of associated pieces of assessment Legitimate collaboration means any constructive educational andintellectual practice that aims to facilitate optimal learning outcomesthrough interaction between students Collusion (unauthorised collaboration) involves working togetherwith others without permission to produce work which is thenpresented as work completed independently by the student.Collusion is a form of plagiarism. Students should not knowinglyallow their work to be copied.Academic Writing Skill29Plagiarism is taken very seriously.It could mean: Failure in an assignment (carrying zeros) Failure in the module (carrying zeros) Permission to re-take for a maximum of 40% Referral to University Authorities for consideration of more seriousaction(see University Regulations relating to Unfair Practice)Academic Writing Skill3028/09/201816 Writing style WordsWrite clearlyWrite preciselyUse positive language SentencesUse a variety of sentence typesUse active and passive appropriately ParagraphsKeep paragraphs unified & coherentUse parallel structureControl paragraph lengthAcademic Writing Skill31During marking all academic staff are looking to ensure that the worksubmitted is that of the student. The following is checked – Written in a style and language consistent with students normal style Answers the questions set, not some other question That answer is in the students own words Electronic files are submitted through turnitin, plagarism checking, software. Thereport is interpreted. This can identify the amount of the assignment actually writtenby the student in their own words, the amount of quotations, any un-attributedcopying from various information sources(see example of turnitin report)Academic Writing Skill3228/09/201817Bacon, F. (1605), The Advancement of Learning, Online Available at: https://core.ac.uk/download/pdf/36679612.pdfFisher, A.,& Scriven, M. (1997). Critical thinking: Its definition and assessment. California: EdgepressMoore, B. N. & Parker, R. (2011). Critical Thinking: 10th Edition. New York: McGraw-HillSimpson, E. (1972). The classification of educational objectives in the psychomotor domain: The psychomotor domain. Vol. 3.Washington, DC: Gryphon House.Dave, R. H. (1975). Developing and Writing Behavioural Objectives. (R J Armstrong, ed.) Educational Innovators Press.Harrow, A. (1972). A taxonomy of psychomotor domain – a guide for developing behavioural objectives.New York: David McKayElder, L. & Paul, R. (1996), Universal Intellectual Standards [online], available at http://www.criticalthinking.org/articles/universalintellectual-standards.cfm, accessed 28 November 2016Bono, E., (1985). Six thinking hats. Boston: Little, Brown.Bloom, B., Englehart, M. Furst, E., Hill, W., & Krathwohl, D. (1956). Taxonomy of educational objectives: The classification ofeducational goals. Handbook I: Cognitive domain. New York, Toronto: Longmans, GreenCottrell, Stella (2011) Critical Thinking Skills: Developing Effective Analysis and Argument. Basingstoke: PalgraveThompson, Anne (2008) Critical Reasoning: A Practical Introduction. 3rd Edition. London: RoutledgeShearman, C. (2011). Dental health of children from a low socio-economic background: Socio-political nursing in the New Zealandcontext. Whitireia Nursing Journal, 2011(18), 15-24.Henderson, L. (2012). The early childhood-school relationship: Overcoming invisible barriers. Early Childhood Folio, 16(2), 20-25.Critical thinking. (2010). Retrieved from http://www.learningdevelopment.plymouth.ac.uk/LDstudyguides/pdf/8Criticalthinking.pdfHilsdon, J. (2010). Model for generating critical thinking. Retrieved fromhttp://www.learningdevelopment.plymouth.ac.uk/LDstudyguides/ pdf/8Criticalthinking.pdfSimpson, Elizabeth (1972). “Educational objectives in the psychomotor domain” (PDF). Available at :https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED010368.pdf 3. Washington, D.C.: Gryphon House: 25–30. Retrieved 3 April 20 Academic Writing Skill 18.33

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