Understanding and leading change | My Assignment Tutor

1Understanding and leading changeLecture: 02, LO: 01What is a change in business context? Change management. … It includes methods that redirect or redefine theuse of resources, business process, budget allocations, or other modes ofoperation that significantly change a company or organization. Company or organization going through a transformation.Organization change occurs when business strategies or major sections of anorganization are altered. Also known as reorganization, restructuring andturnaround Organizational change is about the process of changing an organization’sstrategies, processes, procedures, technologies, and culture, as well as theeffect of such changes on the organization.2Position and perception’s influence onchange In organizations, perceptions of leaders, managers and employees shape theclimate and effectiveness of the working environment. Perception is the way we all interpret our experiences Having the right perception is significant skill for any effective leadership It is important to understand that perception is often portrayed throughcommunication in any organization be it big or small What people often observe or assess as your ability to be a leader and youreffectiveness becomes their perception, which in turn becomes reality.The Environment• Organization• Work group• Job• Personal lifeVariables InfluencingIndividual BehaviorThe Person• Skills & abilities• Personality• Perceptions• Attitudes•Values• EthicsBehaviorB = f(P,E)BEP3Propositions ofInteractional Psychology Behavior—function of a continuous, multi-directionalinteraction between person and situation Person—active in process Changed by situations Changes situations People vary in many characteristics Two situational interpretations The objective situation Person’s subjective view of the situationPersonality Characteristicsin OrganizationsPositive Affect – an individual’s tendency to accentuate the positiveaspects of oneself, other people, and the world in generalNegative Affect – an individual’s tendency to accentuate the negativeaspects of oneself, other people, and the world in general4Personality Characteristicsin OrganizationsA strongsituation canoverwhelm the effectsof individual personalitiesby providing strong cuesfor appropriatebehaviorPersonality Characteristicsin OrganizationsStrongpersonalitieswill dominatein a weaksituation5Social Perception –interpreting information aboutanother personSocial PerceptionBarriers• Selective perception• Stereotyping• First-impression error• Projection• Self-fulfilling propheciesSocial Perception –interpreting information aboutanother personSocial PerceptionPerceiver Characteristics• Familiarity with target• Attitudes/Mood• Self-Concept• Cognitive structureTarget Characteristics• Physical appearance• Verbal communication• Nonverbal cues• Intentions Situational Characteristics• Interaction context• Strength of situational cues Barriers6Impression ManagementImpression Management – process by which individuals try to controlthe impression others have of them Name dropping Appearance Self-description Flattery Favors Agreement with opinionThings to consider to understand therole of perception Each individual selects, organizes and interprets information gained fromtheir senses and internal awareness differently. Managers must learn that one of their most important considerations is theway employees and other managers will perceive a given managerial decisionor action. Recognize that every person has a unique frame of reference that includes allof the internal and external factors that affect behaviour Recognize that values, beliefs and attitudes are important factors affectingperceptual process. Unless employees perceive their job assignments as interesting and worth,while their level of effort is likely to be relatively low7Factors that influence perceptualprocess Habit: Habits are formed slowly and sometimes unconsciously Motivation: Motivational factors increase the individual’s sensitivity to thosestimuli which he considers as relevant to the satisfaction of his needs in viewof his past experience with them Learning: The state of learning influences and plays a crucial role in theperception process. Specialization: The modern organizations value specialization Social background: The employee perceptions are based on socialbackgroundsReference Alfred Otara, Perception: A Guide for Managers and Leaders, Journal ofManagement and Strategy Vol. 2, No. 3; September 2011, Kigali Institute ofEducation


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