www.derby.ac.ukUNDERGRADUATE6HX503Civil Engineering ConstructionManagementLecture 10A Sustainability and EthicsCivil EngineeringShaping the way we live todaywww.derby.ac.ukUNDERGRADUATETODAYS AGENDA1. Update on Session 92. Sustainability Update3. Climate Change4. Ethics5. The Examwww.derby.ac.ukUNDERGRADUATEEXAMINATION 50%• An on-line examination with 3 groups of questions on the following areas.The questions will be based on theory but must be supported by relevantreal-life examples.Quality Management• – History of Quality, Gurus, development of standards, ISO9001 – theaims and sections of a QMS. Continuous Improvement, six sigma, TQM,Quality Auditing & Levels of checks, Non-conformances.Sustainability and Health & Safety• – Legal requirements; HASAW Act 1974, other acts and regulations, CDM2015, causation theory, culture, improvement systems, loss control,Sustainable Construction and Operation in design, and on site, Carbonfootprint,Professional Practice and Ethics• – professional registration Diversity, Equality, Code of conduct,Security, ethical construction.www.derby.ac.ukUNDERGRADUATEQuote from a meeting!• Good point. Quality is aboutbehaviours as much as standardswww.derby.ac.ukUNDERGRADUATESustainability, Security and Ethics• Sustainability– Design– Construction and On Site– Operation– Carbon footprint• Security– Definition and Context– Engineering Council• Ethics– Diversity and Equality– ICE code of conduct– Ethical constructionwww.derby.ac.ukUNDERGRADUATESustainability Video• https://youtu.be/_5r4loXPyx8www.derby.ac.ukUNDERGRADUATE Sustainable Development:Development that meets the needs ofthe present without compromising theability of future generations to meettheir own needs.The Brundtland Commission ( 1987)Sustainable Design:Creating buildings whichare energy efficient,healthy, comfortable,flexible in use anddesigned for long life.Sustainable Materials: materials and constructionproducts which are healthy, durable, resourceefficient and manufactured with regard tominimising environmental impact and maximisingrecycling. Edwards, 2004. Foster and PartnersSustainable Construction: The creationand management of healthy buildingsbased upon resource efficient andecological principles.The Building Services Research andInformation Association (BSRIA) www.derby.ac.ukUNDERGRADUATEThe Business Perspective– Elkington’s Triple Bottom LineENVIRONMENTALSOCIAL ECONOMICSUSTAINABILITYPlanetPeopleProfitwww.derby.ac.ukUNDERGRADUATEwww.derby.ac.ukUNDERGRADUATEThe Global Case• For “sustainability” read “survivability”• 1988 Intergovernmental Panel Climate Change– Human made greenhouse gases– Response to climate change• 1992 Earth Summit Rio de Janeiro– Prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference byreducing emissions to 1990 levels by 2000• 2005 Kyoto Treaty ratified– Scientists believe we need a 90% reduction to stabiliseclimate change by 2100 to keep>450 ppm carbon levels– Currently 380 ppm and rising 2-3 ppm per year• Stern Review 2006• Code for Sustainable Homes 2006• 1988 Intergovernmental Panel Climate Change• 1992 Earth Summit Rio de JaneiroPrevent dangerous anthropogenicinterference by reducing emissions to1990 levels by 2000• 2005 Kyoto Treaty ratifiedScientists believe we need a 90% reduction to stabiliseclimate change by 2100 to keep>450 ppm carbonlevelsCurrently 380 ppm and rising 2-3 ppm per year• 2006 Stern Review• 2006 Code for Sustainable Homes• 2015 Paris Summit 2017 Bonn Summit• 2019 Madrid SummitThe Global Case for “sustainability” read “survivability”www.derby.ac.ukUNDERGRADUATEPARIS AGREEMENT 2015In December 2015 the UK, under the UN negotiations and alongside over 190 othercountries, drafted the Paris Agreement to tackle climate change. It will enter into force bythe end of 2016 having been ratified by the US, China, India, Brazil, the EU and others.• The Agreement describes a higher level of global ambition than the one thatformed the basis of the UK’s existing emissions reduction targets:• The UK’s current long-term target is a reduction in greenhouse gasemissions of at least 80%by the year 2050, relative to 1990 levels. This 2050target was derived as a contribution to a global emissions path aimed atkeeping global average temperature to around 2°C above pre-industriallevels.• The Paris Agreement aims to limit warming to well below 2°C and to pursueefforts to limit it to 1.5°C. To achieve this aim, the Agreement additionallysets a target for net zero global emissions in the second half of this century.www.derby.ac.ukUNDERGRADUATEThe Four Principles ofKyriakides(2006)1. Benign energy first2. Conserve energy3. Polluter must pay4. No unnecessaryuse of energyRobert Kyriakides: Environmentalistand solicitor. Author of “The EnergyAge”www.derby.ac.ukUNDERGRADUATE7 MAJOR THEMES INSUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT1. LEAN THINKING; LESS WASTE2. MANAGING NATURAL RESOURCES3. MINIMISING ENERGY IN CONSTRUCTIONAND USE4. PRESERVING NATURAL FEATURESAND BIO – DIVERSITY5. PROTECTING AGAINST POLLUTION6. RESPECT FOR PEOPLE7. SETTING TARGETSwww.derby.ac.ukUNDERGRADUATESustainable Construction• Energy use on site– Reduce– Use green energy• Renewable materials• Recycling and reuse of materials• Minimum construction waste going to landfill• Computer controlled deliveries to eliminate waste• Cement replacement PFA• Transport and manufacture of materials– “the carbon cost”• Local labour• Prefabrication• Insulation – pressure testing• Intelligent Buildingswww.derby.ac.ukUNDERGRADUATEThe Regulations• Building Act 1984 – Building Regulations• Approved documents 2006– L ; Conservation of fuel and power– F ; Ventilation performance based• Natural Environment & Rural Communities Act 2006• Climate Change & Sustainability Act 2006– Annual report on greenhouse gas emissions– National targets for micro-generation– Community energy renewable sources• Management of Energy in Buildings Act 2007• Sustainable communities Act 2007• Climate change Act 2008 – Annual targetswww.derby.ac.ukUNDERGRADUATEwww.derby.ac.ukUNDERGRADUATEAre extremes more frequent?17 11/12/2020www.derby.ac.ukUNDERGRADUATEThe Climate Change Act 2008• The Act makes it the duty of the Secretary of State toensure that the net UK carbon account for all six Kyotogreenhouse gases for the year 2050 is at least 80%lower than the 1990 baseline, toward avoidingdangerous climate change.• The Act aims to enable the United Kingdom to becomea low-carbon economy and gives ministers powers tointroduce the measures necessary to achieve a rangeof greenhouse gas reduction targets.• An independent Committee on Climate Change hasbeen created under the Act to provide advice to UKGovernment on these targets and related policies.www.derby.ac.ukUNDERGRADUATEwww.derby.ac.ukUNDERGRADUATEThe rise in renewableenergy in the UK hashelped reduceemissionswww.derby.ac.ukUNDERGRADUATE• The Climate Change Act committed the UK government by law toreducing greenhouse gas emissions by at least 80% of 1990levels by 2050.• This includes reducing emissions from the devolvedadministrations (Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland), whichcurrently account for about 20% of the UK’s emissions.• A decade on, the Act has achieved a lot with a 43% fall inemissions since 1990 levels.• Much of this progress has come from new ways to generateelectricity. Coal-fired power plants are being closed as moreelectricity is produced without burning fossil fuels.• Last year, for the first time, the majority of the UK’s electricitycame from renewable or low-carbon sources.• And over the last decade, the UK’s economy has continued togrow proving that a move to renewable sources would not harmeconomic growth.www.derby.ac.ukUNDERGRADUATEwww.derby.ac.ukUNDERGRADUATEThe Met Office issued a stark warning• Summer temperatures could soar to 5.4C higher than current levels by 2070,while winters could be up to 4.2C warmer if fossil fuel pollution continues.• Rainfall could fall by almost half (47%) in summer by 2070, while rain could be upby more than a third (35%) in winter.• Sea levels affecting London, where the Thames Barrier is expected to be in useto protect the city until 2070, could rise by up to 1.15 metres by 2100 if climatewarming emissions continue to climb.• Cardiff is expected to have similar sea level rises as London, while in Edinburghseas could rise by as much 49cm with low emissions and up to 90cm with highemissions.• In Belfast, seas could be as much as 52cm higher with low emissions and up to94cm by the end of the century with high levels of climate pollution.• Climate change has also been a contributing factor to losing, on average, 60% ofwildlife populations since 1970. The World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) believes“if we carry on as we are now, then one in six species is at risk of extinctionaround the world as a result of climate change.”www.derby.ac.ukUNDERGRADUATEWhat needs to be done?The Committee on Climate Change, a body set up as partof the Act, has said emissions from the UK’s transportsystem, buildings and industry are not falling fastenough.In addition, emissions fromthe waste we produce needto be limited and action takenon protecting homes fromextreme heat and flooding.ITV Reportwww.derby.ac.ukUNDERGRADUATEThe London Olympics SustainabilityPlan focused on five key themes1. Climate change: minimising greenhouse gas emissions and ensuringlegacy facilities are able to cope with the impacts of climate change.2. Waste: minimising waste at every stage of the project, ensuring nowaste is sent to landfill during Games-time, and encouraging thedevelopment of new waste processing infrastructure in East London.3. Biodiversity: minimising the impact of the Games on wildlife and theirhabitats in and around Games venues, leaving a legacy of enhancedhabitats where we can, eg the Olympic Park.4. Inclusion: Promoting access for all and celebrating the diversity ofLondon and the UK, creating new employment, training and businessopportunities.5. Healthy living: Inspiring people across the country to take up sport anddevelop active, healthy and sustainable lifestyles.www.derby.ac.ukUNDERGRADUATEN.B.: View the pics in numerical order.You’ll probably not see the problem in picture 1,you may spot the problem in picture 2,if you don’t, don’t worry, picture 3 should give the game away…Who’d be an Engineer?How would you go about explaining theschedule slippage on this to your boss?www.derby.ac.ukUNDERGRADUATEwww.derby.ac.ukUNDERGRADUATEwww.derby.ac.ukUNDERGRADUATEwww.derby.ac.ukUNDERGRADUATEwww.derby.ac.ukUNDERGRADUATEWhat you need to know aboutEthics?• What it is?• Design• Construction• Code of Conductwww.derby.ac.ukUNDERGRADUATEDefinition of Ethics• Ethics : the area of philosophy that attempts to answerquestions involving concepts such as right/wrong, good/bad,moral/immoral, etc.• A search for truth : ethics is an area of philosophyand an area of inquiry, which means that it is not just anexamination of what people think or feel about moralquestions. It is an attempt to arrive at true answers to thosequestions.www.derby.ac.ukUNDERGRADUATEEthics and Arguments• Ethics– is not a matter of simply saying what you believe or feelabout a given issue.• Arguments– Ethics, depends on reasoning, evidence andargumentation. Ethics does not depend on specific sortsof empirical observation, gathering data, performingexperiments, or making calculations.www.derby.ac.ukUNDERGRADUATEArguments• In ethics, if you have a belief about what is morally right and what ismorally wrong, you need to be able to back up that belief withgood reasons. You need to be able to provide reasons for thinkingthat your belief is true and give an argument for your belief.• Suppose you say, “In general, theft is wrong.” If I ask you why youthink this is the case, then you ought to be able to give me a reason,e.g., “It harms the person from whom something is beingstolen.” This may be a good argument in support of the claim that,in general, theft is wrong.• A worse argument in support of that claim is: “Sometimes you endup stealing low quality goods, so stealing is not worth theeffort.” If you can give no reason for asserting that theft is wrong,then I am within my rights to ignore you. This is how morality isbased on reasons.www.derby.ac.ukUNDERGRADUATEArguments cont.• This is much different than saying, e.g., “I likeSpecial K cereal” or “I like rancid goat’s milk.”These are acceptable statements, even if I haveno reasons to give in support of them. In this way,moral claims are much different than claims ofpersonal preference.www.derby.ac.ukUNDERGRADUATEBranches of Ethics• Ethics itself consists of three different subbranches. From most to least abstract, they are:– meta-ethics deals with the nature of moral judgement. It looks atthe origins and meaning of ethical principles.– normative ethics is concerned with the content of moraljudgements and the criteria for what is right or wrong.– applied ethics looks at controversial topics like war, animalrights and capital punishment• We will consider only the latter and considerengineering aspectswww.derby.ac.ukUNDERGRADUATEApplied Ethics– the branch of ethics that asks relatively concrete questions about the morality ofspecific actions and policies; branches of applied ethics include:Medical ethicseg. abortion, euthanasia, human cloning, genetic engineering, fair distribution ofprescription drugs and medical treatment…)Business ethicseg. corporate responsibility; rights and obligations of employees; diversity anddiscrimination)Sexual ethicseg. Gender; sexuality; adultery; prostitution)Social ethicseg. family responsibility; distribution of social resources; society’s obligations to thepoor)Engineering ethicseg. Infrastructure, safety, sustainability, environmentwww.derby.ac.ukUNDERGRADUATEEngineering Ethics• Many case studies are used in engineering ethicsas the basis for discussions• The following are some fairly recent exampleswww.derby.ac.ukUNDERGRADUATEConclusions?– Incidents, Accidents, Disasters only?– More risky technology? Less risky technology?– Responsibility: the company or the engineer?– Economics vs ethics?Common Themes: somecaseswww.derby.ac.ukUNDERGRADUATE1912: TitanicIntroduction: some caseswww.derby.ac.ukUNDERGRADUATE1973: Ford Pinto : Fuel System design/cost benefit analysisIntroduction: some caseswww.derby.ac.ukUNDERGRADUATE1981 Hyatt Regency walkway collapseThe Hyatt Regency hotel walkway collapse was amajor disaster that occurred on 17 July 1981in Kansas City USA, killing 114 people andinjuring more than 200 others during a teadance. At the time it was the deadlieststructural collapse in U.S. history.• A major cause of fatalities was the landing ofthe concrete 4th floor walkway onto thecrowded 2nd floor walkway.www.derby.ac.ukUNDERGRADUATEAftermath viewThe 4th floor and2nd floor walkwayswere positioned atthe now boardedentrances. A parallel3rd floor walkway tothe left was leftintactwww.derby.ac.ukUNDERGRADUATETheSceneA major cause offatalities was thelanding of theconcrete 4thfloor walkwayonto thecrowded 2ndfloor walkway,both seen herewww.derby.ac.ukUNDERGRADUATEThe fatal flawwww.derby.ac.ukUNDERGRADUATEInvestigation Photographwww.derby.ac.ukUNDERGRADUATEFailure ModeConstruction issues led to a subtle but flaweddesign change that doubled the load on theconnection between the fourth floor walkwaysupport beams and the tie rods carrying theweight of the second floor walkway. This newdesign could barely handle the dead load weightof the structure itself, much less the weight ofthe spectators standing on it. The connectionfailed and both walkways crashed one on top ofthe other and then into the lobby belowhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=czmQS81k9eMwww.derby.ac.ukUNDERGRADUATE1986: Challenger Space Shuttle DisasterIntroduction: some caseswww.derby.ac.ukUNDERGRADUATE1987 : Herald of Free Enterprise (Zeebrugge)Introduction: some caseswww.derby.ac.ukUNDERGRADUATERef: Westmorland Gazette 20th January 2006WHY MANAGE HEALTH & SAFETY?Social & Moral Obligationwww.derby.ac.ukUNDERGRADUATEPotters BarRail CrashMay 2002The judge said there were individuals who bore responsibility forthe maintenance failures which led to the tragedy.Considering how far up the Railtrack organisation the failings went,Judge Bright said that although there were very serious failings byJarvis, ‘overall responsibility for the breach of duty lay withRailtrack at senior management level and their failures weresignificant and extensive’.www.derby.ac.ukUNDERGRADUATE2007 MineappolisBridge CollapseDesign flawTHEWORLDWIDEISSUES GOON!!!www.derby.ac.ukUNDERGRADUATENew EngineeringCouncil guidance onsecurityA new guidancerecently published toprovide advice forengineers andtechnicians on theircritical role in dealingwith security, and theirassociatedresponsibilities tokeep society safe.www.derby.ac.ukUNDERGRADUATESix key principles of Security1.Adopt a security-minded approach to your professionaland personal life2.Apply responsible judgement and take a leadership role3.Comply with legislation and codes, understand theirintent and seek further improvements4.Ensure good security-minded communications5.Understand, comply and seek to improve lasting systemsfor security governance6.Contribute to public and professional awareness ofsecuritywww.derby.ac.ukUNDERGRADUATEWhat is Security?• Security can be defined as the state of relative freedomfrom threat or harm caused by deliberate, unwanted,hostile or malicious acts. It operates on a number oflevels ranging from national security issues tocountering crime.• It includes preserving the value, longevity and ongoingoperation and function of an enterprise’s assets,whether tangible or intangible, and the handling ofprivacy issues such as the protection of personallyidentifiable information.www.derby.ac.ukUNDERGRADUATEPROFESSIONALISM• Degree• Future Career• Degree jobs• Responsibility• UKSPEC• Professional Qualifications• CPDwww.derby.ac.ukUNDERGRADUATEGOODBYE TO THIS!www.derby.ac.ukUNDERGRADUATEWELCOMETHE REAL WORLD OFSITE PEOPLE! THEY ARESTRANGE BUT QUITELIKEABLE!www.derby.ac.ukUNDERGRADUATEProfessional InstitutionsBEng leads to Incorporated EngineerMEng/MSc leads to Chartered Engineerwww.derby.ac.ukUNDERGRADUATEWHO ARE THEY?• 1981 EC became the regulatorybody for the UK engineeringprofession• Professional engineeringinstitutions in the UK began in 1818with the formation of the Institutionof Civil Engineers. The IMechE wasformed next in 1847. The IEE (nowIET) was formed in 1871. There arenow another 37 specialistinstitutions that work as part of theEC.www.derby.ac.ukUNDERGRADUATEWhat is Professional Registration?Professional Qualifications are gained throughapplication and interview and to get there you need:Academic + Experience = Competence &Commitment“Licensed” to operate, sign off, fix, designExperience is called Initial Professional Development(IPD) is where you develop the special skills, knowledge andexperience measured against a set of competencies whichyou can achieve in three stages:1.Knowledge – a basic understanding and knowledge of the attribute and how you achieve it2.Experience – achieving the attribute in different situations, working under supervision3.Ability – achieving the attribute in different situations, assisting others and working unsupervisedwww.derby.ac.ukUNDERGRADUATEPeople andProfessionalism• Registration is the new construction civilengineering and railway future requirement• CPD is compulsory as bestpractice in public industries• Code of Conduct also ismandatory for Builders and Engineers• Share Knowledge and meetother Builders and Engineers• Continuous Quality Improvements andInnovations in Materials, Methods, Processeswww.derby.ac.ukUNDERGRADUATEWhy should you become professionallyregistered and encourage others?• Demonstrates a professional attitude and commitment to construction,engineering and safety; valued by employers and clients.• Benefit from international recognition of competence and commitment.• Demonstrates evidence of your expertise and work ethic.• Status and letters after your name EngTech , IEng, CEng, MICE MPWI MCIOB• Enhanced career path, job satisfaction and promotion.• Access a framework to support your future career development.• Receive support from construction managers and civil engineers.• Enjoy higher earning potential.• Improve knowledge and understanding of construction• Have access to CPDwww.derby.ac.ukUNDERGRADUATEEngTech – Engineering TechnicianEngineering Technicians (EngTech) apply proven techniques and proceduresto the solution of practical engineering problems.Engineering Technicians are required to apply safe systems of work and are able todemonstrate:• Evidence of their contribution to either the design, development, manufacture,commissioning, decommissioning, operation or maintenance of products, equipment,processes or services• Supervisory or technical responsibility• Effective interpersonal skills in communicating technical matters• Commitment to professional engineering values.www.derby.ac.ukUNDERGRADUATEIEng – Incorporated EngineerIncorporated Engineers are able to demonstrate:• The theoretical knowledge to solve problems in developed technologies using well provenanalytical techniques• Successful application of their knowledge to deliver engineering projects or services usingestablished technologies and methods• Responsibility for project and financial planning and management together with someresponsibility for leading and developing other professional staff• Effective interpersonal skills in communicating technical matters• Commitment to professional engineering values.Incorporated Engineers (IEng) maintain and manage applications of current anddeveloping technology, and may undertake engineering design, development,manufacture, construction and operation.www.derby.ac.ukUNDERGRADUATEwww.derby.ac.ukUNDERGRADUATECEng – Chartered EngineerChartered Engineers (CEng) develop solutions to engineering problems using new orexisting technologies, through innovation, creativity and change and/or they mayhave technical accountability for complex systems with significant levels of risk.Chartered Engineers are able to demonstrate:• The theoretical knowledge to solve problems in new technologies and develop newanalytical techniques• Successful application of the knowledge to deliver innovative products and services and/ortake technical responsibility for complex engineering systems• Accountability for project, finance and personnel management and managing trade-offsbetween technical and socio-economic factors• Skill sets necessary to develop other technical staff• Effective interpersonal skills in communicating technical matters.www.derby.ac.ukUNDERGRADUATE• Training Schemes are structured training programmes run byapproved employers and Professional Institutions and there is aformal agreement• They set out how employers will help you get the skills,knowledge and experience you need to complete the initialprofessional development stage of your path to becomeprofessionally qualified.• Once you’ve joined a scheme you can use IPD Online or similar torecord your progress.• You can also progress from one grade to another.• Supervising engineers and delegated engineers are qualifiedengineers who will give you support and guidance throughoutthe programme.Initial Professional Development &Company Training Schemeswww.derby.ac.ukUNDERGRADUATELET’S GET TECHNICAL!Seminars in the last few yearsContributions to knowledgeSome highlightswww.derby.ac.ukUNDERGRADUATEHIGH SPEED RAILWAYS IN CONTEXTGROUND WAVE PROFILES – RAYLEIGH WAVESAbove critical speedBelow critical speedConnolly et al.Heriot-WattUniversitywww.derby.ac.ukUNDERGRADUATEwww.derby.ac.ukUNDERGRADUATEwww.derby.ac.ukUNDERGRADUATECPD refers to the learning you do to develop or maintain the knowledge and skills youneed to succeed in your career and maintain your professional competency.• Professionally registered engineers must complete and record CPD on an annual basis• Professional bodies look for minimum of 30 hours per year• Examples of CPD include:Continuous Professional DevelopmentCPD• Technical training• Courses leading to qualifications• Delivering training• Writing/contributing to publications and articles• Attendance at seminars and conferences• E-learning with assessment• Attendance at Section meetings• Undertaking research• Additional qualifications• E-learning (webinars, courses, podcasts, online articles)• Interactive discussions with experts on technical topics• On the job training: site visits• Participating in committees, panels, discussion groups• Delivering/receiving coaching and or mentoring• Private reading and study• Presenting at seminars and conferences• Workshopswww.derby.ac.ukUNDERGRADUATEMORE ASPECTS OF CPD• Construction materials and methods• Design & design skills• CAD design / BIM (Building Information Management)• Construction site management• Health, safety & welfare practice and legislation• Environmental management• Energy efficiency/conservation• Project management• Contract Law and Forms of contract• Leadership• Negotiating skills• Presentation skillswww.derby.ac.ukUNDERGRADUATEwww.derby.ac.ukUNDERGRADUATETHE RULES OF PROFESSIONALCONDUCT ICE and CIOB1. All members shall discharge their professional duties with integrity.2. All members shall only undertake work that they are competent to do.3. All members shall have full regard for the public interest, particularly in relation to matters ofhealth and safety, and in relation to the well-being of future generations.4. All members shall show due regard for the environment and for the sustainable managementof natural resources.5. All members shall develop their professional knowledge, skills and competence on acontinuing basis and shall give all reasonable assistance to further the education, trainingand continuing professional development of others.6. All members shall:a. notify the Institution if convicted of a criminal offence;b. notify the Institution upon becoming bankrupt or disqualified as a Company Director;c. notify the Institution of any significant breach of the Rules of Professional Conduct by anothermember.
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