CECM3 – Quality Systems 1 | My Assignment Tutor

Sensitivity: Internalwww.derby.ac.uk/technology ww.derby.ac.uk/technologyCollege of Engineering and TechnologyBuilt Environment Sensitivity: Internal6HX503CIVIL ENGINEERINGCONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENTCECM3 – Quality Systems 1Session 3ASensitivity: InternalContent of today’s lecture▪ Tutorial 2B Discussion▪ Introduction and History▪ Theory of QM and models▪ ISO9001▪ Measures▪ Six Sigma▪ Total Quality Management (TQM)▪ TestSensitivity: Internal6HX503CIVIL ENGINEERING CONSTRUCTIONMANAGEMENT SAFETY 1Review of Session 2BTutorialDr Brian CounterSensitivity: InternalKey Features of an Infrastructure SafetyManagement System▪ Safety Information▪ Site Safety Visits & Tours▪ Safety Initiatives▪ Communication▪ Meetings▪ Safety Action GroupsSensitivity: InternalSensitivity: InternalSAFETY CULTURE“ The safety culture of an organisation is the product ofindividual and group values, attitudes, perceptions,competencies and patterns of behaviour that determinethe commitment to, and the style and proficiency of, anorganisation’s health and safety management.Organisations with a positive health and safety cultureare characterised by communications founded onmutual trust, by shared perceptions of the importanceof safety and by confidence in the efficacy of preventivemeasures”Ref: ACSNI 1993: Human Factors Study Group – Organising for Safety (3rd Report)Sensitivity: InternalRita Donaghy’s recommendations to theSecretary of State for Work and Pensions intothe Underlying Causes of Construction FatalAccidents.Available athttp://www.officialdocuments.gov.uk/document/cm76/7657/7657.pdf“One Death is too Many”Sensitivity: InternalTHE WISDOM▪ Policy▪ Culture▪ Behaviour▪ Rules▪ Procedures▪ Systems▪ Paperwork▪ Checks “Walk the Talk”▪ Rewards and PunishmentsSensitivity: InternalCoursework▪ Management Portfolio of Systems▪ Your Project or Operation▪ Choose one▪ 4 parts:▪ Health and Safety▪ Relevant to your context▪ 3 examples eg Risk assessmentSensitivity: InternalExamination▪ An on-line examination with 3 groups of questions of which 40% issafety. The questions will be based on theory but must be supportedby relevant real-life examples.▪ You must get at least 40% correct in safety to pass▪ Subjects on Safety – Legal requirements; HASAW Act 1974, otheracts and regulations, CDM 2015, causation theory, culture,improvement systems, loss controlSensitivity: InternalExercise Safety CultureSustainable Safety Leadership – Safety Culture Improvement – SafetyTraining Video▪ https://youtu.be/_zd6U8dYuekSensitivity: InternalExercise Safety Culture▪ Get into your groups and discuss❖ Definition of a safety culture❖ One example of a good safety culture❖ One example of a bad safety culture❖ An example of how you can improve safetySensitivity: InternalTODAYWe talk about Quality inConstruction and CivilEngineering!Sensitivity: InternalA quality definition:“The degree to which a set ofinherent characteristics fulfilsrequirements”▪ ‘Inherent’, as opposed to ‘assigned’, means existing insomething, especially as a permanent characteristic…▪ ‘Requirement’: A need or expectation that is stated, generallyimplied or obligatorySensitivity: InternalOR………….GIVING THE CUSTOMERWHAT THEY WANT▪ Two aspects of quality:▪ features:more features that meet customer needs = higher quality▪ freedom from trouble:fewer defects = higher qualitySensitivity: Internalwww.derby.ac.uk/technologySensitivity: Internalwww.derby.ac.uk/technologyEven in your personal life, a quality assessment can feel more like opinion thana real fact.For instance, one of your colleagues might think that the iPhone is of utmostquality for a smartphone and practically the greatest device known to mankind.On the other hand, your Android-fanatic colleague might be on the oppositionand think that all Apple products lack even a basic level of quality.Who wins?No matter where your loyalties fall on the age-old Apple versus Android debate,without a distinct set of quality measurements–there’s never going to be a clearwinner.Sensitivity: Internalwww.derby.ac.uk/technologySensitivity: Internalwww.derby.ac.uk/technologySensitivity: InternalWhat Is Quality Assurance (QA)?www.derby.ac.uk/technologyWith a basic understanding of what quality really means in a construction process,let’s dig into how quality is measured specifically.First, quality assurance isn’t about the end product itself, but it’s process oriented.According to Building Professionals, QA is, “The planned and systematic activitiesimplemented in a quality system so that quality requirements for a product orservice will be fulfilled.”QA services are primarily used by owners, owner’s representatives and developersto evaluate how likely a contractor is achieving specified conditions and designstandards.Quality assurance is either measured before a project begins or while a building isundergoing construction.Sensitivity: InternalWhat Is Quality Control (QC)?www.derby.ac.uk/technologyWhereas quality assurance is process focused, quality control is productoriented.QC looks into the final product and determines whether it has been built orimplemented correctly. Designing Buildings defines QC as, “Quality control isthe part of quality management that ensures products and service comply withrequirements. It is a work method that facilitates the measurement of thequality characteristics of a unit, compares them with the established standards,and analyses the differences between the results obtained and the desiredresults to make decisions which will correct any differences.”While QA ensures all the processes are following standards, QC is the finalquality check of the result and is conducted after the product has beencompleted.Sensitivity: InternalQuality Management: Then▪ Principals of Scientific Management c.1911(FredrickW. Taylor). Time and motion + quality control.▪ Elton Mayo & the Hawthorn Experiments (1920’s)psychological experimentation – worker productivityand quality impacted by participation.▪ W. Edwards Deming (1940’s-80’s) Taught methodsfor statistical analysis and control of quality toJapanese engineers and executives. Initiallyunappreciated in the USA he became a leadingquality Guru▪ Joseph M Juran, contemporary of Deming’s, One ofthe first to write about the cost of poor quality.Sensitivity: InternalQuality Management: Then▪ The late 1950’s saw the Japanese developmentof new concepts in response to Americanteachings.▪ Gen’ichi Taguchi: Toyota and Sony disciples▪ Kaizen – Japanese for“improvement” or “change for the better”“design quality into a product as early as possibleduring the engineering phase”.The ford Transmission example▪ Japanese revolution form 1970’s▪ 1980 -1993 USA: Learning from the Japanese;Fords $billion dollar losseswww.derby.ac.uk/technologySensitivity: Internalwww.derby.ac.uk/technologyStandards: Then and Now▪ BS4891:1972 A guide to Quality Assurance▪ BS 5750:1979 Quality Systems▪ ISO9001:1987 Quality Management Systems▪ At that time, you had to describe in detail what your business did.▪ ISO9001:1994 version, was ‘say what you do and do what you say’.▪ ISO9001: 2000 version, you had to focus on proper processes in order tocontinually improve and thereby increase your customer satisfaction.▪ ISO9001: 2008 more precise about the interpretation of the standard.▪ ISO 9001: 2015 fundamental rewrite to incorporate PDCA cycle▪ Compliance compulsory (Central/Local Government, Constructionline)▪ More than a “Badge on wall” (what is your view!)Sensitivity: InternalISO9001: 2015 – The 7 Key PrinciplesThe ISO series now includes ISO 9000:2005 (definitions), ISO 9001:2008 (requirements) and ISO 9004:2009(continuous improvement), and is based on a number of quality management principles that can be applied bymanagement for organizational improvement:1. Customer Focus2. Leadership3. Process Approach4. Involvement and Engagement of People5. Mutually beneficial supplier and other relationships6. Continual Improvement7. Evidence-based decision making “Wasteful and not usefulfor all organizations”.“Provides assurances on quality withinthe supply chain”“Reason for use: globaladoption”.Sensitivity: Internal“Introduces bureaucracy”.“Internal and external audits arerequired to check for compliance”.Four Parts of ISO9001: 2015 ▪ PLANLeadership PlanningSupport and Context ▪ DO Operation▪ CHECK Performance Evaluation▪ ACT ImprovementSensitivity: InternalCHECKS Quality (including ISO9001) and SafetyAssurance and Audits and ChecksLevel 1 checks Internal – Local▪ Supervisors 3 monthly/yearly compliance tostandards and frequency▪ Managers▪ Local engineersLevel 2 checks Internal – Company▪ technical audits by Company professional▪ Safety/environmental/qualityLevel 3 checks External▪ Client initiated and agreed with Client▪ BSI ISO9001 1SO14001▪ External HSE ad-hocSensitivity: Internal“The ISO9001 standard does notprovide a measure of the quality ofgoods or services provided by anorganisation.It is a standard for evaluating anorganisation’s practices,procedures and processes.”Sensitivity: InternalARE DOCUMENTS REQUIRED?DOCUMENTED INFORMATION ISO 9001:2015 no longerrequires obligatory documented procedures or a qualitymanual.▪ This is noteworthy. This is now referred to as ‘documentedinformation’ in practically all clauses of ISO 9001:2015.▪ The definition states that it concerns ‘information that theorganisation has to control and maintain’.▪ The information can be in any format and come fromvarious sources and media. Diverse forms of evidence ordocumentation are therefore possible.▪ There is no longer any mention of ‘records’ neither, but of‘retaining documented information’.Sensitivity: InternalBenefits of building an ISO 9001-based QMS include:▪ Documenting processes forces an organisation tofocus on how they do business▪ Documented processes create repetition, eliminatevariation, improve efficiency and reduce costs▪ Corrective and preventative measures are developedand become permanent company-wide solutions▪ Better products and services arise from continuousimprovement process▪ Improved profit levels as productivity improves andrework costs are reducedwww.derby.ac.uk/technologySensitivity: Internalwww.derby.ac.uk/technologyBenefits of building an ISO 9001-based QMS include:▪ Employee morale is increased as they’re empoweredto take control of their work▪ Customer satisfaction/loyalty grows as the companydelivers proactive rather than reactive solutions▪ Improved internal/external communications–employees, customers and suppliers are assured avoice▪ Verification by 3rd party auditor builds credibility withcustomer, supplier and competitive organisationswww.derby.ac.uk/technologySensitivity: Internal“On the downside, ISO 9001-based qualitymanagement systems have been criticised forthe amount of money, time and paperworkrequired for registration and maintenance.Further, ISO 9001 certification does notguarantee product or service quality, especiallyin cases where receiving certification isprioritised over achieving quality.”www.derby.ac.uk/technologySensitivity: InternalSix Sigma – Quality Improvement 6▪ Six Sigma is a quality-control program developed in 1986by Motorola that emphasizes cycle-time improvement andthe reduction of manufacturing defects to a level of no morethan 3.4 per million.▪ As of 2016, Six Sigma has evolved into a more generalbusiness-management philosophy focused on meetingcustomer requirements, improving customer retention, andimproving and sustaining business products and services.▪ Six Sigma is applicable to all industries, and a number ofvendors, including Motorola itself, offer Six Sigma training;special certifications include yellow belt, green belt andblack belt.Sensitivity: InternalSix Sigma✓ Identify✓ Measure✓ Analyse✓ Improve✓ ControlThe name “six sigma” refers to the variationthat exists within plus or minus six standarddeviations of the process outputsSensitivity: InternalSix is the best! Sigma levelDefects permillion% yield1691,46330.82308,53869.1366,80793.346,21099.3523399.97763.499.99966 Sensitivity: InternalTotal Quality Management (TQM)▪ TQM is the name for the philosophy of a broadand systematic approach to managingorganisational quality.▪ It is a strategy aimed at embedding awareness ofquality in all organisational processes.Sensitivity: InternalWhat does Total Quality Managementencompass?TQM is a management philosophy:• continuous improvement• leadership development• partnership developmentCulturalAlignmentTechnicalTools(ProcessCustomer Analysis)Sensitivity: InternalQuality ImprovementTraditionalTimeQualitySensitivity: Internalwww.derby.ac.uk/technologyTotal Quality Management in practice – “The ThickJam Sandwich” FULL SYSTEMS SET UPISO 9001 REVIEWWORLD CLASSCUSTOMER FOCUSANTICIPATE THE FUTURE XXXXX Sensitivity: InternalAdvantages of QMS▪ Create a more efficient, effective operation▪ Increase customer satisfaction and retention▪ Reduce audits▪ Enhance marketing▪ Improve employee motivation, awareness, andmorale▪ Promote international trade▪ Increases profit▪ Reduce waste and increases productivity.Sensitivity: InternalToyota recalls 1.75 million cars over various issueshttp://www.bbc.co.uk/news/business-2962573415 October 2014 Last updated at 09:10▪ Japanese carmaker Toyota is recalling 1.75 million vehicles worldwide over faultybrake installations and fuel component issues.▪ The latest brake defect is found in some models of Toyota’s Crown Majesta, as well asthe Noah and Voxy models produced between June 2007 and 2012.▪ Toyota told the BBC it was not aware of any crashes, injuries or fatalities caused bythis defect.▪ The firm has refused to comment on how much the latest recall will cost it.▪ http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/business-19893898▪ 10 October 2012▪ http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/business-20321932▪ 14 November 2012▪ http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7yWo5f10u4M▪ Oct 15, 2014www.derby.ac.uk/technologySensitivity: InternalThe consequences (assuming there has been no loss oflife!)▪ “Among the losers were shares ofToyota, down almost 2% after theautomaker issued a recall of 1.75million vehicles on Wednesday”.▪ “Given the spate of recalls and qualityproblems, managers wonder whetherToyota’s difficulties throw its legendarymanufacturing model into question.”16 October 2014 Last updated at 09:58http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/business-29639596www.derby.ac.uk/technologySensitivity: InternalSo what has gone wrong?Points to consider:▪ Management’s recent focus on growth weakened the emphasis on quality.▪ The quality of competitive products has improved.▪ Public perceptions about quality can be greatly influenced by media reports.www.derby.ac.uk/technologySensitivity: InternalOne last thought: Lean manufacturing (or ‘leanthinking’)▪ Promoted by Toyota as instrumental in its success,the lean thinking methodology focuses on improvingworkflow to reduce waste, which in turn, will improvebusiness performance.▪ Guidelines/applications such as identifying valueand achieving many small improvements shouldlead to positive outcomes such as uniform output,less inventory and improved flow-performancemeasures.▪ However, this methodology is sometimes criticisedfor ignoring the customer perspective, as well asunder utilising statistical/systems analyses .www.derby.ac.uk/technologySensitivity: Internalwww.derby.ac.uk/technologySensitivity: Internalwww.constructionqualitycouncil.org/news-and-presentations.htmlwww.derby.ac.uk/technologySensitivity: Internalwww.derby.ac.uk/technologySensitivity: InternalSummary of today’s lecture▪ Tutorial 2B Discussion▪ Introduction and History▪ Theory of QM and models▪ ISO9001▪ Measures▪ Six Sigma▪ Total Quality Management (TQM)Sensitivity: InternalSee you laterSession 3B Tutorial1600 Friday 16th Octoberwww.derby.ac.uk/technology


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