Health and Safety at Work | My Assignment Tutor Internal6HX503CIVIL ENGINEERING CONSTRUCTIONMANAGEMENTTUTORIAL 10B EXAM REVISIONSafety, Quality, Sustainability, InternalWHY MANAGE HEALTH & SAFETY?Legal DutyHealth and Safety at Work etc Act 1974Regulation 2(3) “ it shall be the duty of every employer to prepare and asoften as may be appropriate revise a written statement of his generalpolicy with respect to the health and safety at work of his employeesand the organisation and arrangements for the time being in force forcarrying out that policyManagement of Health and Safety at Work Regulations 1999Regulation 5 “Every employer shall make and give effect to sucharrangements as are appropriate…………. For the effective planning,organisation, control, monitoring and review of the preventive andprotective measures” InternalThe Health and Safety at Work Act 19741. To secure the health, safety and welfare of allpersons at work2. To protect the general public from risks to healthand safety arising out of work activities3. To control the use, handling, storage andtransportation of explosives and highly flammablesubstances4. To control the release of noxious or offensivesubstances into the InternalHealth andSafety atWork etc Act1974PenaltiesOffencesAuthorities Responsible for EnforcementThe Health & SafetyExecutive Local AuthoritiesPowers of InspectorsImprovement & Prohibition NoticesThe Health & SafetyCommissionApproved Codes ofPracticeThe Secretary ofStateHealth and SafetyRegulationsGeneral DutiesEmployersEmployeesEtc……..The Health and Safety at Work Act InternalKey LegislationThe Health and Safety at Work Act 1974• The Construction (Design and Management) Regulations(CDM) 2015• The Work at Height Regulations 2005• The Control of Noise at Work Regulations 2005• The Management of Health and Safety at Work and PPERegulations 1999• The Control of Substances Hazardous to Health Regulations(CoSHH) 1999• The Lifting Operations and Lifting Equipment Regulations (LOLER)1998• The Provision and Use of Work Equipment Regulations (PUWER) 1998• The Confined Spaces Regulation 1997• The Reporting of Injuries Diseases and Dangerous OccurrencesRegulations (RIDDOR) 2013• The Manual Handling Operations Regulations InternalAccident Reporting• RIDDOR Regulations 2013• Report to HSE– 5-7 day absences– Serious injuries; broken bones; burns– Fatality• Company Rules; any accident to be reported– Minor– Near InternalManagement of Health and Safety at Work andPPE Regulations 1999• Planning and Organisation– Company Policy– PPE– Method Statements• Control – Risk Assessments• Monitoring – Site Checks• Review of the preventive and protective measures– management meetings InternalRisk Assessments• Matrix 5×5 3×3 7×7• Consequence or Severity• Likelihood• Control InternalRisk and the process• Five steps– Step 1: Identify the hazards– Step 2: Decide who might be harmed and how– Step 3: Evaluate the risks and decide on precaution– Step 4: Record your findings and implement them– Step 5: Review your assessment and update ifnecessary with enhanced control InternalQuantitative Risk assessment• Likelihood = often to seldom• Severity = death to illness LikelihoodSeveritySlight1Serious2Major3Low1Medium2High3 RISK = SEVERITY x InternalThe Construction (Design &Management) Regulations 2015CDM 2015Looks to address health and safety throughout thelifecycle of the InternalCDM 2015 – KEY AIMS• Improve the planning and management of projects from the very start• Identify hazards early on, so they can be eliminated or reduced at thedesign or planning stage and the remaining risk can be properly managed• Target effort where it can do the most good in terms of health and safetyDISCOURAGE UNECESSARY InternalTWO KEY Roles in CDM 2105• PRINCIPAL DESIGNER (PD)• PRINCIPAL CONTRACTOR (PC) DESIGNER (PD)The new Principal Designer (PD) role which will replace the existingCDM Coordinator position (2007). The PD is expected to be a clientappointment from within the design team, for example the Architect,Structural Engineer or Services Engineer.The PD will be responsible for:• Eliminating or controlling risk throughout the design phase• Ensuring that the Principal Contractor (PC) is kept updated• Ensuring that a Construction Phase Plan (CPP) is prepared• Assisting the client with the preparation of the CPP• Make certain that designers comply with their duties• Preparing the Health and Safety Internal“Prepare a construction phase plan…… to ensure the constructionphase is planned, managed , monitored, reviewed, and refined…….”PRINCIPAL CONTRACTOR (PC)“The Principal Contractor shall take all reasonable steps toensure the construction phase plan identifies the risks to healthand safety arising from the construction work and includessuitable and sufficient measures to address such risks”“The principal contractor shall…facilitate co-operation and coordination between persons concerned in the project”“The principal contractor shall ensure that every worker isprovided with – information…a suitable site induction,instruction and training” InternalThe F10 Register Changes• Raising the threshold for notification of projects.• The requirement to notify the HSE about projectsexpected to last more than 30 days or involve more than500 person-days of labour will be replaced by arequirement to notify projects involving “more than 30working days and more than 20 workers simultaneously”.However this will not be the trigger for the appointment ofa PC or PD which has been the case to date. Instead, aproject with more than one contractor will initiate theallocation of a PC or InternalWHY MANAGE HEALTH & SAFETY?Financial Cost of AccidentsInsuranceCosts £1UninsuredCosts £10Ref: HSE 2008: INDG275 Managing Health & Safety (Five steps to success) InternalTotal Loss ControlA management system approach concerned with theprevention of losses.Defined as a programme designed to reduce or eliminate allaccidents which downgrade the system and which result inthe wastage of the organisations assets listed below.ManpowerMaterialsMachineryManufactured InternalSAFETY CULTURE“ The safety culture of an organisation is the product of individual andgroup values, attitudes, perceptions, competencies and patterns ofbehaviour that determine the commitment to, and the style andproficiency of, an organisation’s health and safety management.Organisations with a positive health and safety culture arecharacterised by communications founded on mutual trust, by sharedperceptions of the importance of safety and by confidence in theefficacy of preventive measures”Ref: ACSNI 1993: Human Factors Study Group – Organising for Safety (3rd Report) InternalNumber of Fatal InjuriesConstruction 1992- InternalAccident TriangleRef: HSE 1997: HSG65 Successful Health and Safety InternalTheory of accidents (Bird, 1969)Major Injury“ICEBERG THEORY”Minor InjuriesProperty DamageNear Miss (critical incidentwith no apparent loss) InternalAccident Causation“The World Health Organisation safety managementapproach to accidents is that the immediate cause(s) of anaccident (unsafe conditions and unsafe behaviour) areonly symptoms of the true root cause(s) which exist inmanagement function.”Ref: S COX, T COX 1996: Safety Systems and People“Accidents, ill health and incidents are seldom randomevents. They generally arise from failures ofcontrol……… The immediate cause may be a human ortechnical failure, but they usually arise fromorganisational failings which are the responsibility ofmanagement.”Ref: HSE 1997: HSG65, Successful Health and Safety InternalTheories• DOMINO• LINE UP THE STARS• HUMAN InternalBird & Loftus 1976DOMINO InternalAccident Causation Theory(Bird & Loftus)ORGANISATIONPERSONALFACTORSJOBFACTORSAIM IS InternalHuman FactorsRef: HSE 1999: HSG48 Reducing Error and Influencing InternalSafety Management SystemsRef: HSE 1997: HSG65 Successful Health and Safety InternalKey Features of an InfrastructureSafety Management System• Safety Information• Site Safety Visits & Tours• Safety Initiatives• Communication– Meetings– Safety Action InternalINITIATIVES• Target Zero• Behavioural Based Safety• InternalTHE WISDOM• Policy• Culture• Behaviour• Rules• Procedures• Systems• Paperwork• Checks “Walk the Talk”• Rewards and InternalThe Business Perspective– Elkington’s Triple Bottom LineENVIRONMENTALSOCIAL Internal• For “sustainability” read “survivability”• 1988 Intergovernmental Panel Climate Change– Human made greenhouse gases– Response to climate change• 1992 Earth Summit Rio de Janeiro– Prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference byreducing emissions to 1990 levels by 2000• 2005 Kyoto Treaty ratified– Scientists believe we need a 90% reduction to stabiliseclimate change by 2100 to keep>450 ppm carbon levels– Currently 380 ppm and rising 2-3 ppm per year• Stern Review 2006• Code for Sustainable Homes 2006• 1988 Intergovernmental Panel Climate Change• 1992 Earth Summit Rio de JaneiroPrevent dangerous anthropogenic interferenceby reducing emissions to 1990 levels by 2000• 2005 Kyoto Treaty ratifiedScientists believe we need a 90% reduction to stabiliseclimate change by 2100 to keep>450 ppm carbon levelsCurrently 380 ppm and rising 2-3 ppm per year• 2006 Stern Review• 2006 Code for Sustainable Homes• 2009 Copenhagan Summit• 2015 Paris Summit• 2019 Madrid SummitThe Global Case for “sustainability” read “survivability” InternalThe Four Principles ofKyriakides(2006)1. Benign energy first2. Conserve energy3. Polluter must pay4. No unnecessaryuse of energyRobert Kyriakides: Environmentalistand solicitor. Author of “The EnergyAge” InternalSustainable Construction• Energy use on site– Reduce– Use green energy• Renewable materials• Recycling and reuse of materials• Minimum construction waste going to landfill• Computer controlled deliveries to eliminate waste• Cement replacement PFA• Transport and manufacture of materials– “the carbon cost”• Local labour• Prefabrication• Insulation – pressure testing• Intelligent InternalThe Regulations• Building Act 1984 – Building Regulations• Approved documents 2006– L ; Conservation of fuel and power– F ; Ventilation performance based• Natural Environment & Rural Communities Act 2006• Climate Change & Sustainability Act 2006– Annual report on greenhouse gas emissions– National targets for micro-generation– Community energy renewable sources• Management of Energy in Buildings Act 2007• Sustainable communities Act 2007• Climate change Act 2008 – Annual InternalThe Climate Change Act 2008• The Act makes it the duty of the Secretary of State toensure that the net UK carbon account for all six Kyotogreenhouse gases for the year 2050 is at least 80%lower than the 1990 baseline, toward avoidingdangerous climate change.• The Act aims to enable the United Kingdom to becomea low-carbon economy and gives ministers powers tointroduce the measures necessary to achieve a rangeof greenhouse gas reduction targets.• An independent Committee on Climate Change hasbeen created under the Act to provide advice to UKGovernment on these targets and related InternalEthics and Arguments• Ethics– is not a matter of simply saying what you believe or feelabout a given issue.• Arguments– Ethics, depends on reasoning, evidence andargumentation. Ethics does not depend on specific sortsof empirical observation, gathering data, performingexperiments, or making Internal2007 MineappolisBridge CollapseDesign flawTHEWORLDWIDEISSUES GOON!!! InternalALTON TOWERS InternalALTON TOWERS CRASH• Alton Towers operator Merlin has been fined £5m for the crash on the Smilerrollercoaster. Sixteen people were injured in the June 2015 crash, including twoteenage girls who needed leg amputations. In April, Merlin AttractionsOperations Ltd admitted breaching the Health and Safety at Work Act 1974.• The theme park originally said the accident was caused by “human error.” Butprosecutors argued the fault was with the employer not individuals• Sentencing, Judge Michael Chambers QC described the crash on the £18mattraction as a “catastrophic failure” and said human error was not the cause aswas suggested at first. “This was a needless and avoidable accident in whichthose who were injured were lucky not to be killed,” he said. There was a lackof detailed, robust arrangements for making safety critical decisions• ‘Catalogue of errors’• He said the crash was foreseeable but accepted the defendant had taken fulland extensive steps to remedy the problems that led to the crash. They haveenhanced their system for “Declaration of Operational compliance” InternalNew EngineeringCouncil guidance onsecurityA new guidancerecently published toprovide advice forengineers andtechnicians on theircritical role in dealingwith security, and theirassociatedresponsibilities tokeep society InternalSix key principles of Security1.Adopt a security-minded approach to your professionaland personal life2.Apply responsible judgement and take a leadership role3.Comply with legislation and codes, understand theirintent and seek further improvements4.Ensure good security-minded communications5.Understand, comply and seek to improve lasting systemsfor security governance6.Contribute to public and professional awareness InternalWhat is Security?• Security can be defined as the state of relative freedomfrom threat or harm caused by deliberate, unwanted,hostile or malicious acts. It operates on a number oflevels ranging from national security issues tocountering crime.• It includes preserving the value, longevity and ongoingoperation and function of an enterprise’s assets,whether tangible or intangible, and the handling ofprivacy issues such as the protection of personallyidentifiable InternalThe Quality AreasThe following areas will be explored:• History of Quality: Definitions including control and assurance, thecontribution of Gurus, the development of standards for Quality.• Quality Systems: An understanding of the basics including keystrategic aims (3), and principles (7)• Continuous Improvement – Innovation leading to total qualitymanagement – including the six sigma approach.• ISO9001: 2015 – the documentary requirements and description of the(4) main parts• Quality Auditing and Checks – the process and levels (3) includingexamples of civil engineering and organisational InternalWhat is Quality?• Compare QA with QC• Gurus 1960’s– W. Edwards Deming– Joseph Juran– Gen’ichi Taguchi• Kaizen – Japanese for“improvement” or “change for the better”• Japanese revolution form 1970• 1980 -1993 USA• Customer’s wants InternalStandards: Then and Now▪ BS4891:1972 A guide to Quality Assurance▪ BS 5750:1979 Quality Systems▪ ISO9001:1987 Quality Management Systems▪ At that time, you had to describe in detail what your business did.▪ ISO9001:1994 version, was ‘say what you do and do what you say’.▪ ISO9001: 2000 version, you had to focus on proper processes in order tocontinually improve and thereby increase your customer satisfaction.▪ ISO9001: 2008 more precise about the interpretation of the standard.▪ ISO 9001: 2015 fundamental rewrite to incorporate PDCA cycle▪ Compliance compulsory (Central/Local Government, Constructionline)▪ More than a “Badge on wall” (what is your view!) InternalTHE QUALITY FUNDAMENTALS•Checks•Systems•Continuous InternalA quality definition:“The degree to which a set ofinherent characteristics fulfilsrequirements” InternalOR………….•GIVING THE CUSTOMERWHAT THEY InternalFour Parts of ISO9001: 2015 ▪ PLANLeadership PlanningSupport and Context ▪ DO Operation▪ CHECK Performance Evaluation▪ ACT InternalThe ISO9001:2015 quality management7 principles:1. Customer Focus2. Leadership3. Process Approach4. Involvement and Engagement of People5. Mutually beneficial supplier and other relationships6. Continual Improvement7. Evidence-based decision makingISO 9001:2015 describes for each part whichrequirements your products, services andorganisation have to meet in order to enjoy the InternalCompare QC with QA• Quality Control – check at the end and reject ifnot acceptable• Quality Assurance – check at all points in theprocess including contributory issues eg suppliers– Step by Internal3 KEY AIMS of a QualityManagement System• Prevention of non conformances• Monitoring• Internal7 Principlesof Quality Management Systems1. Customer Focus2. Leadership3. Process Approach – comply with ISO90014. Involvement and Engagement of People5. Mutually beneficial supplier and otherrelationships6. Continual Improvement – standardise bestpractice7. Evidence-based decision InternalSample Audits – 3 TYPES OFCONSTRUCTION CHECKS• 3 types of Civil Engineering and Construction checks1. Compliance to technical standards2. Compliance to competency standards3. Special procedures eg floods, wind, temperature• Organisational checks for Contract Safety Case– Organisational Chart / Organogram– People – Posts on the chart– Job Description & Safety Responsibility InternalHOW TO IMPROVE• Statistical Systems• Mean time betweenfailures• Fault and FailureAnalysis• Fault trees• Six Sigma developedby InternalSix SigmaA Statistical Process using standard deviations for a givencharacteristic:✓ Identify✓ Measure✓ Analyse✓ Improve✓ InternalSix is the best! Sigma levelDefects permillion% yield1691,46330.82308,53869.1366,80793.346,21099.3523399.97763.499.99966 InternalTotal Quality Management in practice –“The Thick Jam Sandwich” FULL SYSTEMS SET UPISO 9001 REVIEWWORLD CLASSCUSTOMER FOCUSANTICIPATE THE FUTURE XXXXX InternalWhat are checks? InternalQuality and Safety Assurance andAudits and Checks– Level 1 checks• Supervisors 3 monthly/yearly complianceto standards and frequency• Managers• Local engineers– Level 2 Internal• technical audits by Company professional• Safety/environmental/quality– Level 3 External• Client initiated and agreed with Client• BSI ISO9001 1SO14001• External HSE RAIB HMRI InternalSample Checks and Audits• Civil Engineering Construction Checks– Compliance to technical standards• eg slump tests, test procedures, ultrasonic– Compliance to competency standards• eg Licences, safety cards, certificates– Special procedures eg floods, wind, temperatures• Organisational checks – Contract Safety Case• Structure or organogram• People– Job Description (JD)– Safety responsibility Statement (SRS) InternalTHE RULES OF PROFESSIONALCONDUCT ICE and CIOB1. All members shall discharge their professional duties with integrity.2. All members shall only undertake work that they are competent to do.3. All members shall have full regard for the public interest, particularly in relation to matters ofhealth, safety, security and in relation to the well-being of future generations.4. All members shall show due regard for the environment and for the sustainable managementof natural resources.5. All members shall develop their professional knowledge, skills and competence on acontinuing basis and shall give all reasonable assistance to further the education, trainingand continuing professional development of others.6. All members shall:a. notify the Institution if convicted of a criminal offence;b. notify the Institution upon becoming bankrupt or disqualified as a Company Director;c. notify the Institution of any significant breach of the Rules of Professional Conduct by InternalThe End• Exam 3 hours equivalent• Three sections– Quality– Safety and Sustainability– Professional Practice• Three questions from each


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