Natural and Built Environment | My Assignment Tutor of Science and EngineeringNatural and Built Environment6HX503CIVIL ENGINEERING CONSTRUCTIONMANAGEMENT SAFETY 1SESSION 2ASafety & Regulatory RequirementsDr Brian CounterTODAY’S Agenda• How did we do on Session 1B?• What is your news?• What is Health and Safety Law?• Why did CDM come into force in 1994?• Why does Safety Matter?• Safety ENGINEERING CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENTHOW DID YOU DO ON SESSION 1B?• Recorded Sessionat 1600 last week• Response to thetasks given• Key message isfinding examples10 Health and Safety Risks in Construction▪ How did you do?10 Health and Safety Risks in Construction• Working at Height• Moving Objects• Slips, Trips, & Falls• Noise• Hand Arm Vibration Syndrome• Material & Manual Handling• Collapse• Asbestos• Airborne Fibres & Materials – Respiratory Diseases• ElectricityTUTORIAL 1B TASKSWhy do we need systems?On Line Activity• What systems do we use in Civil Engineering?• Why?• Name some benefits or 1B TASKSPlease come prepared with the following toenable you to discuss with the rest of the group:• Go on HSE website and find an accident report• Go to Construction News or similar and find abit of news relating to the newsSafety or Construction Why does Health and Safety matter?Families People EveryonePain &Bad things Suffering are the Good things?Planning• Efficient use of Resources• No surprisesReasonably Practical• Legal backs up moral• Everybody understandsCommunication• Life Cycle of a Project• Clear ARE THESE DAFT? HSE publishes top ten‘bizarre’ health and safety Westmorland Gazette 20th January 2006WHY MANAGE HEALTH & SAFETY?Social & Moral ObligationWHY MANAGEHEALTH & SAFETY?Legal DutyHealth and Safety at Work etc Act 1974Regulation 2(3) “ it shall be the duty of every employer to prepare and asoften as may be appropriate revise a written statement of his general policywith respect to the health and safety at work of his employees and theorganisation and arrangements for the time being in force for carrying out thatpolicyManagement of Health and Safety at Work Regulations 1999Regulation 5 “Every employer shall make and give effect to such arrangementsas are appropriate…………. For the effective planning, organisation, control,monitoring and review of the preventive and protective measures”WHY MANAGEHEALTH & SAFETY?Legal DutyHealth andSafety at Worketc Act 1974PenaltiesOffencesAuthorities Responsible for EnforcementThe Health & SafetyExecutive Local AuthoritiesPowers of InspectorsImprovement & Prohibition NoticesThe Health & SafetyCommissionApproved Codes ofPracticeThe Secretary of StateHealth and SafetyRegulationsGeneral DutiesEmployersEmployeesEtc……..The Health and Safety at Work Act 1974The Health and Safety at Work Act 19741. To secure the health, safety and welfare of all personsat work2. To protect the general public from risks to health andsafety arising out of work activities3. To control the use, handling, storage andtransportation of explosives and highly flammablesubstances4. To control the release of noxious or offensivesubstances into the atmosphereKey LegislationThe Health and Safety at Work Act 1974• The Construction (Design and Management) Regulations(CDM) 2015• The Work at Height Regulations 2005• The Control of Noise at Work Regulations 2005• The Management of Health and Safety at Work and PPERegulations 1999• The Control of Substances Hazardous to Health Regulations(CoSHH) 1999• The Lifting Operations and Lifting Equipment Regulations (LOLER)1998• The Provision and Use of Work Equipment Regulations (PUWER) 1998• The Confined Spaces Regulation 1997• The Reporting of Injuries Diseases and Dangerous Occurrences Regulations(RIDDOR) 2013• The Manual Handling Operations Regulations 1992Management of Health and Safetyat Work and PPE Regulations 1999• Planning and Organisation– Company Policy– PPE– Method Statements• Control – Risk Assessments• Monitoring – Site Checks• Review of the preventive and protectivemeasures – management meetings etcRisk Assessments• Matrix 5×5 3×3 7×7• Consequence or Severity• Likelihood• Control MeasureQuantitative Risk assessment• Likelihood =often to seldom• Severity = deathto illness LikelihoodSeveritySlight1Serious2Major3Low1Medium2High3 RISK = SEVERITY x LIKELIHOODAccident Reporting• RIDDOR Regulations 2013• Report to HSE– 5-7 day absences– Serious injuries; broken bones; burns– Fatality• Company Rules; any accident to bereported– Minor– Near MissBiggest fines• Bakkavor fined £2m after worker crushed by falling waste bale• Aldi fined £1m after driver’s foot injuredby pallet truck• G4S must pay £1.8m after risking Legionnaires for six years• Warburtons’ £1.9m PUWER fine for worker’s friction burns• Co-op fined £400,000 over pensioner’s wet floor death• South West Water fined £1.8m after lone worker drowns• Council fined £1m for tractor collision in country park• Oil giant Essar pays £1.65m for Stanlow refinery blast• Furniture giant DFS pays £1m after worker knocked out byunsecured load• Warburtons hit with £2m fine for worker’s mixer fall• KFC fined £1m after workers burned by microwaved gravy• Wilko fined £2.2m after ignoring warnings about lift MANAGEHEALTH & SAFETY?Financial Cost of AccidentsInsuranceCosts £1UninsuredCosts £10Ref: HSE 2008: INDG275 Managing Health & Safety (Five steps to success)WHY MANAGEHEALTH & SAFETY?Legal DutyConstruction (Design & Management)Regulations 2015Regulations 13 & 22 “Contractors and PrincipalContractors shall plan manage and monitor theconstruction phase to ensure that so far as isreasonably practicable, it is carried out without risksto health or safety”What do the experts say about goodcompany safety management systems?THE 4 C’s and CI• Establish and maintain CONTROL of the Safetyarrangements.• Promote CO-OPERATION (safety needs to be acollaborative effort)• Ensure good COMMUNICATION of relevant informationthroughout the organisation.• Secure the COMPETENCE of your workers and contractors.• Provide clear and visible leadership• Ensure continual improvement.SAFETY CULTURE“ The safety culture of an organisation is the product of individualand group values, attitudes, perceptions, competencies and patternsof behaviour that determine the commitment to, and the style andproficiency of, an organisation’s health and safety management.Organisations with a positive health and safety culture arecharacterised by communications founded on mutual trust, byshared perceptions of the importance of safety and by confidence inthe efficacy of preventive measures”Ref: ACSNI 1993: Human Factors Study Group – Organising for Safety (3rd Report) Iceland Foods was fined £2.5m on 20September 2017 following the death of acontractor working at height at a store inRotherham in October 2013.• The food giant’s fine, the largest to date in 2017, was handed down in asentencing hearing at Grimsby Crown Court, following a three-week trial held atSheffield Crown Court in July 2017.• In the trial, Iceland was found guilty of breaching Sections 2(1) and 3(1) of theHealth and Safety at Work Act. The charges were brought by Rotherham Councilfollowing the fatal accident at the Iceland store on Sycamore Road, Rotherham, on28 October 2013.• Contractor Tony Hopkins was at the store to replace filters within an airconditioning unit, which was located on a “plant platform” above a suspendedceiling in the store’s warehouse. He fell almost 3m from the platform and throughthe suspended ceiling, sustaining fatal injuries.• An investigation by Adrian Monkhouse, principal environmental health officer atthe council, revealed that there were no barriers in place to prevent falls from theplatform. and there were several tripping hazards in this area, including cablingand the fixing points for the ladder itself.In court, Iceland argued that it was entitled torely on the specialist contractors who carried outwork on the plant platform to identify the missinghandrail. However, this was rejected by the fined £200,000 overLincolnshire rail worker death• Carillion Construction Ltd has been handed a £200,000 fine andordered to pay over £36,000 in costs by the rail regulator forbreaching health and safety laws, which led to the death of a railwayworker.• On 4 December, a train struck and fatally injured self-employed trackworker Scott Dobson, 26, who was acting as a controller of site safety(COSS) near Saxilby, Lincolnshire.• The RAIB found that Dobson was probably distracted by the noise,cold conditions and work being undertaken on the line, and steppedbackwards into the path of the train as it passed the work site.• Dobson had not implemented a Safe System of Work (a formalrequirement for work being undertaken on Network Railinfrastructure), and had never been subject to disciplinaryproceedings or other action after two previous safety incidents in thetwo months before the incident.• The agency that hired him, SkyBlue, did not implement any effectiveformal review of his performance, and parent company Carillion didnot identify that an effective performance review regime was RAIB recommendations afterCOSS death at Saxelby• Network Rail should identify and apply suitable controls tomanage risk arising from the use of agency staff in safetyleadership roles, or reduce its dependency on such staff.• It should also work with companies that hire or use agencystaff for any role that involves working on the track.• The RAIB also said that Carillion and SkyBlue should reviewthe effectiveness of changes made to their safetymanagement arrangements following the of Fatal InjuriesConstruction 1992- 20191974RateHow do we compare with others? Why ManageHealth & Safety?ACCIDENT DEFINITIONAn accident is an unplanned, uncontrolled event that resulted inpersonal injury, property damage and/or some other loss, or couldhave resulted in in personal injury, property damage and/or someother loss in slightly different circumstancesAccident Causation“The World Health Organisation safety management approachto accidents is that the immediate cause(s) of an accident(unsafe conditions and unsafe behaviour) are only symptoms ofthe true root cause(s) which exist in management function.”Ref: S COX, T COX 1996: Safety Systems and People“Accidents, ill health and incidents are seldom randomevents. They generally arise from failures ofcontrol……… The immediate cause may be a human ortechnical failure, but they usually arise fromorganisational failings which are the responsibility ofmanagement.”Ref: HSE 1997: HSG65, Successful Health and Safety ManagementAccident Triangle TheoryRef: HSE 1997: HSG65 Successful Health and Safety ManagementBird & Loftus 1976DOMINO THEORYMULTICAUSALITYVery few accidents, particularly in large organisations andcomplex technologies are associated with a single cause.The causes of accidents are usually complex and interactive.LINE UP THE STARSHumanFactorsMULTICAUSALITYRef: HSE 1999: HSG48 Reducing Error and Influencing BehaviourActive FailuresErrors and violations which have an immediate effect on safety.committed by those directly involved in completing work tasks andusually involve direct circumvention of safety requirementsWhy do you think employees make errors or commitviolations?How can these be prevented? Potters Bar Rail Crash May 2002The judge said there were individuals who bore responsibility for themaintenance failures which led to the tragedy.Considering how far up the Railtrack organisation the failings went, Judge Brightsaid that although there were very serious failings by Jarvis, ‘overall responsibilityfor the breach of duty lay with Railtrack at senior management level and theirfailures were significant and extensive’.Ref: HSE 1999: HSG48 Reducing Error and Influencing BehaviourLatent FailuresDecisions or actions, whose damaging consequences may liedormant for some considerable time, only becoming evidentwhen they combine with local triggering factors to break throughthe systems defences.Latent Failures•Poor design of plant and equipment•Ineffective training•Inadequate supervision.•Ineffective communications•Uncertainties in roles and responsibilities.•Lack of resources.ACCIDENT DEFINITIONAn accident is an unplanned, uncontrolled event thatresulted in personal injury, property damage and/orsome other loss, or could have resulted in in personalinjury, property damage and/or some other loss inslightly different circumstancesSummary• Why Safety• Health and Safety at Work Act 1974• Regulations• Risk Assessment• Safety Causation• Safety Climate VideoVideo SAFETY CLIMATE• YouLater at 1600 today


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