Sensitivity: Internal 6HX503 | My Assignment Tutor of Science and EngineeringNatural and Built Environment Sensitivity: Internal6HX503CIVIL ENGINEERING CONSTRUCTIONMANAGEMENTQuality Systems 2Dr Brian CounterSensitivity: InternalContent of today’s lecture session▪ Last week’s tutorial 4B▪ Recap on the Theory and ISO9001:2015▪ The link between Quality and Safety▪ Six Sigma▪ Total Quality Management (TQM) inPractice▪ Test▪ Introduction to Case StudySensitivity: InternalCivil Engineering Construction Management6HX503HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENTSESSION 4B1. Leadership2. Teams3. Belbin Exercise4. Team Performance QuizSensitivity: InternalTeam Roles▪ 9 types▪ LeadershipSensitivity: InternalAction – centred Leadership (Adair)TASKTEAM INDIVIDUALmaintenanceLEADER AIMSFOR HERESensitivity: InternalSensitivity: InternalDO THE BELBIN QUIZ TO FIND OUT WHAT KIND OFTEAM MEMBER YOU ARE▪ Download the belbintest from Udo Course Resources▪ Look at sections and see what best fits your personal profile– do not ponder too long, try to concentrate on two answers that cometo mind quickly▪ Do the test by allocating 10 points across each section with two parts eg 7,3▪ Transfer them to the grid.▪ Add up the columns▪ Identify your top two scores▪ See what your dominant and secondary styles are▪ Do you agree?▪ Compare these with a couple of friends……………………………..▪ Report back next Internal BELBINTeam-Role TypePersonalityWeaknesses(not detrimental to teamperformance)PLANTCreative, imaginative, unorthodox.Solves difficult problems.Ignores incidentals. Too preoccupied to communicate effectively.COORDINATORMature, confident, a goodchairperson. Clarifies goals,promotes decision-making,delegates well.Can often be seen as manipulative.Off loads personal work.MONITOR – EVALUATORSober, strategic and discerning. Seesall options. Judges accurately.Lacks drive and ability to inspireothers.IMPLEMENTERDisciplined, reliable, conservativeand efficient. Turns ideas intopractical actions.Somewhat inflexible. Slow torespond to new possibilities.FINISHER – COMPLETERPainstaking, conscientious, anxious.Searches out errors and omissions.Delivers on time.Inclined to worry unduly. Reluctantto delegate.RESOURCEINVESTIGATORExtrovert, enthusiastic,communicative. Exploresopportunities. Develops contacts.Over – optimistic. Loses interestonce initial enthusiasm has passed.SHAPERChallenging, dynamic, thrives onpressure. The drive and courage toovercome obstacles.Prone to provocation. Offendspeople’s feelings.TEAMWORKCo-operative, mild, perceptive anddiplomatic. Listens, builds, avertsfriction.Indecisive in crunch situations.SPECIALISTSingle-minded, self-starting,dedicated. Provides knowledge andskills in rare supply.Contributes only on a narrow front.Dwells on technicalities. Sensitivity: InternalYour Portfolio▪ 1 page for HR▪ Essential systems▪ Best Practice▪ Training and Development for Your Area▪ Performance Review & Target setting▪ Team Buiding▪ 1 or 2 Examples from a work environment▪ Comments on benefits and improvement areas as an introduction andconclusion to the portfolioSensitivity: InternalTUTORIAL 4B GROUP EXERCISEPROJECT PERFORMANCE = TEAM PERFORMANCEIN A RECENT STUDY:▪ Twelve factors were observed to have statistical significant associationto project team performance.▪ Six factors were found to have the strongest positive association(drivers)▪ Six factors were also found to be the strongest negative association(barriers).▪ AS GROUPS IDENTIFY YOUR VIEWS AND ADD TWO MOREIDEAS TO THE LISTSensitivity: InternalIDENTIFY WHICH OF THESE ARE DRIVERS ORBARRIERS TO HIGH PROJECT TEAM PERFORMANCE▪ Professionally interesting and stimulating work▪ Recognition of accomplishment▪ Insufficient resources▪ Power struggle and conflict▪ Experienced engineering management personnel▪ Uninvolved, disintegrated upper management▪ Limited job security▪ Adjustments to goals and priorities▪ Qualified project team personnel▪ Professional growth potential▪ Unclear project objectives and directions▪ Proper technical direction and leadership▪ Your idea1▪ Your idea2Sensitivity: InternalManagement• Roads• Railways• Airports• Flood Defences• Water & Waste• Services• Local Authorities• Utilities• Environment• Factories• Business• Retail• Leisure• Community FacilitiesSAFETYQUALITYFINANCIALTECHNICALCOMMERCIALHUMAN RESOURCESSensitivity: InternalAssignment UpdateAs discussed, the introduction is around 1000 words and 3 pages and shouldinclude:▪ Description of Context including type, size, scope, cost▪ Why and what type of quality systems are needed for this context.▪ An example from another similar project or context to support this▪ A general review of the benefits and shortcomings of quality systems▪ + all of the above needs to be referenced with 5-10 InternalTHE QUALITY FUNDAMENTALS▪Checks▪Systems▪Continuous ImprovementSensitivity: InternalWHAT IS ISO9001: 2015?▪ The world’s most popular and most commonly usedstandard for quality management systems.▪ A standard is not a law, but an agreement or best practicethat an organisation can apply voluntarily.▪ A standard reflects a good level of professionalism.▪ A quality management system is a tool with which anorganisation can determine how it can meet therequirements of its customers and the other interestedparties that are involved in its InternalWhat are the benefits of an ISO 9001: 2015Quality Management System?▪ Shows that you provide products and services of consistent quality;▪ Shows that you provide products and services that:▪ meet the customer’s requirements,▪ comply with the law and legislation,▪ meet the organisation’s own requirements;▪ Can help you streamline your business processes and continuously improve them.▪ There are two additional benefits:▪ ISO 9001 helps you increase customer satisfaction;▪ ISO 9001 is positive for your image: you show that you comply withinternationally recognised quality standards. This is often a requirement forcustomers and suppliers to do business with InternalThe ISO9001:2015 quality management 7 principles:1. Customer Focus2. Leadership3. Process Approach4. Involvement and Engagement of People5. Mutually beneficial supplier and other relationships6. Continual Improvement7. Evidence-based decision makingISO 9001:2015 describes for each part which requirementsyour products, services and organisation have to meet inorder to enjoy the above InternalWho determines, checks and manages ISO 9001?▪ ISO 9001 is managed by the International Organisation for Standardisation(ISO) in Geneva, Switzerland.▪ ISO is an independent membership organisation and the world’s largestdeveloper of voluntary international standards. ISO 9001:2015 wasdeveloped by the ISO / TC 176 / SC 2 – Quality Systems TechnicalCommittee.▪ However, ISO does not provide certification or conformity assessment. Thisis performed by accredited certification bodies. These are establishments thatevaluate an organisation’s management system and certify them with respectto the published standards.▪ Eg. In the UK BSI, Lloyd’s Then and NowThe journey from 1972 to 2015▪ BS4891:1972 A guide to Quality Assurance▪ BS 5750:1979 Quality Systems▪ ISO9001:1987 Quality Management Systems▪ At that time, you had to describe in detail what your business did.▪ ISO9001:1994 version, was ‘say what you do and do what you say’.▪ ISO9001: 2000 version, you had to focus on proper processes in order tocontinually improve and thereby increase your customer satisfaction.▪ ISO9001: 2008 more precise about the interpretation of the standard.▪ ISO 9001: 2015 fundamental rewrite to incorporate PDCA cycle▪ Compliance compulsory (Central/Local Government, Constructionline)▪ More than a “Badge on wall” (what is your view!)Sensitivity: InternalCHANGES▪ The first three clauses in ISO 9001:2015 are largely thesame as those in ISO 9001:2008, but there areconsiderable differences between ISO 9001:2008 andISO 9001:2015 from the fourth clause onwards.▪ The last seven clauses are now arranged according to thePDCA cycle (Plan, Do, Check, Act). The following figureshows InternalLINKS WITH OTHER InternalRISK-BASED THINKING IS AT THE CORE OF ISO9001:2015▪ Risk-based thinking has a very important place in ISO 9001:2015. You arenow strongly encouraged as an organisation to use risk analysis in order todecide for yourself which challenges you see in the management of yourbusiness processes.▪ Formal risk analysis, familiar to many organisations via FMEA or HACCPtechniques, is now standard for everyone. To emphasise their dominance,the concept of ’risk’ occurs forty-eight times in ISO 9001:2015, compared withonly three times in ISO 9001:2008.▪ The addition of risk-based thinking has made the ‘preventive measures’ ofISO 9001:2008 redundant. These preventive measures no longer appear inISO InternalCONTEXT OF THE ORGANISATION IMPORTANT INISO 9001:2015▪ ISO 9001:2015 requires an organisation to construct its quality managementsystem from now on from the specific context within which it is active.▪ This means, among other things, that, as an organisation, you have to takeinto account the needs and expectations of interested parties and that youevaluate and deal with internal and external strategic questions. You have toshow that, as an organisation, you understand and respond to theexpectations of all the parties concerned.▪ STAKEHOLDERS – THE ENGAGEMENT OF INTERESTED PARTIES▪ In ISO 9001:2008, customers were often named as being the only interestedparty. This concept has been extended in ISO 9001:2015.▪ Suppliers, personnel, shareholders, legislative bodies, society, internalcustomers, etc. are now included as interested parties, in addition InternalLEADERSHIP AND COMMITMENT IN ISO 9001:2015▪ ISO 9001:2015 also places more emphasis on leadership and managementcommitment. It requires greater involvement by top managers and businessleaders in controlling the quality management system.▪ It is intended to encourage integration and harmonisation with businessprocesses and business strategies. The top management now has to takemore responsibility for the effectiveness of the quality management system.▪ It pays more attention to risk management, interested parties and the contextof the organisation, the quality management system also fits in better with theneeds of the top management.▪ The quality management system is now more than ever a means for beingstrategically successful by addressing the needs of interested parties and bymanaging opportunities and threats.▪ No specific ‘management representative’ now in 2015. The idea behind thechange is that quality is a matter for everyone and for all levels within InternalARE DOCUMENTS REQUIRED?▪ DOCUMENTED INFORMATION▪ ISO 9001:2015 no longer requires obligatory documented procedures ora quality manual. This is noteworthy. This is now referred to as ‘documentedinformation’ in practically all clauses of ISO 9001:2015.▪ The definition states that it concerns ‘information that the organisation has tocontrol and maintain’. The information can be in any format and come fromvarious sources and media. Diverse forms of evidence or documentation aretherefore possible.▪ There is no longer any mention of ‘records’ neither, but of ‘retainingdocumented information’ InternalSTAY LEGAL STAY SAFE▪ In 2017 there were over 260 Convictions involvingbreaches of Health & Safety Law▪ Average Fine £10,000▪ Corporate Manslaughter & Corporate Homicide Act2007▪ Three major cases Involving fines:▪ Trial Pit death Cotswold – Geotechnical Holdings▪ Potters Bar Rail Crash – Network Rail▪ Alton Towers Smiler Ride Crash – MerlinSensitivity: InternalTrial Pit death Cotswold Geotechnical Holdings▪ 27 year old graduate geotechnical engineer▪ 3.8 metre unsupported trial pit▪ Working alone▪ First prosecution under 2007 ActSensitivity: first company to stand trial under the Corporate Manslaughter andCorporate Homicide Act 2007 has been fined £385,000. Mr Wright, 27,had been left working alone in a 3.5m-deep trench to ‘finish up’ after themanaging director of Cotswold Geotechnical Holdings, Peter Eaton, leftfor the day.A short time later, the trench collapsed on Mr Wright and buried him. Onhearing his cry for help, one of the plot-owners called the emergencyservices while another ran to the trench where he found Mr Wright buriedup to his head. He climbed into the trench and removed some of the soilto enable the junior geologist to breathe, but a further torrent of earth fellinto the pit, covering Mr Wright completely. Mr Wright died ofasphyxiation.Sensitivity: Eaton (centre) had originally beencharged with manslaughter by grossnegligence, as well as a health and safetyoffence, in his own capacity but thesecharges were dropped on the grounds of hispoor health.The jury found that the company’s system ofwork in digging trial pits was wholly andunnecessarily dangerous. The court heardthe company ignored industry guidance,which prohibited entry into excavationsmore than 1.2 metres deep, by allowingjunior employees to enter into and work inunsupported trial pits, typically from 2 to 3.5metres deep.Sensitivity: Code of Practice for earthworksSupports to be provided for pits > 1.2mBS5930 Code of Practice for site investigationUnsupported pits >1.2m should not be enteredTHE RULES!!!Sensitivity: InternalPotters Bar Rail Crash Network Rail▪ Crash in 2002▪ 6 People died▪ Points were left in unsafe condition▪ Bolts missing▪ Maintenance Checks and sign-offs inadequate▪ Guilty of breach of HASAW Act 1974▪ Network Rail fined £3m in April 2011▪ InternalSensitivity: InternalThe Health and Safety Executive (HSE) report released in May 2003 found that the points werepoorly maintained and that this was the principal cause of the accident. The bolts that held thestretcher bars that keep the rails apart had come loose or gone missing, resulting in thepoints moving while the train passed over them.The points had been fully inspected on 1 May by a team working for the private railwaymaintenance firm Jarvis and there had been a further visual inspection on 9 May the daybefore the crash, with no problems reported. However, that evening, a rail worker wastravelling on the line northbound and reported “lethal vibrations” on the track at Potters Barwhilst going over that same point on the track, point ‘2182A’.Jarvis employees did make an inspection of the points but, due to an inadequate incidentreporting system, they were sent to the wrong end of the platform to check the track andpoints and did not find the ‘loose nuts’ that subsequently led to the accident.Initially after the accident, Jarvis claimed that the points’ poor condition was due tosabotage of some sort, and that its maintenance was not to blame. However, no solid evidenceof any sabotage has ever come to light. Furthermore, the HSE report found that other sets ofpoints in the Potters Bar area showed similar (but not as serious) maintenance deficienciesand the poor state of maintenance “probably arose from a failure to understand fully thedesign and safety requirements”.Further investigations by the HSE found that heavy and constant vibrations on the stretcherbars and their bolts caused them in turn to vibrate and oscillate until their nuts literally fell offthe bolts. These have since been replaced by two-part locking nuts instead of the main nutshaving half-size locking nuts to hold them in place.Sensitivity: InternalALTON TOWERS InternalALTON TOWERS CRASH▪ Alton Towers operator Merlin has been fined £5m for the crash on the Smilerrollercoaster. Sixteen people were injured in the June 2015 crash, includingtwo teenage girls who needed leg amputations. In April, Merlin AttractionsOperations Ltd admitted breaching the Health and Safety at Work Act 1974.▪ The theme park originally said the accident was caused by “human error.”But prosecutors argued the fault was with the employer not individuals▪ Sentencing, Judge Michael Chambers QC described the crash on the £18mattraction as a “catastrophic failure” and said human error was not the causeas was suggested at first. “This was a needless and avoidable accident inwhich those who were injured were lucky not to be killed,” he said. There wasa lack of detailed, robust arrangements for making safety critical decisions▪ ‘Catalogue of errors’▪ He said the crash was foreseeable but accepted the defendant had taken fulland extensive steps to remedy the problems that led to the crash. They haveenhanced their system for “Declaration of Operational compliance” InternalA quality definition:“The degree to which a set ofinherent characteristics fulfilsrequirements”Sensitivity: InternalOR………….▪GIVING THE CUSTOMER WHATTHEY WANTSensitivity: InternalQuality and Safety Assurance and Audits▪ Level 1 checks▪ By supervisors 3 monthly/yearly compliance to standardsand frequency▪ By managers or engineers▪ Level 2 checks▪ Internal HQ technical audits by Company professional▪ Level 3 Checks▪ External Client initiated and agreed with Client▪ External Quality BSI ISO9001 1SO14001▪ External regulatory HSE, HMRI ad-hoc▪ NCR database▪ Supplier accreditation and monitoring alongside Network Rail“link” up system or similar▪ Document Control & review of standard changesSensitivity: InternalFour Parts of ISO9001: 2015 ▪ PLANLeadership PlanningSupport and Context ▪ DO Operation▪ CHECK Performance Evaluation▪ ACT ImprovementSensitivity: InternalSix SigmaProcess standard deviation for a given characteristic✓ Identify✓ Measure✓ Analyse✓ Improve✓ ControlSensitivity: InternalTOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENTTQM in practice in ConstructionThe UK government has acknowledged the problems of the construction industryby accusing it of lacking customer focus and being ready to use any excuse topursue so-called claims against government. TQM enables constructioncompanies to fully identify the extent of their operational activities and focus oncustomer satisfaction. Part of this service focus is the provision of a significantreduction is costs through the elimination of poor quality in the overallconstruction process. If a construction organization can overcome theimplementation problems, then a sustained competitive advantage is the prize.▪ Full systems set up▪ Review▪ World class▪ Customer focus▪ Anticipate the futureSensitivity: InternalKey Aims of a Quality Management System▪ Prevention of non conformances▪ Monitoring▪ ReviewSensitivity: Internal


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