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A blessing or a set-back? An exploration into the advantages and disadvantages of Self Autonomy within a twin island state relationship. The case of tourism, in Tobago. Kalifa Julien SALI6012- Research Methods Wednesday December 30, 2020 Contents INTRODUCTION 3 PROBLEM STATAMENT 5 AIM OF THE RESEARCH 9 RESEARCH OBJECTIVES 9 RESEARCH QUESTIONS 9 LITERATURE REVIEW 10 Maximizing Tourism Benefits in Tobago Islands 12 Island Sovereignty In Twin Island And Tourism Development 14 General Trinidad And Tobago Tourism Characteristics and Need For Autonomy 16 SUMMARY OF THE RESEARCH PARAMETERS 17 METHODOLOGY 17 Research Philosophy 18 Research Approach 20 Research Strategy 21 Research Choice 22 Time Horizon 22 Planned Operationalization 23 Data Collection and Analysis 23 Data Protection 24 Ethical Considerations 24 SCHEDULE OF WORK 26 INTRODUCTION Tobago was annexed to Trinidad in 1889 under British Colonialism, Later in 1962, Trinidad and Tobago achieved its independence, and they became a republic region in 1976. After the region attained its independence, Tobago became an electoral and an administrative region within the country. In the late 1970s, a greater appeal was made by Tobago and this led to the establishment of the Tobago House of Assembly (THA) in 1980. From that period, THA has been tasked with the local administration affairs and remains the main institution that governs Tobago affairs. With a population of more than 62,000, Wheatle, Se-shauna, and Yonique (2020) highlighted that region represents approximately 4.8% of the total population in Trinidad and Tobago. Tobago relies on central government spending despite its growing population. In more recent times, under the People’s Partnership Administration, the Ministry of Tobago Affairs was rejuvenated to co-exist alongside the Tobago House of Assembly and handle some of Tobago Affairs along the Tobago House of Assembly. (Seepersad, Joseph, and Johnson 2020). At the time, this dual structure created tension within many areas, particularly administrative and political spheres as the Ministry of Tobago Affairs were coloured as imposing on Tobago House of Assembly’s responsibilities. The THA comprises two main arms, the Legislative Arm and the Executive Arm, and 10 divisions – nine with remits plus the Office of the Chief Secretary, which oversees the others. This Assembly was created by Act 37 of 1980 for “making better provision for the administration of Tobago and for matters therein.” Following various amendments over the years, the Assembly is currently governed under the Tobago House of Assembly Act 40 of 1996. Under this Act, The responsibilities of the THA are listed under the fifth schedule of the Act. The Legislative arm (Assembly Legislature) is where all members of the Assembly meet in plenary and/or in select committees to make policy decisions for the operations of the Assembly. These functions are supported by the Assembly Legislature Secretariat and headed by the Presiding Officer. The Clerk of the Assembly is responsible for the efficient discharge of functions of the business of the Assembly. The Executive arm of the Assembly is headed by the Chief Secretary in his capacity as leader of the Executive Council. The Council has individual and collective responsibility for carrying out the tasks of the Assembly through its divisions. Each division is led by a secretary, with an administrator serving as the accounting officer responsible for producing the desired results of the division. The Chief Administrator is the most senior public officer in the administration and is attached to the Office of the Chief Secretary. Scobie and France (2020) highlight that, relative to the developments of the Twin island, Tobago has been showing promising growth in diverse sectors of the economy. Such sectors include the tourism sector, which attracts thousands of tourists from local and international markets (Yuen, Samson, and Edmund 2020). Also, the insurance industry, finance, business services, and real estate, which have expanded by more than 11% in the last half five financial years (Corbett 2020). Moreover, Tobago has untapped growth potential in other sectors such as health care sectors, education, agriculture, as well as other manufacturing sectors. With its growth and potential, as well as its restrictions in managing the island’s affairs, Tobago has, over time, sought greater autonomy that will enhance economic development in the region. The latest constitutional reform, which has been submitted through the Tobago House of Assembly, has the potential to expand the Tobago economy. STATAMENT On March 9th, 2018, The Constitution (Amendment) (Tobago Self-Government) Bill, 2018 was laid in Parliament and referred to a Joint Select Committee. The Bill is expected to alter the existing relationship between Trinidad and Tobago by giving Tobago greater control over its affairs by enhancing its legislative and executive powers. It is also expected that this Bill, which is expected to be laid for debate within short order, would change the institutional framework and operations of these islands. In light of this, the study aims to identify and outline the economic advantages and disadvantages for Tobago within proposed this twin-island state relationship. It is generally accepted that the issue of self-government for Tobago has been a longstanding and thorny issue with significant development implications for all its citizens. Throughout history, efforts saw the development of the THA Act 40 of 1996, which was a Bill of constitution amendment containing different sections that addressed powers and functions of the nation. As Tobago continues to advance, the plight of self-government remains very important, and arguably very crucial, to the advancement of Tobago. Within recent times, the issue of Tobago’s self-governance has been at the forefront of the Central Government’s agenda, as the Joint Select Committee has held numerous public consultations after the amendment and is expected to make recommendations to improve the Bill, which then be debated in Parliament. (ttparliament.com, 2020). As the reality of achieving self-governance for Tobago seems to be closer than ever before, it has become imperative to assess the current structure of economic governance in relation to tourism that exists and identify and examine the structures and systems of tourism that may need the implementation to ensure Tobago receives optimal benefit from the gaining of the additional responsibilities of self-government. The Autonomy Bill within Trinidad and Tobago has been tabled through a parliamentary committee that demands freedom and self-government of Tobago island from the central government. (Baldacchino 2020) demonstrates that autonomy will play a crucial role in enhancing the fulfillment of various goals such as the Development Goals in the economy and promote alignment of advanced developments towards that attainment of the island’s freedom. Yuen, Samson, and Edmund (2020) highlight that the need for autonomy in Tobago island will promote innovation that will encourage the citizens of the regions to maintain the region’s tourism sector and also enhance to build knowledge as well as brainpower in the country as one of the major economic development facilitators in the region. This study will investigate the potential influence of this Self-Autonomy Bill on Tobago, with specific focus on the tourism sector. Tourism institution reforms require the constitution to carefully outline the management of this balance of power between the respective regions. To this extent, the Self-Autonomy Bill attempts to chart the management of this power while giving Tobago more autonomy over its affairs which is expected to have an inevitable impact on the Tourism sector on the island. Needless to say, the impact and effect of this would also need a holistic investigation to facilitate effective decision making and allow Tobago to maximize and effectively manage the existing opportunity in the respective sector. The existing legislative framework between the Tobago House of Assembly and Central Government in Trinidad is governed by the Constitution of Trinidad and Tobago and the THA Act 40 of 1996. Although the current relationship is limited under the current arrangement, the Tobago House of Assembly has responsibility for areas listed in the fifth schedule of the Act while the sixth schedule outlines responsibilities that remain with the Central Government. Yet, there still exists many shortcomings in the current legislation that hampers Tobago’s efficient and effective management and development of the island of Tobago. For instance, the current legislation does not give the Assembly the right to borrow on its own ability to service its numerous commitments needed to facilitate its developmental agenda of Tobago. According to Rafeeq, Hamza, and Rosemarie (2000), this is particularly important as the yearly budgetary allocation to Tobago is significantly underfunded, causing significant constraints on the island’s purse. To this extent, the current Bill (Appendix 1) proposes a number of changes, including a well defined Tobago and its geographical space; also gives Tobago equal status as Trinidad, as well as restructures the island’s administration implementing new structures, procedures, and systems. It is expected that many of these current shortcomings would be mitigated as the Bill establishes many new structures, procedures, and systems under the remit of the Tobago House of Assembly. The process of implementing these structures requires careful thought by policymakers and the people of Tobago. As such, careful considerations must be given to the imminent changes that are anticipated and the structures that will be necessary to complement these changes, not only to ensure a smooth transition into the new systems but also, to ensure a solid foundation for their effective and efficient operations. On the other hand, tourism remains one of the strongest sectors in Trinidad and Tobago. Baldacchino (2020) highlights that tourism represents approximately 13% of the Tobago’s Gross Domestic Products. Based on this consideration, Tobago’s tourism sector provides significant growth and development potential. It is a general perception Tourism remains one of the island’s main economic sectors and its growth and development is critically hinged to the future of the island, particularly should the island receive Autonomy. James (2018) also shows that tourism remains a crucial pillar for the diversification of the strategy and economic development freedom in the country. Within recent times, the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic has threatened to cripple the tourism sector on the island. In this vein, this study bears even more significance. In response to this, according to Corbett (2020), the Prime Minister Rowley created a special committee that would lead and promote the economic recovery of main sectors including the tourism industry in the sector in Tobago. The committee included various members of the THA committee to facilitate a considered focus on Tobago and its future economic development. Additionally, over the last five years, various measures that were taken to facilitate economic growth in the tourism section were outlined in Budget Statements delivered by the Division of Finance and Economy. This repeated focus within the Budget tells two things. First that this sector is of great significance and relevance to the economy and secondly, that there is a vested interest in this sector. In this regard, there is evidence of some significance to this study. Some of measures outlined included increasing the advertising and marketing efforts, promoting tourism offerings, and expanding Tobago room stock. According to Scobie, Michelle, and Afiya (2020), there was an aim within the industry to raise the number of rooms to at least 1500 rooms for tourists in the next five years. Besides, the completion of the new airport terminus, as well as continued improvements of the already existing terminus both for sea and air transport, were facilitated. In this case, the improvements in modes of transport are expected to boost tourism on the island. AIM OF THE RESEARCH It is expected that the Self Autonomy Bill which was initiated in 2018, would have a significant impact on the operations and arrangements between the twin island state, Trinidad and Tobago. Currently, there are no empirical studies have been conducted on possible impacts of autonomy that maybe derived from this Bill will have on Tobago. With the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic has threatened to cripple the tourism sector on the island. In this vein, this study bears even more significance. The main aim of this research will be investigating the potential impact of Autonomy on Tobago, with a specific view on the tourism sector. Based on this the research objectives and questions are listed hereunder. RESEARCH OBJECTIVES To find out the possible impact of the self-autonomy Bill on the tourism sector in Tobago.To investigate possible social-economic advantages of a self-autonomous Bill on tourism in Tobago.To find out the potential social-economic risks of a self-autonomous Bill on tourism in Tobago.To investigate the potential future implications of the autonomous Bill on tourism in Tobago. RESEARCH QUESTIONS Based on the research objectives above, the following research questions were formulated. What is the possible impact of the self-autonomy Bill on the tourism sector in Trinidad and Tobago?What are the possible social-economic advantages of a self-autonomous Bill on tourism in Tobago?What are the potential social-economic risks of a self-autonomous Bill on tourism in Tobago?What are the potential future implications of the autonomous Bill on tourism in Tobago? LITERATURE REVIEW Preliminary review of the literature has generally indicated that there have not been many studies investigating changes in administrative and institutional arrangements among twin island states. However, there appears to be a general amount of discussions surrounding constitutional change and federal – national reformation. From this, we can begin to conclude that most of the literature therefore is contextualised within developed countries. Therefore, the literature appears to be limited when referring to the Caribbean context and institutional or constitutional reform assessment among twin island states. To this extent, this study may answer this gap within the literature. Beyond this observation, it has been noted that there are studies on twin island states and multi island states within the Caribbean, though not centered on the topic of institutional arrangements. For instance, Bleeker (2019), author of an ECLAC study which looked at the impact of technology within multi island states in Caribbean. Another example is drawn from Jordan (2007) which examines the issues arising from tourism collaboration, cooperation, coordination and conflict due to the relationship between dominant and subordinate islands in small twin island developing states (STIDS). These studies tell us that it is both viable and worthwhile to investigate institutional relationships, thereby making this study relevant and meaningful. Moreover, the literature highlights issues of collaboration, cooperation, coordination and conflict are significant issues within the literature on inter-organisational relationships. Jordan (2007). There is scope to investigate how these issues are compounded when there is a shift in power or a change in institutional arrangement. This study aims to investigate this within the Trinidad and Tobago context. Similarly, within the wider world, the brief review of constitutional change literature, it appears that these issues are the same. Benzo & Colino (2011 p.1) explains, “Many scholars studying federal political systems have described their dynamic character, Their ongoing evolution, but also their instability. They have explained the continuous need to balance powers and resources between different actors and institutions at different levels of government.” This signals that issues of inter-organisational relationships is not a Caribbean phenomenon but actually one that exists globally. Moreover, Gerber and Kollman, 2004, in investigation the shift of power from national to federal state can result in what they term as “authority migration.” They conclude that this requires a constitution to carefully outline the management of this balance of power. To this extent, the Self-Autonomy Bill attempts to chart the management of this power, while giving Tobago more autonomy over its affairs. Needless to say, the impact and effect of this would also need holistic investigation to facilitate effective decision making and allow Tobago to maximise and effectively manage this opportunity. Maximizing Tourism Benefits in Tobago Islands In order to meet the capacity of tourism in the country, (Bill 2018) highlights that solutions need to be sought in those places that either constrain or contribute to suboptimal growth in the tourism industry. The type and scale of future tourism growth in the Caribbean will be based on how Caribbean governments view the effect of tourism on their economies and how tourism can help achieve governments’ objectives. Tourism can be seen as a constructive force for future growth for the Caribbean region as a whole. With a free-market policy, while economic gains can be realized, the consequences may be detrimental to society. In the tourism industry, people are buying the commodity at the point of processing and directly meeting the manufacturer. In order to reduce potential negative social aspects while at the same time optimizing beneficial aspects, the tourism industry must be monitored regularly by state authorities. (Piechowiak et al. 2020) shows that the Trinidad and Tobago resort properties, its warm climate during the year, its location relatively close to such important sources of tourists as Canada and the USA, along with the growth of incomes and scarcity of beaches, make the area an attractive destination for tourists. A question arises whether Trinidad and Tobago will be able to initiate a course of action to enhance tourism development in the Caribbean countries. Will the Tobago sovereignty through the autonomous Bill help to achieve tourism developments for global recognition and economic development in the country, thus, having a potential impact on tourist attraction sites. (Gumede 2019) highlight that although currently, both are considered as one state, there are inequalities in the distribution of resources. Some of the cities in Tobago that lags behind in terms of development are characterized by low human resource developments, the weak performance of the economy relative to other regions, and high levels of poverty. For instance, (Hendry, Ian, and Susan 2018) show that Trinidad has incredible growth. However, while Tobago is considered as a separate state, it has a considerably low per capita income, which is approximately 2 times lower. (Baldacchino 2020) add that the disparities different in various infrastructures and social metrics, which are more crucial. The disparities in development affect the level of tourism in the country. Few pieces of research have been done on the disparities in tourism sector growth, development, and investment by the central government of Trinidad and Tobago. Various challenges have been experienced by the twin-island over a long period of time. (MacDonald 2020) shows that the autonomy of Tobago was projected to solve some of the challenges in the region. For instance, (O’Brien 2019) highlights that Tobago continues to face tourism developmental challenges. The central government remains a major driver and the largest employer on both islands. In this case, state activities have been accounted to have approximately 47% of the total Gross Domestic Product as well as more than 56% of the labor force in the region. Based on the gross government spending in the region, Tobago receives approximately 4.5% of the national budget. To address the challenge of lagging behind (Asher, Dan, and Micha 2019) shows that various institutions will have to be initiated by the country. In this case, a variety of Bills and policies that range from infrastructure development, fiscal transfer, and independence will have to be formulated in this regard. Thus, the proposed autonomous Bill will help to solve some of these challenges. A question, therefore, arises whether Tobago, through this Bill, will enhance improvement on the related tourism development in the regions due to independence in finance allocation and freedom in decision making relative to Trinidad. This study will therefore fill this gap and investigate various disadvantages and disadvantages of autonomous Bills. Island Sovereignty In Twin Island And Tourism Development There are various advantages of state sovereignty in relation to tourism. (Asher, Dan, and Micha 2019) shows that a country a state will have power over environmental policies, specifically natural resources. In this case, the country will have full management of local resources that are desirable in the global economy. Such resources include mineral deposits, oil and gas, strategic basis in international forums, tourism potential, fishing zones, and sheer economic loyalty. Baldacchino (2006) shows that control of natural resources has been leverage for extracting and achieving a certain degree of global economic and tourism recognition. Additionally, (Armstrong, Kervenoael, and Robert 1998) show that an island should be separate that has an immense contribution to the environmental and cultural diversities, which should proportionately be greater than the size. Armstrong and Robert (2000) investigate the relationship between the economic performance of small dependencies. The investigation focused on the impacts that microstates face while on an independent economy. Various variables were investigated on their correlation to the state’s GDP. The study found that there is a positive relationship between GDP and the Tourism variable. The study focused on the already established microstates that do not depend on each other. Their limited information is known about the effect on the economic performance of the Twin Island, where there is dependency such as transport and other factors is common. This study, therefore, investigates the impact of the Tobago autonomous Bill on the tourism sector. Baldacchino (2010) investigated the “creative and subnational Island Jurisdiction.” The author demonstrated that while the twin-island would have a centralized governance system, common challenges may for a long time persist. Various difficulties associated with transportation have a gamut of a range of issues, which include tourism viability in the sector, lack of economies of scale, non-defined export strategies in the manufacturing sector, and emergency limitation to the healthcare sector. Distance means that goods, people, services will be charged a high cost to effectively access the Metroplan. Additionally, the study found that an analysis of the history of population in the Irish island demonstrated a clear diction in the levels of population decline and access levels due to the poor management. This is due to both Island are often under a central governance system, but the ones on the island are at a federal arrangement but not fully customized. In this case, the study shows that a complicated system of governance affects the tourism industry. However, Baldacchino (2010) conclusions were not based on the sovereignty of an Island. The autonomous Bill will give Tobago sovereign independence, where its impacts on the tourism industry will be based on its sovereignty. Baldacchino and David (2006) investigated the “Innovative Development Strategies from Non-Sovereign Island Jurisdiction.” The study was on a global review of the governance practices and economic policies. The author did a comparative study of approximately 10 existing sub-national jurisdictions. The author concluded that autonomous consideration might benefit individual states by insights, lessons, knowledge sharing based on political stability as well as international competitive advantages to promote different sectors. Additionally, the study demonstrated that positive economic growth would be enhanced in the autonomous states due to independence in tax collection and development; thus, the GDP of the states. However, the study did not investigate specific impacts on the economy of the respective islands. A general conclusion has arrived that the sovereignty of the states will have a positive correlation to the respective economy. This study will, therefore, investigate the impact of state sovereignty on the Tourism sector in Tobago that will be enhanced by the autonomous Bill. General Trinidad And Tobago Tourism Characteristics and Need For Autonomy According to Harrison (2002), Trinidad and Tobago have comparatively high environmental hazards because of their small scale, even in the absence of tourism, largely due to the stresses resulting from the economic development process. Additionally, there is a rapid degradation of agricultural land on several islands, which typically follows an increased number of residential buildings, leisure facilities, and industrial development. An increased need for commodities, some of which are non-renewable, is also brought on by the economic growth process. Trinidad and Tobago also face challenges associated with their spatial and environmental features, in addition to the stresses of economic growth. The twin islands seem to have habitats that are delicate and peculiar. The conservation environment, an outcome of their insularity, makes these islands even more than equal to their size as contributors to global diversity. As a result of a low degree of tolerance to outside stimuli, the fragility of their ecosystem emerges. In contrast to the landmass, the islands still have a reasonably wide coastline. A significant proportion of land is, thus, exposed to sea-waves and currents, resulting in a relatively high degree of erosion of the beach, rock, and soil. According to (Phillip-Durham 2020), one of the major reforms that have been currently addressed is the autonomy of Tobago. This will facilitate economic development through the sector, sustainability, and environmental protection through public policies on the Island. The autonomy Bill that enhances the freedom of Tobago is aimed to help in finding a solution in the tourism sector that has, in a long period of time, affecting the Twin island. This will be through a separate governance system for both islands in the region. This study will, therefore, investigate the potential impact of the autonomous Bill in Tobago. Will it help to solve the environmental challenges? will the autonomous Bill help SUMMARY OF THE RESEARCH PARAMETERS To investigate the impact of the autonomous Bill on the Tourism sector in Tobago. The literature has identified the general problem that the Twin island faces trials to address the challenges on the growth and development of the sector. Additionally, a lot of literature has investigated the influence of tourism on twin islands; there are no separate studies that have investigated the influence of tourism on individual islands. The literature shows that Tobago still lies behind in terms of growth and development of various sectors in the economy. Through the autonomous Bill, this study is aimed to investigate the potential impact of the Bill on Tobago island. Some of the research questions that the study will investigate include: What are the possible impacts of the self-autonomy Bill on the tourism sector in Trinidad and Tobago?What are the possible social-economic advantages of a self-autonomous Bill on tourism in Tobago?What are the potential social-economic risks of a self-autonomous Bill on tourism in Tobago?, andwhat are the potential future implications of the autonomous Bill on tourism in Tobago? METHODOLOGY The methodology that will be followed in this investigation involves a chronological identification of the correct research methods, collection, and interpretation of data. Based on this consideration, research onion is chosen to enhance the credibility of the respective method. According to Asher, Dan, and Micha (2019), demonstrating that Sunder’s stages in research methodology involve the development of a study methodology using a detailed description of the stages in the research to provide an important and effective methodology. The stages of identification of the right methodology include identification of research philosophy, identification of the right research approach, research strategy, making the right research choice, identification of the right research horizon. The figure below shows stages involved in research on onions. Figure 1: Research Onion: source: (Khar et al. 2019) Research Philosophy According to (Piechowiak et al. 2020), research philosophy involves a set of beliefs that concerns the nature of being the investigator in investing in realism. This involves the underlying definition of the fundamental knowledge that is involved in the research. There are different research philosophies such as constructivism, critical realism, and positivism. Objectives involve the establishment of the social phenomenon, their influences, identification of different meanings of the actors involved in the research Grounded in critical realism approach, this study is expected to explore existing and potential implications for specific sectors in Tobago. Critical realism is not a specific method nor does it assign to any but rather it is an approach that can be used to tell us how and why methods are used. In this study’s viewpoint, that critical realism provides an understanding that allows investigations into how and why things are effective, if an event is impactful/effective or complex processes and systems. These complex process and structures such like the Tobago House of Assembly exists with so many arms and systems, is so diverse that its past operations may not be able to be duplicated in the future, especially if the Bill is passed and changes are implemented. Therefore, there is a need to adopt a critical investigative approach to identify and appropriately evaluate the impact of such changes to the development of the island. According to Clark (1982) critical realism acknowledges and, is responsive to emerging mechanisms in systems and process. It is in this specific context that this approach appears to be appropriate and well aligned to the objective of this research. A critical realist approach can help us to answer research questions about how and why interventions, sectors, procedures and processes work within the complexities of political systems such as the Tobago House of Assembly. In this study, critical realism research philosophy is involved while investigating the impact of tourism institution reforms in Trinidad and Tobago. Critical realism will be efficient for the study since the study involves hypothetical or unobservable structures that lead to observable events of the advantages and disadvantages of the autonomous bill will have on the Tobago tourism sector. Additionally, critical realism facilitates the reduction of ontological statements to epistemological statements; in this case, the results will be caused by underlying theoretical structures, rules and regulations, laws, and mechanisms that will be applied in Trinidad and Tobago. Research Approach The research approach is the second layer in the research onion. There are two research approaches that the researcher may involve, which include deductive and inductive approaches. The deductive approach involves the development of research hypotheses in relation to the existing theory to test it. On the other hand, inductive research approaches allow the creation of theory from a specific existing knowledge. Although the main concern is not on the development of a theory, this study will use the inductive approach to investigate the research objectives through qualitative approaches. The quantitative methodological approach will be most efficient since the investigation of unpredictable variables. Thus, to take into consideration various unpredictable variables that the researcher may not be able to foresee, a qualitative approach will be chosen for the investigation. According to Creswell (1998), qualitative research is an investigative process of understanding and meaning which enables the researcher to develop a “complex, holistic picture, analyzes words, reports detailed views of informants, and conducts the study in a natural setting” (Creswell, 1998, p. 15). This approach was deemed most appropriate as it allows for the gathering of an in-depth probe of the research topic and questions. More intensely, to achieve the comprehensive contextual understanding of impact of the Bill on Tobago and its tourism sector, a qualitative approach was chosen as it was believed that the qualitative approach may lead to the discovery of future developments and operations. This data maybe be vital for the system’s review and upgrading which is a current ongoing debate within Trinidad and Tobago. The qualitative approach may also generate meanings for the differences between practice and policy, as well as possibly answer the question of if practice is aligned with policy while giving a deepened exploration on what can possibly account for this disparity. It is believed that these specific answers can only be appropriately drawn from a qualitative analysis of data. The aim of this study is to investigate the impact of the Bill on the relationship between Trinidad and Tobago and the Tobago’s tourism sector. As such a qualitative approach is deemed best suited for this study. Qualitative data has numerous advantages namely: its ability to provide a rich, detailed understanding and gain pertinent information on the emerging or development of a particular topic or issue. Research Strategy The research seeks to investigate the limitations and benefits of institution reforms gained through self-autonomy Bills on crucial economic sectors such as tourism. In line with the research approach used and the nature of the research, a case study is an appropriate strategy for this research. In this study, the effect of the autonomous Bill on the Tobago economy will be investigated. Additionally, a number of recommendations will be made based on the existing limitations of institutional reforms in the case of Tobago. Research Choice Research choice is the fourth layer in the research onion. In this study, a mono method will be used to investigate the research questions. In this case, only the qualitative method methodology will be used to collect data. A wide, as well as diverse data, needs to be collected through various means. In this case, it is easy for the researcher to easily identify unenforceable variables during the investigation. This study will use the SWOT analysis tool to evaluate and assess the impact of Bill 2018 on Tobago. SWOT analytical tool is chosen for this study since it provides a holistic overview of the opportunities and strengths that can be maximized and the threats and weaknesses that can be minimized through interviews and systematic analysis of the existing literature. The identification and evaluation of strengths, weaknesses, threats, and opportunities would contribute to effective management and planning to accelerate Tobago’s development and, by extension, the development of the twin-island state. Time Horizon Time horizon refers to the time the investigation is aimed to be carried out. In this case, a cross-section study will be carried out. In this case, the investigator will collect data based on institution reforms on the existing Bill in Trinidad and Tobago at one single point of study time. In this case, sufficient time will be considered during data collection to ensure the collection of sufficient data. Planned Operationalization The investigation is aimed to investigate the impact of the Autonomy Bill on Tobago and its tourism sector. Major variables that the investigation will investigate include impact on tourism, social and economic advantages of self-autonomous Bill on tourism in Tobago, potential risks of the autonomous Bill on tourism in Tobago, future implications of autonomous Bills on tourism in Tobago. The investigation will involve qualitative methodology through SWOT analysis; hence, the respective variables will be categorized based on the data found frequency of occurrence. Data Collection and Analysis This study will use secondary data accumulated by the National Central Statistical Office (CSO) and policies and legislation from Parliament of Trinidad and Tobago’s website. “The CSO is a Division of the Ministry of Planning and Development charged with the responsibility of taking censuses in the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago and collecting, compiling, analyzing and publishing statistical information relating to all social and economic activities of the people of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago.” (CSO.gov.tt,2020) The Parliament of Trinidad and Tobago’s website provides information on all bills, legislation and policies in relation to the laws, processes, procedures and operations of the twin island state of Trinidad and Tobago. The investigation will use a systematic review of the existing literature in a suitable database. In this case, a request would be made to CSO to collect and compile all relevant data needed to accurately assess the current context of the effect of the autonomy Bill in the tourism sector. Once data is provided, the data will be sorted and sanitized to allow for easy perusal and analysis. Special permission will be sought to access data from the concerned government organizations. To gather data from the Various databases in government, the researcher will search for different terms and years that would yield specific data on the effect of the autonomy Bill on the tourism sector. Data collected will be arranged precisely based on the research objectives. Main themes will be identified and arranged accordingly for analysis. This study will use the SWOT analysis tool to evaluate and assess the impact of Bill 2018 on Tobago. SWOT analytical tool is chosen for this study since it provides a holistic overview of the opportunities and strengths that can be maximized and the threats and weaknesses that can be minimized through interviews and systematic analysis of the existing literature. Data Protection Data protection is a central issue in any research. Data protection is a right and must be complied with any legislation of a particular jurisdiction. It is therefore critical that this study be clear and decisive and communicates with those organizations (CSO and ParliamentTT) regarding any limits to the confidentiality of data that must be followed. Ethical Considerations The goal of any research is to advance knowledge in their respective field of study through value-free, responsible investigations. The ethical considerations of this study uphold the integrity of this study and even its impact on the world of research. For this study, there would be a heavy reliance on secondary data, requiring particular attention to its ethical considerations, specifically in regards to the protection of its data. For transparency, the researcher will comply with the University of the West Indies research protocol and ethical guidelines for research. A final report of this research will be submitted to the University in alignment with the University’s regulations. Consideration would also be given to give the CSO a copy as a means of building a trusting relationship between the academic research world and the institution. SCHEDULE OF WORK The investigation will be carried out in chronological order. Based on the existing timeline for the investigation, time has been allocated for the crucial parts of the study. A table was developed to help in time allocation. The table below demonstrates the timeline for the research. Table 1: Table showing the Timeline of the investigation; Source: Authors’ computation TaskStart DateEnd DateDurationCommentsIntroduction to the research7/1/20211/13/202113 daysDevelop and improve based on comments for this assignment.Identification of Literature Materials1/21/20218/1/20218 monthsBegin and complete rigorous desk researchWriting Literature Review8/1 /20218/18/202117 daysCollate and organize informationCollection of Data7/13/20217/27/202114 daysGather data for CSO and Parliament TTAnalysis of Data7/27/20219/10/202114 daysApplication of SWOT AnalysisFindings9/10/20219/16/20216 daysComplete and present findingsRecommendations9/16/20219/23/20217 daysDevise recommendations based on findingsFinal Review and Submission9/23/20219/30/20217 daysConsultation with Supervisions to ensure all documents are ready for submission. Bibliography Armstrong, Harvey W., and Robert Read. “Comparing the economic performance of dependent territories and sovereign microstates.” Economic Development and Cultural Change 48, no. 2 (2000): 285-306. Armstrong, Harvey, R. Jouan De Kervenoael, Xiaming Li, and Robert Read. “A comparison of the economic performance of different micro-states, and between micro-states and larger countries.” World Development 26, no. 4 (1998): 639-656. Asher, Dan, and Micha Popper. “Tacit knowledge as a multilayer phenomenon: the “onion” model.” The Learning Organization (2019). Baldacchino, Godfrey, and David Milne. “Exploring sub-national island jurisdictions: an editorial introduction.” The Round Table 95, no. 386 (2006): 487-502. Baldacchino, Godfrey. “Innovative development strategies from non-sovereign island jurisdictions? A global review of economic policy and governance practices.” World Development 34, no. 5 (2006): 852-867. Baldacchino, Godfrey. “Together, but Not Together, Together.” Contemporary Archipelagic Thinking: Towards New Comparative Methodologies and Disciplinary Formations (2020): 365. Baldacchino, Godfrey. Island enclaves: Offshoring strategies, creative governance, and subnational island jurisdictions. McGill-Queen’s Press-MQUP, 2010. Corbett, Jack. “Territory, islandness, and the secessionist imaginary: Why do very small communities favour autonomy over integration?.” Nations and Nationalism (2020). Gumede, William. “Broken Corporate Governance: South Africa’s municipal state-owned entities and agencies.” Governance and the postcolony: Views from Africa (2019): 194. Harrison, Philomen. The Impact of Macroeconomics Policies in Trinidad and Tobago: The Firm under Adjustment. Springer, 2002. Hendry, Ian, and Susan Dickson. British overseas territories law. Bloomsbury Publishing, 2018. James, Veronica. “An Exploratory Study of the Phenomena: Globalization and School Violence, and the Relationship Between Them as Perceived by Various Stakeholders from a Suburban Community in Trinidad and Tobago.” PhD diss., 2020. James, Westmin RA. “In search of progress: the implications of Caleb Orozco v. AG of Belize for the Commonwealth Caribbean.” The International Journal of Human Rights 22, no. 5 (2018): 640-663. Khar, A. N. I. L., Sabina Islam, P. R. I. T. A. M. Kalia, Reeta Bhatia, and Arun Kumar. “Present status of haploidy research in onion (Allium cepa)–A review.” INDIAN JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES 89, no. 3 (2019): 396-405. MacDonald, Scott B. “The Dutch Caribbean.” Handbook of Caribbean Economies (2020): 442-456. O’Brien, Derek. “Bicameralism in Small States: The Experience of the Commonwealth Caribbean.” The Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History 47, no. 3 (2019): 591-617. Phillip-Durham, Genève. “Ideas and impact: Continuity, change and constraints in the institutional landscape of Curaçao, Sint Maarten, and Trinidad and Tobago.” Island Studies Journal 15, no. 1 (2020). Piechowiak, Tomasz, Katarzyna Grzelak-Błaszczyk, Radosław Bonikowski, and Maciej Balawejder. “Optimization of extraction process of antioxidant compounds from yellow onion skin and their use in functional bread production.” LWT 117 (2020): 108614. Rafeeq, Hamza, and Rosemarie Paul. “Health sector reform in the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago.” Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública 8 (2000): 43-54. Scobie, Michelle, and Afiya France. “Child marriage, human rights and international norms: the case of legislative reform in Trinidad and Tobago.” Third World Quarterly 41, no. 10 (2020): 1687-1706. Seepersad, Joseph, and E. Johnson. “Trinidad and Tobago.” Faculty Research, Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension, Faculty of Food and Agriculture, The University of the West Indies (2020). Skeete, Kai-Ann D., and Leisel Juman. “In times of crisis, the rise of CARICOM’s diplomacy: the case of the Venezuelan migrants within the Southern Caribbean.” Migration and Development (2020): 1-19. Tribe, John. The economics of recreation, leisure and tourism. Routledge, 2020. Wheatle, Se-shauna, and Yonique Campbell. “Constitutional faith and identity in the Caribbean: tradition, politics and the creolisation of Caribbean constitutional law.” Commonwealth & Comparative Politics 58, no. 3 (2020): 344-365. Yuen, Samson, and Edmund W. Cheng. “Between high autonomy and sovereign control in a subnational island jurisdiction: The paradox of Hong Kong under’One Country, Two Systems’.” Island Studies Journal 15, no. 1 (2020). Zolfagharian, Mohammadreza, Bob Walrave, Rob Raven, and A. Georges L. Romme. “Studying transitions: Past, present, and future.” Research Policy 48, no. 9 (2019): 103788. Introduction 4/5 Literature Review 7/10 Research Parameters 3/5 Methods 7/10 Operationalization 3/5 Schedule of Work 4/5 Research Proposal Grade 28/40

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