SITHCCC014 Prepare meat dishes | My Assignment Tutor

SITHCCC014Prepare meat dishesLearner GuideP a g e | 1VCID. ACOT Training and Assessment/SITHCCC014/Learner Guide/V1.1/July 2019Table of ContentsUnit of Competency ………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 4Application …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 4Unit Mapping Information ……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 4Performance Criteria……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 5Range of Conditions …………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 6Foundation Skills …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 7Assessment Requirements……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 81. Select ingredients………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 131.1 – Confirm food production requirements from food preparation lists and standard recipes. ……. 14Food preparation requirements ………………………………………………………………………………………….. 14Mise en place ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 14Activity 1A ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 161.2 – Calculate ingredient amounts according to requirements ………………………………………………….. 17Scaling a recipe …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 17Activity 1B ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 191.3 – Identify and select meat products and other ingredients from stores according to recipe, quality,freshness and stock rotation requirements………………………………………………………………………………. 20Selecting ingredients………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 20Meat products…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 21Activity 1C ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 252. Select, prepare and use equipment…………………………………………………………………………………. 262.1 – Select type and size of knives and other equipment suitable to requirements ……………………… 27Selecting knives…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 27Selecting equipment ………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 28Activity 2A ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 302.2 – Safely assemble and ensure cleanliness of equipment before use. ……………………………………… 31Assembling equipment ………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 31Cleaning and sanitising equipment………………………………………………………………………………………. 31Activity 2B ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 332.3 – Use knives and other equipment safely and hygienically according to manufacturer instructions…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 34Using knives safely …………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 34P a g e | 2VCID. ACOT Training and Assessment/SITHCCC014/Learner Guide/V1.1/July 2019Using equipment safely………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 34Using equipment hygienically ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 35Activity 2C ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 363. Portion and prepare ingredients …………………………………………………………………………………….. 373.1 – Thaw frozen meats according to food safety guidelines where required ……………………………… 38Thaw meat ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 38Activity 3A ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 393.2 – Sort and assemble ingredients according to food production sequencing ……………………………. 40Food production sequencing ………………………………………………………………………………………………. 40Activity 3B ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 413.3 – Weigh and measure ingredients and create portions according to recipe ……………………………. 41Weighing and measuring ingredients …………………………………………………………………………………… 42Activity 3C ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 443.4 – Use meat preparation techniques according to recipe requirements…………………………………… 45Preparing meat …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 45Preparation techniques………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 46Activity 3D ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 503.5 – Minimise waste to maximise profitability of food items prepared ………………………………………. 51Minimising waste ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 51Activity 3E…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 534. Cook meat dishes ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 534.1 – Follow standard recipes to select and use meat cookery methods………………………………………. 55Meat cooking methods ………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 55Activity 4A ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 564.2 – Prepare marinades and meat accompaniments as required……………………………………………….. 56Meat accompaniments ………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 57Marinades for meat …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 57Activity 4B ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 594.3 – Make food quality adjustments within scope of responsibility ……………………………………………. 59Food quality control…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 60Making food quality adjustments ………………………………………………………………………………………… 60Meat cooking preferences ………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 61Activity 4C ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 625. Present meat dishes …………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 62P a g e | 3VCID. ACOT Training and Assessment/SITHCCC014/Learner Guide/V1.1/July 20195.1 – Carve meats using appropriate tools and techniques, taking account of meat and bone structureand waste minimisation…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 64Carving meat …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 64Activity 5A ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 655.2 – Portion and serve meat according to recipe requirements…………………………………………………. 66Serving meat …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 66Activity 5B ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 675.3 – Add sauces and garnishes according to standard recipes and regional variations …………………. 68Meat garnishes………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 68Meat sauces ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 68Activity 5C ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 695.4 – Visually evaluate dish and adjust presentation as required ………………………………………………… 70Evaluating the dish…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 70Adjusting presentation……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 70Activity 5D ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 725.5 – Store dishes in appropriate environmental conditions ………………………………………………………. 73Storing dishes appropriately ……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 73Activity 5E…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 745.6 – Clean work area, and dispose of or store surplus and reusable by-products according toorganisational procedures, environmental considerations, and cost-reduction initiatives……………… 75Cleaning work area ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 75Storing and reusing surplus…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 75Environmental considerations …………………………………………………………………………………………….. 76Activity 5F…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 77Summative Assessments………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 78References …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 79P a g e | 4VCID. ACOT Training and Assessment/SITHCCC014/Learner Guide/V1.1/July 2019Unit of CompetencyApplicationThis unit describes the performance outcomes, skills and knowledge required to prepare and cook arange of meat dishes following standard recipes. It requires the ability to select, prepare and portionmeat, and to use relevant equipment, cookery and food storage methods.The unit applies to cooks working in hospitality and catering organisations. This could includerestaurants, educational institutions, health establishments, defence forces, cafeterias, kiosks, cafes,residential caterers, in flight and other transport caterers, and event and function caterers.It applies to individuals who work under the guidance of more senior chefs. They demonstrateautonomy and judgement to complete routine activities and take limited responsibility in known andstable contexts within established parameters.No occupational licensing, certification or specific legislative requirements apply to this unit at the timeof publication.Pre-requisite UnitSITXFSA001 Use hygienic practices for food safetyCompetency FieldCommercial Cookery and CateringUnit SectorHospitalityUnit Mapping InformationSITHCCC303 Produce meat dishesP a g e | 5VCID. ACOT Training and Assessment/SITHCCC014/Learner Guide/V1.1/July 2019Performance Criteria ElementElements describe theessential outcomes.Performance CriteriaPerformance criteria describe the performance needed todemonstrate achievement of the element.1. Select ingredients1.1 Confirm food production requirements from foodpreparation list and standard recipes.1.2 Calculate ingredient amounts according to requirements.1.3 Identify and select meat products and other ingredients fromstores according to recipe, quality, freshness and stockrotation requirements.2. Select, prepare anduse equipment2.1 Select type and size of knives and other equipment suitableto requirements.2.2 Safely assemble and ensure cleanliness of equipment beforeuse.2.3 Use knives and other equipment safely and hygienicallyaccording to manufacturer instructions.3. Portion and prepareingredients3.1 Thaw frozen meats according to food safety guidelineswhere required.3.2 Sort and assemble ingredients according to food productionsequencing.3.3 Weigh and measure ingredients and create portionsaccording to recipe.3.4 Use meat preparation techniques according to reciperequirements.3.5 Minimise waste to maximise profitability of food itemsprepared.4. Cook meat dishes4.1 Follow standard recipes to select and use meat cookerymethods.4.2 Prepare marinades and meat accompaniments as required.4.3 Make food quality adjustments within scope ofresponsibility.5. Present meat dishes5.1 Carve meats using appropriate tools and techniques, takingaccount of meat and bone structure and wasteminimisation.5.2 Portion and serve meats according to recipe requirements.5.3 Add sauces and garnishes according to standard recipes.5.4 Visually evaluate dishes and adjust presentation as required.5.5 Store dishes in appropriate environmental conditions5.6 Clean work area, and dispose of or store surplus and reusable by-products according to organisational procedures,environmental considerations, and cost-reduction initiatives. P a g e | 6VCID. ACOT Training and Assessment/SITHCCC014/Learner Guide/V1.1/July 2019Range of ConditionsSpecifies different work environments and conditions that may affect performance. Essential operatingconditions that may be present (depending on the work situation, needs of the candidate, accessibilityof the item, and local industry and regional contexts) are included.Range is restricted to essential operating conditions and any other variables essential to the workenvironment.➢ Food quality adjustments must involve consideration of factors relating to:o cooking preference:▪ blue▪ rare▪ medium rare▪ medium▪ medium well▪ well doneo tasteo temperatureo texture➢ Adjusting presentation must involve consideration of:o accompaniments and garnishes that maximise visual appeal:▪ balance▪ colour▪ contrasto plated food for practicality of:▪ customer consumption▪ serviceo wiping drips and spills➢ Environmental conditions must ensure appropriate:o atmosphereo humidityo lighto packagingo temperatureo use of containerso ventilation.P a g e | 7VCID. ACOT Training and Assessment/SITHCCC014/Learner Guide/V1.1/July 2019Foundation SkillsThis section describes language, literacy, numeracy and employment skills incorporated in theperformance criteria that are required for competent performance.Foundation skills essential to performance in this unit, but not explicit in the performance criteria arelisted here, along with a brief context statement. Reading skills to:➢ Locate information in food preparation lists and standard recipes to determine foodpreparation requirements➢ Locate and read date codes and rotation labels on food products.Numeracy skills to:➢ Calculate the number of portions➢ Determine cooking times and temperatures.Problem-solving skills to:➢ Evaluate quality of meat and finished dishes and make adjustments to ensure a qualityproduct➢ Adjust taste, texture and appearance of food products according to identifieddeficiencies.Planning and organising skills to:➢ Efficiently sequence the stages of food preparation and production.Self-management skills to:➢ Manage own speed, timing and productivity. P a g e | 8VCID. ACOT Training and Assessment/SITHCCC014/Learner Guide/V1.1/July 2019Assessment RequirementsPerformance EvidenceEvidence of the ability to complete tasks outlined in elements and performance criteria of this unit inthe context of the job role, and:➢ Follow standard recipes to prepare meat dishes using each of the following meat items:o beefo game:▪ kangaroo▪ venison▪ specialty meatso lambo porko vealo offal:▪ kidney▪ liver➢ Use each of the following meat preparation techniques at least once when preparing the abovedishes, as appropriate:o ageingo bardingo boning and trimmingo cutting and portioningo lardingo marinatingo mincingo rollingo tenderisingo trussing and tyingo skewering➢ Prepare the required meat dishes using each of the following cookery methods at least once:o braisingo fryingo grillingo roastingo stewing➢ Prepare above food for at least six different customers:o within commercial time constraints and deadlineso reflecting required quantities to be producedo following procedures for portion control and food safety practices when handling andstoring meato responding to special customer requests and dietary requirements.P a g e | 9VCID. ACOT Training and Assessment/SITHCCC014/Learner Guide/V1.1/July 2019Knowledge EvidenceDemonstrated knowledge required to complete the tasks outlined in elements and performance criteriaof this unit:➢ Culinary terms and trade names for:o ingredients commonly used in the production of different meat disheso classical and contemporary meat disheso different cuts of meat and styles of cooking➢ Contents of stock date codes and rotation labels➢ Meat classifications➢ Characteristics of meat products and meat dishes:o appearanceo fat contento freshness and other quality indicatorso primary, secondary and portioned cutso nutritional valueo tasteo texture➢ Historical and cultural origin of different meat products and meat dishes➢ Preparation techniques for different cuts and types of meat specified in the performanceevidence➢ Cookery methods for different cuts and types of meat specified in the performance evidence➢ Equipment used to prepare and produce meat dishes:o knife care and maintenanceo essential features and functionso safe operational practices➢ Mise en place requirements for meat dishes➢ Appropriate environmental conditions for storing meat and meat products to:o ensure food safetyo optimise shelf-life➢ Safe operational practices using essential functions and features of equipment used to producemeat dishes.P a g e | 10VCID. ACOT Training and Assessment/SITHCCC014/Learner Guide/V1.1/July 2019Assessment ConditionsSkills must be demonstrated in an operational commercial kitchen. This can be:➢ An industry workplace➢ A simulated industry environment, such as a training kitchen servicing customers.Assessment must ensure access to:➢ Fixtures and large equipment:o commercial blenders and food millso commercial grade work benches (1.5 m/person)o commercial ovens with trays (one per two persons)o commercial refrigeration facilities:▪ cool room and/or fridge▪ freezero designated storage areas for dry goods and perishableso double sinko gas, electric or induction stove tops (two burners per person)o hot plate or griddleo microwaveo salamander or other form of griller (one per four persons)o storage facilities:▪ shelving▪ trays➢ Small equipment:o baking sheets and trayso containers for hot and cold foodo cutting boardso food handler gloveso knife sharpening equipmento sharpening steels and stoneso knives:▪ butcher and boning knives▪ carving knives▪ chef knives▪ utility kniveso larding needleso measurers:▪ metric calibrated measuring jugs▪ measuring spoons▪ portion control scoopso meat:▪ bats▪ cleavers▪ mincerso oven mittso pans and pots for small and large production:▪ stainless steel, cast iron, iron and non-stick fry pans▪ large and small potsP a g e | 11VCID. ACOT Training and Assessment/SITHCCC014/Learner Guide/V1.1/July 2019o scaleso scoops, skimmers and spiderso service-ware:▪ platters, dishes, and bowls▪ cutlery and serving utensilso sets of stainless steel bowlso small utensils:▪ flour and drum sieves▪ strainers and chinois▪ scrapers▪ spatulas▪ tongs and serving utensilso spoons:▪ large plain and slotted metal spoons▪ ladles in a variety of sizes▪ serving spoons▪ wooden spoonso temperature probeso thermometers➢ Cleaning materials and equipment:o cleaning clothso commercial cleaning and sanitising agents and chemicals for cleaning commercial kitchens,equipment and food storage areaso dustpans and broomso garbage bins and bagso hand towel dispenser and hand towelso mops and bucketso separate hand basin and antiseptic liquid soap dispenser for hand washingo sponges, brushes and scourerso tea towels➢ Organisational specifications:o equipment manufacturer instructionso current commercial stock control procedures and documentation for ordering, monitoringand maintaining stocko mise en place lists, menus, standard recipes, and recipes for special dietary requirementso ordering and docketing paperworko food safety plano guidelines relating to food disposal, storage and presentation requirementso safety data sheets (SDS) for cleaning agents and chemicals➢ Diverse and comprehensive range of meat products as specified in the performance evidence➢ Industry-realistic ratios of kitchen staff to customers; these can be:o staff and customers in an industry workplace during the assessment process; oro individuals who participate in role plays or simulated activities, set up for the purpose ofassessment, in a simulated industry environment operated within a training organisation.P a g e | 12VCID. ACOT Training and Assessment/SITHCCC014/Learner Guide/V1.1/July 2019Assessors must satisfy the Standards for Registered Training Organisations’ requirements for assessors;and:➢ Have achieved the Certificate III in Commercial Cookery or Certificate IV in Commercial Cookeryto assess this unit as part of a Certificate III in Commercial Cookery or Certificate IV inCommercial Cookery qualification; and➢ Have worked in industry for at least three years where they have applied the skills andknowledge of this unit of competency.LinksCompanion Volume Implementation Guide: – http://www.serviceskills.com.au/resourcesP a g e | 13VCID. ACOT Training and Assessment/SITHCCC014/Learner Guide/V1.1/July 20191. Select ingredients1.1. Confirm food production requirements from food preparation list and standard recipes.1.2. Calculate ingredient amounts according to requirements. 1.3.Identify and select meat products and other ingredients from stores according to recipe, quality,freshness and stock rotation requirements. P a g e | 14VCID. ACOT Training and Assessment/SITHCCC014/Learner Guide/V1.1/July 20191.1 – Confirm food production requirements from food preparation lists andstandard recipes.By the end of this chapter, the learner should be able to:➢ Locate information in recipes to determine what food preparation and equipment isrequired➢ Use the mise en place technique when planning and preparing a dish➢ Check the food packaging for specific preparation instructions➢ Read a variety of recipes and select the right ingredients for the dish.Food preparation requirementsIt is important that you understand how to locate the information you need in a recipe to ensure youprepare and cook food properly. Before you start cooking, you should read the recipe to find out whatthe food preparation requirements are and plan these out carefully. Recipes will vary with theinformation they provide, but all recipes should include: a name and short description of the food, animage of the food, and the ingredients and method section. Some recipes may also go into more detailadvising what products and equipment you should use to get the best results. It is important to read therecipe carefully and make sure you understand each step before you start. This will make you moreconfident and efficient in the kitchen. Some people will be familiar with recipes and may be used tofollowing them at home, however, this could be something new to you and you may find them difficultto follow. It is a good idea to look at a few different recipes for the same dish to see which one you feelmost comfortable using and following.Food preparation requirements may include:➢ Selecting the ingredients you need➢ Measuring out the right quantities ofingredients➢ Preparing the ingredients asrequired, by chopping them up, etc.➢ Selecting the right equipment for thetype of food you’re making.Mise en placeThis is a French cooking term which means to ‘set in place’, and it is a technique used in food planningand preparation. It means that before you start cooking, all the ingredients and equipment required tomake the dish should be measured out prepped and ready to go, ideally set out and placed in ramekins.The idea of this technique is to allow chefs to cook more efficiently, by preparing everything beforehandso you don’t have to keep stopping when you are cooking. Many professional chefs follow thistechnique as it is a faster and more efficient way of cooking, saving you time in the kitchen as you willbe more organised. So it is important that chefs learn and adapt to using this technique every time.P a g e | 15VCID. ACOT Training and Assessment/SITHCCC014/Learner Guide/V1.1/July 2019How to effectively use the mise en place technique:➢ Work out how much food you need to cook, depending on how many people you’recooking for➢ Make sure you have all the ingredients and equipment you need by reading throughthe recipe first➢ Carefully read the recipe, envisioning the steps, to make sure you understand how tofollow it and carry out the steps➢ Get all the ingredients out, measure and wash them, trim or slice anything as requiredand place it on the counter next to where you will be cooking➢ Put the ingredients in the right order of when you will be using them to make it easierwhen cooking➢ Make sure you have any equipment out that you will need➢ Get your serving dishes out and set the table.Modified from source: http://www.dartagnan.com/mise-en-place-cook-like-aprofessional.html. Accessed on 08/09/2016.Why should you use this technique?➢ It will save you valuable time in the kitchen➢ It is a faster and more efficient way ofcooking➢ It will make you more organised and help youavoid making silly mistakes➢ It will prevent you from missing out anyessential ingredients➢ You will be less likely to use the wrongamount of ingredients.Preparing foodThere will be different preparation requirements and techniques depending on the type of food you’remaking. Preparing food properly is vital to remove any bacteria, make sure it is safe to consume andensure it cooks properly. It is important to read the recipe carefully to find out this information, and alsocheck the food packaging which should advise how to prepare and cook the food.P a g e | 16VCID. ACOT Training and Assessment/SITHCCC014/Learner Guide/V1.1/July 2019Activity 1AP a g e | 17VCID. ACOT Training and Assessment/SITHCCC014/Learner Guide/V1.1/July 20191.2 – Calculate ingredient amounts according to requirementsBy the end of this chapter, the learner should be able to:➢ Read recipes to identify amount of ingredients and portions required➢ Adjust and scale recipes and ingredients to meet requirements➢ Measure ingredients to the correct amount using appropriate equipment.Scaling a recipeA recipe may occasionally need to be modified and scaled tomeet certain requirements in the kitchen. Depending on howmany people you are serving, you may need to increase ordecrease the amount of ingredients you use from a recipe.You may also be asked to decrease the suggested portionsizes, or amend ingredients to meet dietary requirements.In some instances, this will be easy and you would be able tosimply double or halve the ingredient amounts to get thedesired serving you need. However, in other cases of nonmultiple servings, this will be more complex and you wouldneed to use a calculation to help you adjust the amounts.How to adjust the size of a recipe:1. Firstly, you will need to calculate your recipe conversion factor, which you will use toconvert all the quantities of ingredients2. To find the conversion factor, divide the desired number of servings by the originalnumber of servings3. Then you would multiply the ingredient amounts individually by this conversion factor,and convert this into a type of measurement you use4. This may involve rounding up measurements to make it easier to work out. There arerecipe calculators online that can work this out for you if you add in the information.For example: Desired serving / original serving = conversion factor (RCF)Modified from source: http://culinaryarts.about.com/od/measurementsconversions/a/scaling.htm.Accessed on 12/09/2016.P a g e | 18VCID. ACOT Training and Assessment/SITHCCC014/Learner Guide/V1.1/July 2019Example of finding a recipe conversion factorFor example, imagine you had a recipe that serves 8 people and you wanted to reduce the portions to 6:➢ Firstly, you would divide 8 by 6, which would give you the conversion factor of 1.3➢ Next, you would multiply each ingredient by 1.3➢ If you need to, you could then convert the results into another measurement to make iteasier to work out.Rounding amountsIf you end up with decimal amounts when doing these calculations, to make it easier you could roundthe measurement to the nearest gramme. You should check with your supervisor or manager to makesure you are allowed to do this as it will adjust the ingredients slightly.P a g e | 19VCID. ACOT Training and Assessment/SITHCCC014/Learner Guide/V1.1/July 2019Activity 1BP a g e | 20VCID. ACOT Training and Assessment/SITHCCC014/Learner Guide/V1.1/July 20191.3 – Identify and select meat products and other ingredients from storesaccording to recipe, quality, freshness and stock rotation requirements.By the end of this chapter, the learner should be able to:➢ Read recipes to identify meat products and other ingredients required➢ Select the right ingredients from stores by checking the food labels for quality andfreshness before purchasing➢ Identify different types of meat products and know the nutritional value and fatcontent of them.Selecting ingredientsBefore selecting any ingredients, you should read the recipe which will specify the type of ingredientsand quantities you need to make the dish. When selecting ingredients in your local supermarket, it isalso important to consider the quality, freshness and stock rotation to ensure you get the best product.Stock rotationA food rotation system is used by companies, such as supermarkets when they restock shelves. Theyarrange older items to the front of the shelves and newer items to the back to try and sell the olderitems first before they expire. This is an important system for companies to ensure they don’t lose outon sales of older items before they expire.Food date labelsDate labels on food packaging will usually state either a bestbefore, use by or display until date. They are provided as aguide to tell consumers how long food can be kept and howlong it is safe to eat. They are especially important for freshproduce, which only usually lasts a couple of days onceopened. Food Standards Australia states that is theresponsibility of the supplier to place a date label on theirproducts, for health and safety reasons.What does each label mean?➢ Best before – this is the label placed on most foods, which means the food is still safeto eat past the best before date, however, the quality of it will not be as good. It is legalfor products to be sold after the best before date as long as they are safe to consume➢ Use by – this is for food that needs to be eaten by a certain date and time, such as freshfoods: meat, poultry, eggs, milk and vegetables. They shouldn’t be consumed after thisdate as they could be unsafe. Products cannot legally be sold past this date as it couldpose a health risk to consumersP a g e | 21VCID. ACOT Training and Assessment/SITHCCC014/Learner Guide/V1.1/July 2019➢ Display until – this is usually on a label alongside a best before or use by date, and it isused by retailers for stock rotation so that staff will know how long they can display aproduct on the shelves and when it should be replaced. This isn’t a guide for consumersand shouldn’t be confused with the use by date.Suppliers must also include specific storage conditions on the packaging if it is essential for the productto keep it in good condition. For example, it is important for items that need to be refrigerated at alltimes otherwise the quality may deteriorate.Modified from source:http://www.foodstandards.gov.au/consumer/labelling/dates/Pages/default.aspx. Accessed on09/09/2016.Meat productsLooking at the micronutrient content of meat, the healthiest type to consume is organ meat such asliver, which contains high levels of vitamins and minerals. The second healthiest type is red meat andseafood, followed by pork and poultry, such as chicken and turkey. Poultry refers to meat specificallyderived from birds, whereas, the definition of meat is the flesh of animals, usually mammals or birds, asused for food.Red meat contains high levels of several micronutrients, including B vitamins, iron, and zinc, and smallerlevels of other minerals. The iron in red meat is in a form called heme iron which is easily absorbed inthe body, more so than vegetables are. Red meat also aids in the absorptions of Vitamin D as thecholesterol in the fat helps your body absorb it from the sun. It also contains a metabolite of Vitamin Dcalled 25(OH)D3, which increases the total level of Vitamin D in the body.Poultry, such as chicken and turkey, has high levels of niacin and Vitamin B6, and minerals such asPhosphorous and Selenium. However, beef and seafood have a higher nutritional value overall. Porkalso has a high nutritional quality as it contains significant levels of B vitamins andminerals.Modified from source: http://paleoleap.com/which-meat-to-choose/.Accessed on 04/10/2016.Fat content and nutritional valueFats are divided into three different types: saturated, monounsaturated, andpolyunsaturated.➢ Saturated fats are often said to be the worst kind, especiallywhen dieting, however, they are important for a healthy dietas they are more stable than other fats and do not produceharmful inflammation and oxidative stress as someunsaturated fats can. Saturated fats can be identified by thetexture, as the fats are solid at room temperature. Forexample, the hard, crumbly layer of fat on top of a beef roastis the texture of saturated fat.P a g e | 22VCID. ACOT Training and Assessment/SITHCCC014/Learner Guide/V1.1/July 2019➢ Monounsaturated fats are very healthy and they are found in olive oil, for example.Polyunsaturated fats are important for health but can be harmful if consumed in largeamounts as they are unstable, unlike saturated fats, and can cause inflammation anddiseases.➢ Polyunsaturated fats are broken down into Omega 3 and Omega 6, which can also bereferred to as N-3 and N-6. Both of these are not healthy in excess, however, peopleshould consume much less Omega 6 than Omega 3 as Omega 6 is connected withinflammation, diseases and general ill health. It is generally advised that there shouldbe a 4:1 ratio of Omega 6 to Omega 3 in a person’s diet.When looking at the fat quality and ratios, it is also important to check the total amount of fat in themeat. For example, a cut of meat may have a high proportion of polyunsaturated fats but it could bevery lean, whereas, another cut of meat may have a lower proportion but could be veryfatty so it would be unhealthier overall. Beef contains less polyunsaturated fats per100 grammes than pork or chicken so is generally a healthier choice.It is also important to consider the diet and lifestyle of the animal as this willdetermine the amounts of polyunsaturated fat in the meat. For example, animalsraised in Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations contain a higher concentration ofpolyunsaturated fats, and also animals fed a high polyunsaturated diet had higherlevels in their meat. Beef is a healthier choice as it contains an Omega 6 to Omega 3ratio of 4:1, although this depends on the cut and type of beef. Lamb has a ratio ofapproximately 5:2, however, pork and chicken is around 10. This is noticeable dueto the difference in textures between chicken fat and beef tallow. Free rangemeats tend to be healthier as they have a lower amount of Omega 6polyunsaturated fats and a higher amount of Omega 3.Modified from source: http://paleoleap.com/which-meat-to-choose/. Accessed on 04/10/2016.Characteristics of meat products:➢ Beef – is generally the flesh of a steer, cow or other adult bovine animals. The quality ofbeef is determined by the amount, quality and colour of the flesh, bone and fat. Thesurface of a freshly cut quality piece of beef should be bright red, and the colour willface and darken when it is exposed to air for some time. There shouldn’t be anyunusual colour on the meat, and the best quality beef should be cut crosswise of thefibre as this determines whether the meat is tender or tough. The tender parts of themeat are made up of short fibres that are cut across at right angles with the surface ofthe meat, and the tougher parts contain long fibres running slanted or parallel to thesurface. The cheaper cuts are usually from the neck, legs and shins, whereas, the moreexpensive cuts are usually towards the back. It is important to think about the purposefor which you are selecting the meat as different cuts of beef are more suited todifferent purposes.Modified from source: http://paleoleap.com/beginners-guide-game-meat/. Accessedon 05/10/2016.P a g e | 23VCID. ACOT Training and Assessment/SITHCCC014/Learner Guide/V1.1/July 2019➢ Game – this is the meat of any animal that is hunted for food. It is generally higher inprotein and lower in fat; however, it is higher in Omega 3 fats. Kangaroo meat is verycommon in Australia and is specifically high in conjugated linoleic acid. Game meat isdifferent to meat from animals raised on a farm as there are no concerns abouthormones or antibiotics in the fat as the animal will usually be wild and will not havebeen given any, it is also very lean compared to farmed meat and has a richer and moreintense flavour. Other popular types of animals hunted for game meat include rabbit,pheasant, wild duck, venison and bison. Venison is the meat from deer, and it is usuallydark, lean and tender. Age usually determines the level of tenderness; for example,younger animals have more tender meat, and the diet and the way the animal washandled also is a factor. The best cuts of venison should have a deep colour and adense texture with little fat, and the fat should look white firm.Modified from source: http://paleoleap.com/beginners-guide-game-meat/ andhttp://www.bbcgoodfood.com/glossary/venison. Accessed on 05/10/2016.➢ Speciality meats – these are a group of meat products that are considered unique andhigh quality due to their ingredients, and they are usually more expensive to buy.Speciality meats include sliced beef, corned beef, deviled ham, luncheon meat, mincedluncheon spread, Mortadella bologna, old fashioned load, pepper loaf, scrapple andveal loaf.Modified from source: http://www.recipetips.com/glossary-term/t–33771/meatspecialties.asp. Accessed on 05/10/2016.➢ Lamb – this is a sheep under one-year-old with adelicate flavour and tender flesh. The older thelamb is, the deeper the colour of the meat willbe. The palest colour is a young lamb between 6and 8 weeks, and a spring lamb is between 3 and5 months old. Anything older than 2 years iscalled mutton, which has a stronger flavour and atougher flesh. Minced lamb is available formaking pies and burgers, and also lamb offalwhich is the kidneys and liver. When choosinglamb, it is best to look for firm and fine-grainedmeat with a velvety texture, and it should bemoist with a bright red colour, depending on theage of the lamb. There are many different cuts oflamb that will suit different types of cooking: oroasting – leg, breast, neck, shoulder,saddle, rump and loin are suited to this style of cooking o quick cooking – fillet, chump chops, loin chops, leg steaks, cutlets and butterfliedleg are suitable for thisP a g e | 24VCID. ACOT Training and Assessment/SITHCCC014/Learner Guide/V1.1/July 2019o slow cooking – leg, shoulder, shank, neck and chump chops are best for thisModified from source: http://www.bbcgoodfood.com/glossary/lamb. Accessedon 05/10/2016.➢ Pork – this is the meat of domestic pigs, and it is the most commonly consumed redmeat in the world. It can be eaten unprocessed, but cured pork products are verycommon, such as smoked pork, ham, bacon and sausages. It is high in protein and richin vitamins and minerals, especially when the pork is lean, such as thiamine, zinc,vitamin B12, vitamin B6, niacin, phosphorous, and iron. However, pork can containdifferent amounts of fat, with the proportion ranging from 10-16%, depending on howthe pork is trimmed before cooking. Processed pork, such as ham and bacon, can alsobe very high in salt.Modified from source: https://authoritynutrition.com/foods/pork/. Accessed on05/10/2016.➢ Veal – this is meat from young calves aged between 6 to 7 months. It is has a uniquelydelicate flavour and is rich in minerals and vitamins. Veal also has a light colour, a finetexture and is very tender. Cuts of veal include mince, escalopes, rib chops, T-bone andshoulder. Leaner cuts can be fried, grilled or roasted, and the tougher cuts are best forslow cooked dishes.Modified from source: http://www.petersfarm.com/contact/frequently-askedquestions/what-is-the-difference-between-beef-and-veal/ andhttp://www.bbc.co.uk/food/veal. Accessed on 05/10/2016.➢ Offal – this refers to the internal organs andentrails of an animal, such as kidney and liver.When choosing offal, it is important that it isfresh and it should look wet but firm to touch. Ifit is bitter, dry or slimy, this means it is off andshould not be consumed. Kidney and liver arethe most popular choice of offal and easy tocook and inexpensive. Milder tasting offal isheart, sweetbreads or tripe, although these raretypes of offal can be difficult to find insupermarkets and are usually found in butchers.Offal doesn’t stay fresh for long, so it is best tocook and eat it within two days of purchase.Fresh offal should be stored in the coldest partof the fridge.Modified from source: http://www.bbc.co.uk/food/offal. Accessed on 05/10/2016.P a g e | 25VCID. ACOT Training and Assessment/SITHCCC014/Learner Guide/V1.1/July 2019Activity 1CP a g e | 26VCID. ACOT Training and Assessment/SITHCCC014/Learner Guide/V1.1/July 20192. Select, prepare and use equipment2.1. Select type and size of knives and other equipment suitable to requirements.2.2. Safely assemble and ensure cleanliness of equipment before use.2.3. Use knives and other equipment safely and hygienically according to manufacturer instructions.P a g e | 27VCID. ACOT Training and Assessment/SITHCCC014/Learner Guide/V1.1/July 20192.1 – Select type and size of knives and other equipment suitable torequirementsBy the end of this chapter, the learner should be able to:➢ Select and use the right types of knives to prepare food➢ Use different types of equipment to prepare food.Selecting knivesUsing the right type of knife to prepare different types of food willmake the task easier and faster, and it is also important for safetyreasons. There are many different types of knives available; somewhich you may already have in the kitchen and some you maynever have heard of. It’s important to know what each type is forso you can get the best results when preparing food.Different types of knives:➢ Butcher and boning – sharp precision cut knivesused for removing meat from bones and cutting fish. They can be 5 to 6 inches inlength and come in different widths such as narrow, wide and curved. Stiff boningknives are designed for tougher meats such as beef and the flexible knives are designedfor thinner cuts such as salmonSource: http://www.williams-sonoma.com/shop/cutlery/cutlery-shapes-uses/.Accessed on 16/08/2016➢ Chef – a versatile knife that and can be used for chopping, slicing, mincing and dicing.They have a broad blade curving upwards and a chunky, strong handle. Chef’s knivescan vary in blade lengths from 6 to 12 inches. Shorter blades are easier to handle andcontrol, whereas, longer blades can be difficult to handle but efficient at cuttingSource: http://www.williams-sonoma.com/shop/cutlery/cutlery-shapes-uses/.Accessed on 16/08/2016➢ Filleting – mainly used to remove the bones from fish. They are long, thin and flexiblewith a very sharp blade to pierce through fish. The blades range from 4 to 9 inches inlength, depending on the size of fish. There are also electric fillet knives available,which are useful for cutting large fishSource: http://www.knifeplanet.net/boning-vs-fillet-knives-difference/. Accessed on18/08/2016➢ Palette – a flat knife with a soft rounded tip for smoothing and lifting. They are mostlyused for baking to spread frosting on top of cakes and trim frosting from the sidesSource: http://www.cooksinfo.com/palette-knives. Accessed on 18/08/2016P a g e | 28VCID. ACOT Training and Assessment/SITHCCC014/Learner Guide/V1.1/July 2019➢ Utility – versatile knife, similar to a chef’s knife but smaller in size, and they are usedfor cutting and slicing smaller ingredients such as sandwich meats, salad and vegetablesSource: http://www.williams-sonoma.com/shop/cutlery/cutlery-shapes-uses/.Accessed on 16/08/2016➢ Vegetable – a straight edge knife that is designed for chopping and slicing vegetablesprecisely. They need to be very sharp to get the best results when cuttingSource: http://www.kniveskitchen.com/blades.html. Accessed on 18/08/2016➢ Bread – large knives with a thick 8-9 inch blade with serrated edges, designed forcutting through bread.Source: http://www.kniveskitchen.com/blades.html. Accessed on 18/08/2016Selecting equipmentThere are many different types of equipment that can help speed up processes in the kitchen and helpyou prepare food with ease. You should find out what equipment you will need for the type of foodyou’re making and be prepared beforehand to make you more organised and efficient.Essential equipment you will need:➢ Thermometers – food thermometers are useful for checking if meat is cooked properlythroughout, which is important for avoiding salmonella poising etc. They can also beused for other foods to check it’s at the right temperature. There are different types ofthermometers available: oven-proof ones that stay in the food while it’s cooking, digitalones that go into the food after it’s cooked, and microwave-safe ones. To test meat,thermometers are usually inserted around two inches into the thickest area. They arealso useful when reheating food to check it’s at the right temperature and for buffetswhere hot and cold food is served➢ Refrigeration unit – built in or standalone fridges are used for storing different types offood separately, such as meat, vegetables, and cooked or uncooked foods, etc. Walk infridges are good for storing large cuts of meat that would take up too much room in anormal refrigerator. It is a good idea to buy one with shelving, so you can storeproducts in different parts of the fridge. Uncooked and cooked foods should be storedseparately on different shelves in the fridge, meat should be stored on the bottom shelfto avoid contaminating other products, and vegetables are best stored in a tray at thebottom of the fridgeP a g e | 29VCID. ACOT Training and Assessment/SITHCCC014/Learner Guide/V1.1/July 2019➢ Cutting boards – used for cutting food on without damaging work surfaces. It is best tobuy different boards for cutting different produce, such as a vegetable board, meatboard and breadboard, to prevent cross contamination. It is especially important if youare using raw meat, to avoid bacteria spreading to other foods and to also keepvegetarian food separate to meat and fish. Cutting boards are usually sold in sets withdifferent colours for different purposes, so you can tell them apart➢ Blenders – a useful tool to have in the kitchen for blending ingredients together. Themain function is to mix soft food and liquids, to make smoothies, milkshakes and soups,etc. Some blenders also have an added function that can crush ice to make frozendrinks. Blenders tend to be narrower in shape, so should only be used to blend smalleringredients. The two types available are jug blenders that sit on the worktop and handblenders, which are more compact and store away. Jug blenders have at least threespeeds, a stainless steel blade, and a spout to pour out the blended ingredientsSource:http://housewares.about.com/od/blendersprocessors/f/blendervfoodprocessor.htm.Accessed on 15/08/2016➢ Food processors – these are bigger and wider appliances than blenders with a sharperblade that is designed for mixing larger food ingredients. The main functions are tochop, shred, slice or mix either soft or hard foods. They are useful for making largebatches of food or chopping larger ingredients such as vegetablesSource:http://housewares.about.com/od/blendersprocessors/f/blendervfoodprocessor.htm.Accessed on 15/08/2016➢ Scales – food scales are used for weighing ingredients for a recipe to make sure youmeasure the right amount. You can buy regular scales or digital ones, which display theexact weight on a screen for you rather than trying to work it out yourself. Some foodscales also come with a bowl for holding the ingredients.P a g e | 30VCID. ACOT Training and Assessment/SITHCCC014/Learner Guide/V1.1/July 2019Activity 2AP a g e | 31VCID. ACOT Training and Assessment/SITHCCC014/Learner Guide/V1.1/July 20192.2 – Safely assemble and ensure cleanliness of equipment before use.By the end of this chapter, the learner should be able to:➢ Read manufacturer instructions and understand how to assemble equipment safely➢ Clean and sanitise equipment accurately before and after use➢ Do the four step cleaning and sanitising process: preparation, cleaning, sanitising anddrying.Assembling equipmentMake sure you read manufacturer instructions in the product manual before attempting to assembleany equipment to ensure you assemble it safely and correctly. There should also be informationadvising how to maintain and clean the equipment before and after use. It is important to onlyassemble and use equipment that you have been trained to use and feel comfortable using. If not, youshould ask a supervisor or manager to help you to make sure you don’t damage the equipment andcause harm to yourself or others.Cleaning and sanitising equipmentEquipment should be cleaned and sanitisedthoroughly before and after use, to remove anydirt or bacteria from it and ensure it is safe andclean to use. On the Government of WesternAustralia Department of Health website, it statesa four step effective cleaning and sanitisingprocess you can follow that will ‘remove any foodwaste, dirt, grease and food-borne diseases’ fromanything that comes into contact with food.The difference between cleaning and sanitising is:➢ Cleaning – this ‘removes visible contamination such as food, waste, dirt and greasefrom a surface’ using warm water and cleaning detergent➢ Sanitising – this ‘destroys microorganisms’ using hot water and sanitising chemicals.Modified from source: http://ww2.health.wa.gov.au/Articles/A_E/Cleaning-and-sanitising-foodpremises-and-food-equipment. Accessed on 19/08/2016The cleaning and sanitising food premises and food equipment Code on the Department of Healthwebsite sets out procedures and requirements that workplaces should follow for cleanliness:These procedures are:1. Preparation – remove loose dirt, dust and food particles from the surface and rinse withwarm water2. Cleaning – wash the surface with hot water and cleaning detergent to remove anystubborn stains or dirtP a g e | 32VCID. ACOT Training and Assessment/SITHCCC014/Learner Guide/V1.1/July 20193. Sanitising – wash with hot water and apply sanitiser4. Drying – place equipment on a drainer to air dry.Modified from source: http://ww2.health.wa.gov.au/Articles/A_E/Cleaning-and-sanitising-foodpremises-and-food-equipment. Accessed on 19/08/2016Cleaning effectivelyTo make sure equipment and surfaces are clean and free from any harmful bacteria, cleaning should bedone on a regular basis and to a high standard to ensure the equipment is safe for everyone in theworkplace to use.Cleaning tips:➢ Wipe down surfaces, utensils and equipment after each use to avoid a build-up of dirtor bacteria➢ Let appliances cool down firstbefore cleaning them➢ Take care not to damage orbreak anything when cleaningequipment➢ Make sure the cleaning agentsare suitable for the type ofequipment you are using➢ Clean and tidy up in thekitchen as you go along; don’tleave it until last➢ Clean floors in the kitchen to remove any dirt.P a g e | 33VCID. ACOT Training and Assessment/SITHCCC014/Learner Guide/V1.1/July 2019Activity 2BP a g e | 34VCID. ACOT Training and Assessment/SITHCCC014/Learner Guide/V1.1/July 20192.3 – Use knives and other equipment safely and hygienically according tomanufacturer instructionsBy the end of this chapter, the learner should be able to:➢ Handle and use knives safely and hygienically➢ Read manufacturer instructions before using any equipment➢ Use equipment safely, and clean it before and after use.Using knives safelyWhen handling and using knives, it is important to take care at all times to make sure you don’t causeany harm to yourself or others. You should understand how to use all types of knives before attemptingto use them as it can be dangerous. It is also important to be hygienic with knives by cleaning andmaintaining them regularly to keep them in good condition and make sure they are safe to use.Tips for knife safety:➢ Always cut food on a stable and balanced surface➢ Carry knives by the handle with the blade pointed downwards instead of forwards➢ Concentrate when you are using knives and make sure you look at what you arecutting; don’t look in another direction at the same time➢ Don’t put your fingers in the way when cutting – tuck them under your knuckles➢ Hold the food firmly in place with your other hand when cutting and make sure itdoesn’t move or slip away➢ Don’t try to cut really fast if you’re not experienced with using knives – speed will comewith practice and safety ismore important➢ Make sure you wash knivesafter use in warm, soapywater so they are clean andsafe for the next person.Using equipment safelyBefore using any equipment for the first time, it is important to read manufacturer instructions to findout how to assemble and use it correctly, and you should only use equipment you have been trained touse and feel comfortable using. If you’re unsure, ask a supervisor or manager to help you.Why is it important to read the instructions?➢ To ensure you know how to use the equipment safely➢ To avoid damaging or breaking the equipmentP a g e | 35VCID. ACOT Training and Assessment/SITHCCC014/Learner Guide/V1.1/July 2019➢ It will help you keep the equipment in good condition so it will last longer➢ Using equipment in the wrong way could affect the quality or safety of food you make➢ To make sure you get the most out of the equipment.Using equipment hygienicallyEquipment should be cleaned regularly, before and after use, to make sure it is safe and hygienic. This isparticularly important when using foods which could causecross contamination such as raw meat.Why is it important to be hygienic with equipment?➢ To remove any bacteria from theequipment and avoid cross contamination➢ To make sure you’re following health andsafety guidelines at your workplace➢ To keep the equipment in good condition➢ To keep the workplace safe and clean foreveryone to use.Cleaning agentsThere are many different types of cleaning agents available that will help you get the best results whencleaning the kitchen and remove any harmful bacteria. There are surface sprays, floor cleaners andbleach, and also washing up agents and dishwasher tablets. Before using cleaning agents, you shouldmake sure it is suitable for the type of equipment you’re using to ensure you don’t damage anything.P a g e | 36VCID. ACOT Training and Assessment/SITHCCC014/Learner Guide/V1.1/July 2019Activity 2CP a g e | 37VCID. ACOT Training and Assessment/SITHCCC014/Learner Guide/V1.1/July 20193. Portion and prepare ingredients3.1. Thaw frozen meats according to food safety guidelines where required.3.2. Sort and assemble ingredients according to food production sequencing.3.3. Weigh and measure ingredients and create portions according to recipe.3.4. Use meat preparation techniques according to recipe requirements.3.5. Minimise waste to maximise profitability of food items prepared.P a g e | 38VCID. ACOT Training and Assessment/SITHCCC014/Learner Guide/V1.1/July 20193.1 – Thaw frozen meats according to food safety guidelines where requiredBy the end of this chapter, the learner should be able to:➢ Read the food packaging first to find out correct thawing instructions➢ Thaw a type of meat correctly following the instructions and food safety guidelines.Thaw meatWhen thawing food, it is important to read the food packaging to findout the correct instructions and follow these carefully to ensure thefood defrosts fully before you attempt to cook it. This is very importantwhen thawing meat and poultry as it can grow harmful bacteria if it isnot stored correctly.How to thaw meat:➢ Take meat out of the freezer and place at the bottomof the fridge to thaw, leaving it overnight for smallercuts, and larger cuts can take several days to defrost➢ You should allow at least five hours per pound of meatfor defrosting➢ Leave meat in the packaging to defrost and put on aplate, or if this is removed you will need to cover itwith cling film or place it in a container➢ If you need to thaw meat quicker, you can do this in the microwave on a defrostsetting. Read the food packaging and microwave manual for instructions to do this➢ Follow defrosting and cooking instructions on the food packaging to find out how tothaw it correctly➢ Don’t leave food to thaw on worktops at room temperature as this can cause bacteriato grow on the meat➢ Make sure food is defrosted fully before cooking, otherwise it won’t cook properlythroughout and won’t be safe to consume➢ Once defrosted, meat can be kept in the refrigerator for one to two days as long as it iscovered well and stored away from other foods.Modified from sources:http://www.sahealth.sa.gov.au/wps/wcm/connect/public+content/sa+health+internet/health+topics/health+conditions+prevention+and+treatment/food+safety/keeping+your+food+safe/thawing+cooking+cooling+and+reheating+food/thawing+cooking+cooling+and+reheating+food, http://www.helpwithcooking.com/cooking-poultry/defrostingpoultry.html. Accessed on 09/09/2016.P a g e | 39VCID. ACOT Training and Assessment/SITHCCC014/Learner Guide/V1.1/July 2019Activity 3AP a g e | 40VCID. ACOT Training and Assessment/SITHCCC014/Learner Guide/V1.1/July 20193.2 – Sort and assemble ingredients according to food production sequencingBy the end of this chapter, the learner should be able to:➢ Plan out the food production sequence, working out how long each task will take andprioritising certain tasks➢ Select all the right ingredients and equipment required to make the dish➢ Time each food production task and complete it within the designated time.Food production sequencingWhen preparing and cooking food, you should plan out all the stages throughout, setting yourself a timelimit for each task. You should organise this by working out how long each ingredient will take to cookand planning it out from there to make sure everything finishes around the same time. Planning andpreparation is important to show that you are organised in your work and can self-manage.A recipe will usually state how long it should take to prepare the ingredients and cook the food. Therewill also be time constraints at your workplace, so you should check these first with your supervisor tofind out what the timescales are and make sure you follow these.Tips for food production sequencing:➢ Read the recipe to find out how long it should take you to prepare and cook theingredients and complete the dish➢ Write out a plan if this will help, breaking down the food production process intosections so you can plan how long you have for each task➢ Find out what ingredients you need from the recipe and set them out on the worktops➢ Have all the equipment out and ready that you will need for the recipe➢ Use the mise en place technique bymeasuring and setting all the ingredientsout before you start cooking and placingthem in ramekins➢ Organise when you will cook eachingredient. For example, if somethingtakes longer to cook you will need tomake this a priority and cook it first beforeanything else, so you don’t have to waitfor it at the end➢ Once all the food preparation is complete,start cooking and stick to the timescalesyou have set yourself, timing yourselfthroughout.P a g e | 41VCID. ACOT Training and Assessment/SITHCCC014/Learner Guide/V1.1/July 2019Activity 3BP a g e | 42VCID. ACOT Training and Assessment/SITHCCC014/Learner Guide/V1.1/July 20193.3 – Weigh and measure ingredients and create portions according to recipeBy the end of this chapter, the learner should be able to:➢ Read the recipe to find out what ingredients are required and how many people it willbe served to➢ Use the right measuring equipment to weigh ingredients accurately for the dish andaccording to recipe requirements.Weighing and measuring ingredientsA large part of food preparation is weighing and measuring ingredients to get the right quantity youneed for the recipe. So it is important that you learn how to measure ingredients in order to get thebest results when cooking, as adding too much or too little ingredients can ruin how the food turns out.Ingredient quantities can be written using a variety of measurements, so it’s a good idea to read avariety of recipes to familiarise yourself with these. If you’re not sure of a particular measurement, youshould convert it to one you are more familiar with. Firstly, you will need to consider how many peopleyou are serving as this will determine how much ingredients you need, then you will need to find theright equipment to use so you can get precise measurements.Tools for measuring ingredients:➢ Measuring spoons – you usually get fivespoons in a pack to measure differentamounts, including 1/8 teaspoon, ¼, ½ , oneteaspoon and one tablespoon➢ Measuring jugs/cups – these have differentmeasurements listed on the side, and you canbuy them for liquid and dry ingredients➢ Food weighing scales – you can buy manual ordigital scale, and some also come with a bowlfor holding the ingredients.Weighing and measuring tips:➢ When using measuring jugs/cups, always place them on a flat, level surface to ensureyou get an accurate measurement➢ Bend down and look at the measurement at eye level, rather than guessing what themeasurement is as it won’t be as accurate➢ A pinch means an amount that fits exactly between your thumb and forefinger➢ Level any ingredients off in a measuring spoon using the straight edge of a knife or aspatula to make sure you don’t add more than is required➢ When measuring butter, the wrappers usually have markings on with themeasurement, so you can use a knife to cut off the amount you needP a g e | 43VCID. ACOT Training and Assessment/SITHCCC014/Learner Guide/V1.1/July 2019➢ Don’t rush – measuring ingredients correctly is crucial to get the best results whencooking so it’s important that you take your time and get it right.Modified from source: http://startcooking.com/measuring-different-ingredients-incooking. Accessed on 09/09/2016.P a g e | 44VCID. ACOT Training and Assessment/SITHCCC014/Learner Guide/V1.1/July 2019Activity 3CP a g e | 45VCID. ACOT Training and Assessment/SITHCCC014/Learner Guide/V1.1/July 20193.4 – Use meat preparation techniques according to recipe requirementsBy the end of this chapter, the learner should be able to:➢ Read the recipe to find out how to prepare the meat and what temperature to use➢ Prepare meat accurately, safely and hygienically➢ Use different meat preparation techniques depending on the recipe requirements.Preparing meatMeat needs to be prepared properly and safely before cooking to make sure it doesn’t spoil and is safeto consume.How to prepare meat safely:➢ Meat can spoil easily if it is not kept at the right temperature, make sure you store it inthe refrigerator or freezer soon after buying it and never leave it out for a long time➢ If it needs thawing after storing in the freezer, move it to the refrigerator and leave it inthe packaging. You should allow 5 hours per pound for the meat to defrost. Do notrefreeze after meat has thawed.➢ Before cooking, the meat will need to be cleaned thoroughly to make sure you removeany bacteria from it:o rinse the meat well and pat it dry with kitchen papero wash hands thoroughly in hot water with antibacterial handwash before and after preparing meato don’t let raw meat come into contact with any other foods whichcould be contaminated, in the refrigerator or when preparing ito clean and sanitise any equipment, plates and worktops used for preparingraw meat with hot water and antibacterial wash, then rinse through after.➢ Check food packaging and recipe to see what temperature it needs to be cooked on➢ To check if it’s cooked, use a thermometer in the meat and see if juicesrun clear, and make sure it isn’t still a raw pink colour➢ After cooking and once it has cooled ,meat can be stored in the refrigerator in a sealedcontainer or in aluminium foil for up to 4 days➢ It can also be stored in the freezer for up to 3 months.Modified from source: http://www.stemmlermeats.ca/Safe-Preparation-ofPoultry.htm#.V9KcHSgrLIU. Accessed on 09/09/2016.P a g e | 46VCID. ACOT Training and Assessment/SITHCCC014/Learner Guide/V1.1/July 2019Preparation techniquesWhen you buy meat, there are different techniques you can use to prepare it properly before it iscooked. The type of preparation technique you use will depend on the requirements of the recipe oryour preferences:➢ Larding – this is a culinary technique which means preparing large cuts of meat inwhich long strips of fat are woven through using a larding needle. For example, strips ofpork fat are usually used for larding. The purpose of this technique is that it enhancesthe moisture of the meat while it cooks and improves the flavour. It is best used whenroasting leaner cuts of meat that could dry out when cooking.Modified from source: http://culinaryarts.about.com/od/glossary/g/Larding.html.Accessed on 05/10/2016.➢ Mincing – this is when meat is passed through amincing machine to break it down into small pieces.There are many different dishes that minced meat canbe used for, such as burgers, meatballs, pasta saucesand pie fillings. Any type of meat can be minced, suchas beef, lamb and pork, for example. Minced meat canalso be bought from supermarkets if you don’t havethe right equipment to hand.Modified from source:http://www.jamieshomecookingskills.com/pdfs/factsheets/All%20about%20mince.pdf. Accessed on05/10/2016.➢ Tenderising – this is the method for tenderising tougher cuts of meat by pounding thinslices using a meat mallet to make them even thinner. The pounding action flattens themeat, breaking up some of the fibres and connective tissues. This makes the meattenderer and thinner cut than before. The tenderised meat can then be cooked usinghigh heat to keep it tender and it can be broiled, grilled or sautéed, depending on therecipe requirements.Modified from source: http://www.recipetips.com/kitchen-tips/t–351/tenderizingbeef.asp. Accessed on 05/10/2016.➢ Skewering – this is the technique of preparing food for cooking by sliding it onto a longthin wood or metal rod. It is mostly used to grill small cuts of meat at home or for abarbeque, and it can also be used to grill fish and vegetables. Meat can be marinatedwith sauces, herbs or spices before skewering to add extra flavour, keep it moist andprevent it from burning.Modified from source: http://www.foodista.com/technique/8F6C5KQK/skewering#.Accessed on 05/10/2016.P a g e | 47VCID. ACOT Training and Assessment/SITHCCC014/Learner Guide/V1.1/July 2019➢ Ageing – this is the process of preparing meat such as beef by refrigerating it for 3 to 7days to improve the texture and flavour of it before it is cooked and consumed. Thelonger the beef is left to age, the better the taste. Wet ageing is mostly done bywrapping beef in plastic shrink wrap, and dry ageing is done by exposing the meat to airso it becomes dehydrated and has a more concentrated flavour. Meat should beunwrapped and rinsed first, patted dry, then wrapped loosely and set out on a rack inthe refrigerator to age. Once it is ready to roast, unwrap the meat and use a knife totake off the dried outer layer of the meat then roast whole or slice it into steaks.Modified from source: http://www.finecooking.com/articles/dry-aging-beef-pays-offbig-flavor.aspx. Accessed on 05/10/2016.➢ Barding – this means wrapping a piece of fat, such as streaky bacon, around a piece oflean meat to keep it moist while cooking so it doesn’t dry out. The fat is then removeda few minutes before the meat has finished cooking to allow it to brown.➢ Deboning – this is the technique of cutting and separating the meat and bones frommeat to prepare it for cooking. It is important to take your time when doing this and tostart at the thick side of the rib down to the thinner side. For example, to debone a ribof beef you should:o start by feeling with your fingers to see where the bone is and find the edge ofthe boneo then move your fingers out of the way and start slicing along the top, then feelthe bone with the tip of the knife and use a sharp and flexible knife to movealong the boneo then feel the lip of the bone where it starts to go down and use the tip of theknife to go close to the bone and slice the meat from thereo continue slicing down close to the bone and pull the meat away each timeo you should then be left with thin slices of beef to cookModified from source: https://realfood.tesco.com/videos-and-tips/how-todebone-rib-of-beef.html. Accessed on 05/10/2016.➢ Marinating – a marinade is a sauce used to prepare meat or vegetables in for cookingto enhance the flavour as the meat absorbs it. Marinades are also used to make meatmore tender and to preserve it short term.➢ Rolling – this is a technique used to flatten meat to a consistent thickness for evencooking. This is used for recipes that require a thinner cut. To do this you should:o place the raw meat between two sheets of cling filmo using a rolling pin, roll the chicken from the centre to the outside until thethickness is even throughout.P a g e | 48VCID. ACOT Training and Assessment/SITHCCC014/Learner Guide/V1.1/July 2019Modified from source: http://recipes.howstuffworks.com/tools-andtechniques/preparing-chicken5.htm. Accessed on 12/09/2016.➢ Trussing – this means tying the meat with a butcher’s twine to keep it in place, retainits shape and help it cook better. To do this with beef or lamb, for example:o set the roast out on the work surface, then slide the butcher’s twineunderneath the roast so the end is on the far side of ito then lift the far end of the twine over the roast towards you so the twine iswrapped around ito place your hand under both sections of the twine and lay the cut end of thetwine to the left of the other end, pinch both ends of the twine between theforefinger and thumb on your left hand, lifting the cut end with your right hando lay the cut end over your left thumb and let the end fall to the lefto then reach under both pieces of twine with your right hand, grabbing the endthat is dangling down and pass it underneath to the right. You should now havea tight loop around your left thumbo next lift the end of the twine up, bring it over to the left and pass it through theloop wrapped around your thumb. You should now end up with a looped figureeight shapeo then pull both ends of the twine and tighten the knot, cut off the end and itshould be ready to roast.Modified from source: http://www.seriouseats.com/2014/12/how-to-tie-abutchers-knot.html. Accessed on 06/10/2015.➢ Stuffing – this is when meat is filled inside with a stuffing mixture usually containingvegetables, herbs and meat to give it extra taste. Prepared stuffing is placed into thecavity of the meat before cooking and then both items are roasted in the oventogether. You can also buy meat that has been pre-stuffed from supermarkets to saveon time. Be careful not to overstuff the meat asit won’t cook properly and could causecontamination, and use a food thermometerduring cooking to make sure it is at the righttemperature.Modified from source:http://www.helpwithcooking.com/cookingpoultry/stuffing-poultry.html. Accessed on12/09/2016.➢ Trimming – this means cleaning the meat beforecooking by removing parts of it that are white, yellowor bloody, such as the connectiveP a g e | 49VCID. ACOT Training and Assessment/SITHCCC014/Learner Guide/V1.1/July 2019tissue, tenderloins and cartilage. After trimming, meat should be washed and patteddry before it is cooked.Modified from source: http://enchantedspoon.blogspot.co.uk/2011/02/kitchen-basicshow-to-properly-trim.html. Accessed on 12/09/2016.P a g e | 50VCID. ACOT Training and Assessment/SITHCCC014/Learner Guide/V1.1/July 2019Activity 3DP a g e | 51VCID. ACOT Training and Assessment/SITHCCC014/Learner Guide/V1.1/July 20193.5 – Minimise waste to maximise profitability of food items preparedBy the end of this chapter, the learner should be able to:➢ Weigh and measure ingredients accurately to avoid wasting anything➢ Plan ahead to make sure you buy the right amount of ingredients for the recipe➢ Recycling waste when possible, including plastic, tins, paper and cardboard.Minimising wasteIt is important to try not to waste any ingredients when you are preparing food as this is a waste ofmoney for the company you work for, and it could also have a negative impact on the environment. Youshould aim to maximise profits of food by making the most of the ingredients you have and onlypreparing the quantity you need. You can minimise waste by doing some forward planning and findingout how many people you are serving and how many portions you need to make, to ensure you don’tcook too much food and waste it. This information will be provided by your workplace or in a recipe.On the Australian Government website, it states that in Australia people waste up to 30 percent of thefood they purchase, as the average household wastes up to 315 kilogrammes of food every year, costingthem just over $1,000.Source: http://yourenergysavings.gov.au/waste/reducing-recycling/kitchen-food-waste/minimise-foodwaste. Accessed on 09/09/2016.Tips for minimising waste and maximising profitability:➢ Be careful when shopping for ingredientsby checking use-by dates and not buyingmore than you can use➢ Plan ahead to make sure you know howmany people you are serving to give youan idea of how much ingredients youneed➢ Make sure you weigh and measure allthe ingredients accurately, to ensure youuse the right amount and don’t make too much➢ Be mindful of how much energy and water you are using when preparing and cookingfood, and be energy efficient➢ When cutting ingredients up, try not to waste anything by putting too much in the bin;make the most of the ingredients you have➢ Store food properly so it doesn’t spoil and go to waste, and use leftovers if you can,making sure it is still safe to consume➢ Be careful when cooking and using equipment to make sure you don’t burn the foodP a g e | 52VCID. ACOT Training and Assessment/SITHCCC014/Learner Guide/V1.1/July 2019➢ Make sure you recycle any waste you have such as plastic, tins, paper and cardboard.Modified from source: http://yourenergysavings.gov.au/waste/reducingrecycling/kitchen-food-waste/minimise-food-waste. Accessed on 09/09/2016.P a g e | 53VCID. ACOT Training and Assessment/SITHCCC014/Learner Guide/V1.1/July 2019Activity 3EP a g e | 54VCID. ACOT Training and Assessment/SITHCCC014/Learner Guide/V1.1/July 20194. Cook meat dishes4.1. Follow standard recipes to select and use meat cookery methods.4.2. Prepare marinades and meat accompaniments as required.4.3. Make food quality adjustments within scope of responsibility.P a g e | 55VCID. ACOT Training and Assessment/SITHCCC014/Learner Guide/V1.1/July 20194.1 – Follow standard recipes to select and use meat cookery methodsBy the end of this chapter, the learner should be able to:➢ Read and follow the recipe to work out what type of meat and cooking method isrequired and select this accurately➢ Use different meat cookery methods accurately and efficiently.Meat cooking methodsThere are various methods for cooking meat and poultry thatare suited to different types of meat and dishes. Recipes maydescribe which cooking method you will need to usedepending on the type of dish you’re making, or you may needto work this out from reading the recipe. Using the rightcooking method will ensure you get the best results.Here are the different cooking methods:➢ Braising / Stewing – this involves slowlycooking all types of meat and poultry in stockor wine at a low temperature in the oven oron the hob➢ Deep frying – this is cooking smaller meats, such as game birds, quickly in a heavy fryingpan or a griddle pan over a high heat➢ Grilling – this is mostly used for cooking chicken and other meats under the grill andflipping them over regularly to get the barbeque style look and taste➢ Poaching – this is an easy method which involves putting the meat into a large pan,filling with water and simmering on a low heat, with vegetables such as carrots, onions,leek and celery mixed in and herbs and spices➢ Roasting – this is a traditional method best for medium and large joints of meat, wherethe meat is simply roasted in the oven on its own until it is cooked➢ Sautéing – this means shallow frying small pieces of meat that have been chopped up,adding seasonings, then scraping up the sauce from the bottom of the pan once it hascooked to get the sautéed flavour.Modified from source: http://www.donaldrussell.com/game-technique?ms=tab4.Accessed on 13/09/2016.P a g e | 56VCID. ACOT Training and Assessment/SITHCCC014/Learner Guide/V1.1/July 2019Activity 4AP a g e | 57VCID. ACOT Training and Assessment/SITHCCC014/Learner Guide/V1.1/July 20194.2 – Prepare marinades and meat accompaniments as required.By the end of this chapter, the learner should be able to:➢ Select and prepare accompaniments to go with different types of meat dishes➢ Choosing and prepare marinades to go with different types of meat.Meat accompanimentsAdding sides to meat dishes will improve the overall appearance, colour and taste of the dish and makeit into a filling meal. These can be placed creatively over the top of meat or at the side to add somevariety to the dish and maximise its visual appeal, along with some garnishes and sauces.Accompaniments that complement meat dishes are:➢ Vegetables – a colourful mix of carrots, broccoli and green beans on the side➢ Salad – a variety of lettuce,cucumber, tomato and celery, etc.➢ Potatoes – roasted or mashedpotatoes will complement any dish➢ Butternut squash – a healthy andappetising addition to meat➢ Olives – a mixture of green, red orstuffed olives on the side➢ Fruit – orange slices and apple rings pair well with duck dishes➢ Meat – extra meat, such as sausages, can also be added as an accompaniment.Modified from source: http://www.foodandwine.com/blogs/10-best-sides-roastchicken. Accessed on 13/09/2016.Marinades for meatMeat can be marinated in sauces to add extra flavour to the dish or to help keep it moist and stop itfrom drying out. There are many different marinades to choose from, here are some popular marinadesfor meat dishes:➢ Lemon and rosemary➢ Dried spices and herbs➢ Ginger and garlic➢ Soy sauce➢ Worchester sauceP a g e | 58VCID. ACOT Training and Assessment/SITHCCC014/Learner Guide/V1.1/July 2019➢ Red wine➢ Spicy tomato➢ Lemon and pepper➢ Lemon and garlicModified from sources: http://bbq.about.com/od/marinaderecipes/tp/Top-10-chickenMarinade-Recipes.html, andhttp://www.beefandlamb.com.au/Learn/Cooking_tips/Barbecue/How_to_marinate_meat. Accessed on 05/10/2016.Tips for marinating meat:➢ When marinating, make sure you cover allsurfaces of the meat by moving it aroundregularly in the dish➢ To make dry marinades using spices and herbs,rub these into the moist meat to form a coatingon it and leave to set➢ Don’t place pieces of meat too close togetherwhen marinating as they may not get coveredin the sauce properly➢ Use a resealable plastic bag to marinate themeat and keep it in the refrigerator➢ Apply the marinade to parts of the meatyourself before placing it in the resealable bagto make sure it reaches everywhere➢ Marinating times range from 30 minutes to 8 hours depending on the size and type ofthe meat.Modified from source: http://bbq.about.com/od/marinaderecipes/tp/Top-10-chickenMarinade-Recipes.htm. Accessed on 13/09/2016.P a g e | 59VCID. ACOT Training and Assessment/SITHCCC014/Learner Guide/V1.1/July 2019Activity 4BP a g e | 60VCID. ACOT Training and Assessment/SITHCCC014/Learner Guide/V1.1/July 20194.3 – Make food quality adjustments within scope of responsibilityBy the end of this chapter, the learner should be able to:➢ Carry out food quality control on dishes before they are served, and show anunderstanding of why this is done➢ Make food quality adjustments to dishes if required, adjusting the taste, temperatureand texture.Food quality controlQuality control is very important in the food industry and the purpose of it is toensure that quality always stays the same. Poor quality food candamage a company’s reputation and if it is a restaurant, forexample, they would lose customers and lose profit. So it is veryimportant that a company and its staff work hard to maintain thequality that is expected from them.Food safetyFood safety is also a concern as this can affect public health ifanything is consumed that is contaminated and unsafe to eat. FoodStandards Australia state on their website that they: ‘place obligationson Australian food businesses to produce food that is safe and suitable toeat. The standards, which also contain health and hygiene obligations forfood handlers, aim to lower the incidence of food-borne illness.’Modified from source: http://www.foodqualityandsafety.com/article/food-microbiology-how-tobecome-a-quality-control-freak/. Accessed on 13/09/2016.Making food quality adjustmentsWhen any dish is made, the quality of it should be inspected before it is served to customers, taking intoaccount the taste, temperature and texture, to make sure it is safe and made to the right standardsexpected by the workplace and customers. Adjustments should then be made to the dish if anythingneeds to be improved. You should only make adjustments that are within your scope of responsibilityand if you are unsure what to do in a situation, then ask your supervisor for advice.When adjusting quality, consider the following:➢ Taste – the food may not have enough flavour to it, if so, you may need to add somemore seasoning or other ingredients to the dish. This is far easier to fix than adding toomuch seasoning, so be careful when adding ingredients to try and get the right amountfirst. If you want to improve the taste of the dish as a whole, think about adding somegarnishes and accompaniments to improve it➢ Temperature – this is especially important when cooking raw meats as it must be at theright temperature before it is safe to consume. The best way to monitor this is to use afood thermometer throughout cooking to check it is cooking at the right temperature,and if it isn’t you would be able to rectify this issue early by adjusting the ovenP a g e | 61VCID. ACOT Training and Assessment/SITHCCC014/Learner Guide/V1.1/July 2019temperature, for example. It is important that temperature of food is always checkedas part of quality control before the dish is served.➢ Texture – you should be able to tell if the meat is cooked right by the texture of it. If itfeels too soft it may be undercooked, however, if the texture is too tough this couldmean it has been overcooked. Either way, this would need to be adjusted before thefood is served as it wouldn’t be edible.Meat cooking preferencesWhen cooking meat, especially steak, it is important to check with the customer to find out how theywould prefer it to be cooked, as this will alter the taste and texture of the meat and may determinewhether or not the customer will enjoy the dish.The different meat cooking preferences are:➢ Blue – this means it is cooked very rare with a red colour and nearly raw➢ Rare – very lightly cooked on the outside and still red on the inside➢ Medium rare – cooked medium to leave a warm, succulent and juicy centre, mostlypink to red colouring➢ Medium – firm on the outside and juicy, but a more grey/brown colour on the insidethan pink➢ Medium well – the meat is mostly grey/brown throughout, with a slight hint of lightpink colour inside➢ Well done – the meat is charred on the outside, brown and chewy on the inside withno pink colouring. To get this result, it needs to be cooked slowly on a low heat.Modified from source: http://hubpages.com/food/steak-rare-medium-well-done.Accessed on 05/10/2016.P a g e | 62VCID. ACOT Training and Assessment/SITHCCC014/Learner Guide/V1.1/July 2019Activity 4CP a g e | 63VCID. ACOT Training and Assessment/SITHCCC014/Learner Guide/V1.1/July 20195. Present meat dishes 5.1.Carve meats using appropriate tools and techniques, taking account of meat and bone structureand waste minimisation. 5.2. Portion and serve meats according to recipe requirements.5.3. Add sauces and garnishes according to standard recipes.5.4. Visually evaluate dishes and adjust presentation as required.5.5. Store dishes in appropriate environmental conditions. 5.6.Clean work area, and dispose of or store surplus and reusable by-products according toorganisational procedures, environmental considerations, and cost-reduction initiatives. P a g e | 64VCID. ACOT Training and Assessment/SITHCCC014/Learner Guide/V1.1/July 20195.1 – Carve meats using appropriate tools and techniques, taking account ofmeat and bone structure and waste minimisation.By the end of this chapter, the learner should be able to:➢ Use the right equipment and tools to carve different types of meat➢ Carve meats safely and hygienically, and clean after use➢ Minimise waste when carving meats by portioning and carving it correctly.Carving meatWhen cooking a large piece of meat, such as beef or lamb, you will need to carve it into smaller piecesto be served out in portions. Once you know how to do it correctly, this should be a quick and easy taskto do. You will need a sharp carving knife to do the job, which is a large knife that can be anything from8 to 15 inches long; depending on the size of the meat you are carving. You can buy carving sets thatcontain a carving knife and fork, which will make it easier than using a regular sharp kitchen knife. Makesure the knife handle is comfortable and steady to hold.How to carve a rib of beef, for example:➢ Before you start carving, you should leave the meat to rest and cool down first aftercooking, as this will make the process easier and safer➢ Place the joint on a steady carving board to start➢ Hold one end of the ribs and carefully cut along the back of the ribs with your knifeuntil they are removed from the joint➢ Remove any butcher’s string or meat bands from the beef joint➢ Insert the carving fork into the joint to hold it in place and use the knife to smoothly cutthe joint evenly into slices.Modified from source: http://www.simplybeefandlamb.co.uk/carving-tip/carving-ribbeef. Accessed on 05/10/2016.Tips for carving meat:➢ Read instructions before carving to remind yourself how to do it properly➢ Make sure you have all the equipment you need, i.e. a carving set➢ Make sure you hold the meat firmly in place with the carving fork➢ Be careful when carving; don’t do it too fast as it could be dangerous➢ Follow the knife safety guidelines in criteria 2.1➢ Don’t carve the slices too thick; get the most out of the meat➢ Don’t throw parts of the meat away that could be used➢ Be hygienic by cleaning and sanitising the equipment and worktops after carving.P a g e | 65VCID. ACOT Training and Assessment/SITHCCC014/Learner Guide/V1.1/July 2019Activity 5AP a g e | 66VCID. ACOT Training and Assessment/SITHCCC014/Learner Guide/V1.1/July 20195.2 – Portion and serve meat according to recipe requirementsBy the end of this chapter, the learner should be able to:➢ Read the recipe to find out the portion sizes required➢ Weigh ingredients accurately to get the right amount➢ Portion and serve meat correctly, according to recipe requirements.Serving meatServing the right portions is important to help keep food costs down, keep the business profitable, andto make sure you’re not serving customers different amounts. A recipe should state the quantitiesneeded of each type of ingredient and the portion size required, and this should be strictly followedevery time you make the dish. When serving food, follow any instructions that are given to you at theworkplace and stick to using the same utensils and dishes to serve it. It is important to also use kitchenscales to check the weight of ingredients and make sure you’re using the correct portions.How to portion and serve meat:➢ Read the recipe to check how much ingredients you need and how many portions arerequired➢ Use the correct equipment to measure ingredients to ensure you get the right amount➢ Divide the cooked ingredients up into the number of portions required➢ When serving, use the same utensils to place food into dishes, picking up the rightamount each time➢ Look at each dish and check to see if the portions look the same➢ If this is difficult to tell, use food scales to weigh each dish to see if you have the rightamount in each.Why is it important to control portions?➢ To save on ingredients➢ To keep food costs down➢ To help keep the business profitable➢ To be consistent by serving all customers the same amount➢ To make sure you’re following workplace instructions.P a g e | 67VCID. ACOT Training and Assessment/SITHCCC014/Learner Guide/V1.1/July 2019Activity 5BP a g e | 68VCID. ACOT Training and Assessment/SITHCCC014/Learner Guide/V1.1/July 20195.3 – Add sauces and garnishes according to standard recipes and regionalvariationsBy the end of this chapter, the learner should be able to:➢ Add the right type of garnishes to meat dishes to improve presentation and taste➢ Choose and add sauces to go with different types of meat dishes to improve the taste.Meat garnishesPresentation of food is important, especially when serving in restaurants and at events. To maximise thevisual appeal of a dish, you can add a range of garnishes as a finishing touch to any meat dish. Garnishesthat complement meat dishes the most are vegetables on the side and fresh herbs sprinkled on top.Popular garnishes for different types of meat:➢ Beef or lamb – garnish with browned potatoes or croquettes, rice, mashed potato,vegetables, onions, parsley or cress➢ Roast pork – garnish with any of the above, or alternatively, use baked apple orsautéed apple rings filled with jelly➢ Pork chops and steaks – a simple garnish of parsley or cress and a slice of lemon, orfried potatoes/lattice potatoes➢ Roast duck – garnish with orange and olives, gooseberry sauce, or cooked apple ringsModified from source: http://chestofbooks.com/food/recipes/American-Woman-CookBook/Garnishes-For-Meat-Fish-Game-And-Poultry.html. Accessed on 05/10/2016.Meat saucesMeat dishes can sometimes be bland without any dressings to spice it up. Add some extra flavour to allkinds of meat by serving with some appetising sauces.Here are some popular sauces to serve with meat:➢ Mushroom➢ Barbeque➢ Pesto➢ Horseradish➢ Garlic and wine➢ TomatoModified from source:http://www.foodnetwork.com/recipes/articles/10-sauces-to-dress-up-chickenbreasts.html. Accessed on 13/09/2016.P a g e | 69VCID. ACOT Training and Assessment/SITHCCC014/Learner Guide/V1.1/July 2019Activity 5CP a g e | 70VCID. ACOT Training and Assessment/SITHCCC014/Learner Guide/V1.1/July 20195.4 – Visually evaluate dish and adjust presentation as requiredBy the end of this chapter, the learner should be able to:➢ Check the presentation of the whole dish➢ Look at the quality of the meat to check it is cooked properly➢ Make any adjustments to the presentation if required.Evaluating the dishTaking the time to evaluate the quality of a dish before it is served is very important to maintainstandards and consistency at your workplace. For example, if you work in a restaurant, customersatisfaction is very important to the business to ensure it remains profitable, so it is crucial that youknow what is being served and work hard to maintain the quality that customers expect. Visualevaluations should be done after every meal is prepared, and if there are any issues, these will need tobe resolved before the dish is served.Adjusting presentationWhen adjusting the presentation of a dish you should lookat the balance, colour and contrast. For example, does thedish include a variety of food or does it look too bland? Andis there a mixture of colours and contrast on the plate?Vegetables, salads and garnishes are perfect for addingcolour to a meal, and they go with most meat dishes.It is also a good idea to imagine that you are the customer when evaluating a dish. If you were servedthis meal, would you be impressed with the quality and presentation? Is there anything you can think ofthat would benefit the dish further? Also, make sure the dish fits with the description on the menu, ascustomers don’t want to order something and be served with something very different.How to evaluate a dish and adjust presentation:➢ Look at the quality of the meat first to make sure it’s cooked properly before it isserved – use a food thermometer to check the temperature➢ Evaluate the dish as a whole to see if it’s presented well – is there too much or too littleon the plate, and does it look appetising?➢ Add extra accompaniments or garnishes that will maximise the visual appeal of the dish➢ Make sure the plate is clean around the edges, making sure there are no drips or spillsaround it. If so, this would need to be wiped first to remove it➢ Choose the right plate or dish to serve the food on, one that is practical but will alsopresent the food well➢ Make any adjustments you need to the taste and appearance to ensure the food is ofhigh quality when servedP a g e | 71VCID. ACOT Training and Assessment/SITHCCC014/Learner Guide/V1.1/July 2019➢ Look at the balance, colour and contrast of the dish and add anything you think willenhance this – check with your supervisor first to make sure you can adjust the recipe.Remember: before you make any significant changes to a dish, you should always discuss this with yoursupervisor first and check whether you are allowed to make the changes.P a g e | 72VCID. ACOT Training and Assessment/SITHCCC014/Learner Guide/V1.1/July 2019Activity 5DP a g e | 73VCID. ACOT Training and Assessment/SITHCCC014/Learner Guide/V1.1/July 20195.5 – Store dishes in appropriate environmental conditionsBy the end of this chapter, the learner should be able to:➢ Store meat in the correct environmental conditions to maintain it➢ Read the food packaging to check how long it can be stored for.Storing dishes appropriatelyIt is important to store meat correctly to ensure food safety and optimise the shelf life of the products.You should consider environmental conditions when storing meat and make sure these are appropriate,such as atmosphere, humidity, light, packaging, temperature and ventilation. Never leave meat out ofthe fridge at room temperature or in hot conditions as this could ruin it, it should always be stored infridge to be at the right temperature.Tips for storing meat in appropriate conditions:➢ When storing fresh meat, it should bestored in the coldest part of the fridgeand consumed within a couple of days➢ It should also be left in its originalpackaging and stored preferably on thebottom shelf; away from other foods tomake sure it can’t touch or leak ontoanything.➢ If you want to freeze meat, you shouldleave it in its original packaging andfreeze it on the day of purchase➢ Meat can be stored in the freezer for up to three months➢ To store cooked meat, you should allow it to cool and then cover it up or store in acontainer then place it in the refrigerator for up to two days➢ Don’t refreeze meat that has thawed completely➢ If you’re reheating it, make sure you reheat it thoroughly so it is safe to consume➢ Allow meat plenty of time to defrost in the fridge – don’t rush it as this could causebacteria to grow and increase the risk of food poisoning➢ Smaller pieces of meat may take around 24 hours to defrost completely, whereas, alarger cut could take up to two days to defrost➢ Always read food packaging for storage and thawing instructions to be on the safe sidewhen using meat and poultry.Modified from source: http://www.bbc.co.uk/food/poultry. Accessed on 13/09/2016.P a g e | 74VCID. ACOT Training and Assessment/SITHCCC014/Learner Guide/V1.1/July 2019Activity 5EP a g e | 75VCID. ACOT Training and Assessment/SITHCCC014/Learner Guide/V1.1/July 20195.6 – Clean work area, and dispose of or store surplus and reusable by-productsaccording to organisational procedures, environmental considerations, andcost-reduction initiativesBy the end of this chapter, the learner should be able to:➢ Clean the work area before and after use to maintain it➢ Store surplus food to re-use it at a later date➢ Be energy efficient in the kitchen when preparing and cooking food.Cleaning work areaIt is important to clean the work area before and after use to be hygienic in the workplace. It is alsoimportant to ensure you use the right cleaning products to suit the different types of equipment youhave in the kitchen. You should read the equipment manual to find out the best way to clean andmaintain equipment. If this information is not available, then you could contact the manufacturer foradvice. Your workplace may also have instructions and procedures in place for cleaning the work area,so you should speak to your supervisor to find out what these are.Safety tips when cleaning:➢ Switch off and unplug all equipment before cleaning it➢ Read the equipment manual and follow any cleaninginstructions➢ Be careful when handling and cleaning sharp equipment➢ Don’t clean any hot appliances; let them cool down first➢ Take care not to drop or damage any equipment.Storing and reusing surplusIf you have any surplus left don’t waste it; store it away to use another time tosave on costs of ingredients. Only dispose of something if it will not save andhas to be used immediately, in which case it would be unsafe to store andconsume it at a later date. Make sure you check what date it needs to be used byand read the food packaging to find out correct storage instructions, and thenkeep it in a sealed container to make sure the food stays fresh. Your workplaceshould provide advice on storing and re-using products, so make sure you asksomeone if you’re unsure.P a g e | 76VCID. ACOT Training and Assessment/SITHCCC014/Learner Guide/V1.1/July 2019Environmental considerationsAlways be mindful of the environment by watching the amount of energy and water you use in thekitchen. Overusing and wasting these resources can have a negative impact on the environment and itcan also be expensive for the company. Training should be provided in using resources efficiently, but ifnot then speak to a supervisor or manager to get some advice on this. The main thing is to be aware ofyour actions and look for ways to be environmentally friendly.How to use resources efficiently:➢ Don’t cook food on a higher temperature or for a longer period than is required➢ Don’t leave equipment/appliances on for a long time – only have them on whencooking➢ Read the equipment manual to find out any eco-friendly tips➢ Switch off and unplug equipment after use➢ Don’t leave water running when you’re not using it➢ Use energy efficient equipment if possible.Why is it important to be energy efficient?➢ High energy and water consumption can cause:o pollutiono damage to healtho wildlife and habitat losso global warmingo water scarcityModified from source: http://www.ucsusa.org/clean_energy/our-energychoices/renewable-energy/environmental-impacts-of.html#.V7saaygrLIU➢ It can also run up high bills for your workplace if you have high consumption.P a g e | 77VCID. ACOT Training and Assessment/SITHCCC014/Learner Guide/V1.1/July 2019Activity 5FP a g e | 78VCID. ACOT Training and Assessment/SITHCCC014/Learner Guide/V1.1/July 2019Summative AssessmentsAt the end of your Learner Workbook, you will find the Summative Assessments.This includes:➢ Skills assessment➢ Knowledge assessment➢ Performance assessment.This holistically assesses your understanding and application of the skills, knowledge and performancerequirements for this unit. Once this is completed, you will have finished this unit and be ready to moveonto the next one – well done!P a g e | 79VCID. ACOT Training and Assessment/SITHCCC014/Learner Guide/V1.1/July 2019ReferencesThese suggested references are for further reading and do not necessarily represent the contents ofthis unit.WebsitesAgeing preparation technique: http://www.finecooking.com/articles/dry-aging-beef-pays-off-bigflavor.aspxMeasuring ingredients: http://startcooking.com/measuring-different-ingredients-in-cookingUse by and best before dates:http://www.foodstandards.gov.au/consumer/labelling/dates/Pages/default.aspxCalculating ingredients: http://culinaryarts.about.com/od/measurementsconversions/a/scaling.htmCarving beef: http://www.simplybeefandlamb.co.uk/carving-tip/carving-rib-beefCookery methods: http://www.donaldrussell.com/game-technique?ms=tab4Deboning beef: https://realfood.tesco.com/videos-and-tips/how-to-debone-rib-of-beef.htmlGame meat: http://www.cooksinfo.com/gameFood quality control: http://www.foodqualityandsafety.com/article/food-microbiology-how-to-becomea-quality-control-freak/Garnishes and accompaniments: http://cooking.lovetoknow.com/garnishes-meat-fish-gamepoultry#gAs5C8UM2DSerVvz.97Lamb meat: http://www.bbcgoodfood.com/glossary/lambLarding preparation technique: http://culinaryarts.about.com/od/glossary/g/Larding.htmlMarinades for meat: http://bbq.about.com/od/marinaderecipes/tp/Top-10-chicken-MarinadeRecipes.htmlMarinades for meat:http://www.beefandlamb.com.au/Learn/Cooking_tips/Barbecue/How_to_marinate_meatMeat cooking preferences: http://hubpages.com/food/steak-rare-medium-well-doneMeat garnishes: http://chestofbooks.com/food/recipes/American-Woman-Cook-Book/Garnishes-ForMeat-Fish-Game-And-Poultry.htmlMeat products: http://paleoleap.com/which-meat-to-choose/Minimising waste: http://yourenergysavings.gov.au/waste/reducing-recycling/kitchen-foodwaste/minimise-food-wasteP a g e | 80VCID. ACOT Training and Assessment/SITHCCC014/Learner Guide/V1.1/July 2019Mise en place: Cook like a pro: http://www.dartagnan.com/mise-en-place-cook-like-a-professional.htmlMeat preparation technique: http://recipes.howstuffworks.com/tools-and-techniques/preparingchicken5.htmlMeat preparation technique: http://www.helpwithcooking.com/cooking-poultry/stuffing-poultry.htmlMeat preparation technique: http://enchantedspoon.blogspot.co.uk/2011/02/kitchen-basics-how-toproperly-trim.htmlMeat sauces: http://www.foodnetwork.com/recipes/articles/10-sauces-to-dress-up-chickenbreasts.htmlMeat accompaniments: http://www.foodandwine.com/blogs/10-best-sides-roast-chickenMincing preparation technique: http://www.jamieshomecookingskills.com/pdfs/factsheets/All%20about%20mince.pdfOffal meat: http://www.bbc.co.uk/food/offalPork meat: https://authoritynutrition.com/foods/pork/Storing meat: http://www.bbc.co.uk/food/poultrySkewering preparation technique: http://www.foodista.com/technique/8F6C5KQK/skewering#Speciality meats: : http://www.recipetips.com/glossary-term/t–33771/meat-specialties.aspDeboning beef: https://realfood.tesco.com/videos-and-tips/how-to-debone-rib-of-beef.htmlThawing meat:http://www.sahealth.sa.gov.au/wps/wcm/connect/public+content/sa+health+internet/health+topics/health+conditions+prevention+and+treatment/food+safety/keeping+your+food+safe/thawing+cooking+cooling+and+reheating+food/thawing+cooking+cooling+and+reheating+foodThawing meat and poultry: http://www.helpwithcooking.com/cooking-poultry/defrosting-poultry.htmlTenderising preparation technique: http://www.recipetips.com/kitchen-tips/t–351/tenderizingbeef.aspTrussing beef: http://www.seriouseats.com/2014/12/how-to-tie-a-butchers-knot.htmlVeal meat: http://www.petersfarm.com/contact/frequently-asked-questions/what-is-the-differencebetween-beef-and-veal/ and http://www.bbc.co.uk/food/vealAll references accessed on and correct as of 05/10/2016, unless other otherwise stated.

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