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Interpretation of Research Results Kelsey Nairn BAppSocSci South African College of Applied Psychology Johannesburg Campus Research Report Andrea Jacobs 31st March 2021 GradingA = Highly Accomplished (75% – 100%) Represents an outstanding level of information sourced, ability to use and synthesise literature, ability to communicate and evidence of originality.B = Accomplished (70% – 74%) Represents an in-depth grasp of the information sourced, ability to use and synthesise literature, as well as the ability to communicate and evidence of originality.C = Competent (60% – 69%) Represents competent work, lacking in the synthesis and depth. It may reflect an inability to demonstrate insight into the assessment.D = Somewhat Competent (50% – 59%) Represents adequate achievement in all areas. The work lacks depth and several errors are apparent.F = Not Yet Competent (below 50%) Represents work that fails to meet the requirements for the assessment.Grade78FeedbackVery well presented paper, accurate interpretation. Just maintain consistency and check for small errors in assignment 2 Table of Contents Factors influencing the relationship between psychological well-being, self-efficacy, and personal growth initiative amongst first year university students 4 Ryff’s Scales of Psychological Well-being (42-item) 5 Self-Efficacy 5 General Self-Efficacy Scale (10-item) 6 Personal Growth Initiative 7 Personal Growth Initiative Scale (PGIS-II, 16-item) 7 The relationship between Psychological Well-being (subscales), Self-Efficacy, and Personal Growth Initiative 8 Correlation 8 The Pearson Correlation 8 Data Interpretation 9 Self-Efficacy 9 Self-efficacy and Psychological Well-being 9 Self-efficacy and Autonomy 9 Self-efficacy and Environmental Mastery 9 Self-efficacy and Positive Relations 10 Self-Efficacy and Personal Growth 10 Self-efficacy and Self-Acceptance 10 Self-Efficacy and Purpose in Life 10 Personal Growth Initiative 11 Personal Growth Initiative and Psychological Well-being 11 Personal Growth Initiative and Autonomy 11 Personal Growth Initiative and Environmental Mastery 11 Personal Growth Initiative and Positive Relations 11 Personal Growth Initiative and Personal Growth 12 Personal Growth Initiative and Self-Acceptance 12 Personal Growth Initiative and Purpose in Life 12 Conclusion 12 References 14 Factors influencing the relationship between psychological well-being, self-efficacy, and personal growth initiative amongst first year university students Different factors influence psychological wellbeing in the life of a first-year university student. The current theoretical understanding of psychological well-being and it’s influencing factors is grounded on very little empirical forms of research. This study attempted to establish the relationship shared between personal growth initiative and levels of self-efficacy with the facets of psychological well-being, namely, autonomy, environmental mastery, positive relations, personal growth, self-acceptance, and purpose in life. The research data was collected quantitively and the sample was characterised of 200 first year university students, of which 130 of the participants were female and 70 were male. An online survey was administered via the university website to students to explore the positive or negative relationship shared between psychological well-being, self-efficacy, and personal growth initiative, as well as how the data collected correlates with previous research findings. The measurement tools utilised in this study included Riff’s Scales of Psychological Well-being (42-item), the General Self-Efficacy scale (10-item), and the Personal Growth Initiative Scale (PGIS-11; 16 item) and the findings were analysed using the Pearson Product Moment Psychological Well-Being Psychological well-being is a mental state that is most often characterised by low levels of distress, good levels of physical and mental health, positive outlook, and quality of life. This dynamic concept is a subjective experience of social and psychological facets including health-related behaviours [ CITATION Abb06 l 1033 ] . In the view of the ecological model of development, a state of wellbeing is fostered when an individual’s necessary needs are protected in terms of mental and physical health and when self-determination and personal-growth is positively promoted [ CITATION Rog61 l 1033 ]. Ryff’s Scales of Psychological Well-being (42-item) The theoretically based research instrument to measure the multiple domains of psychological well-being is known as Ryff’s Scale of Psychological Well-being. This scale is characterized by 42 questions in the form of a short survey aimed at assessing the psychological components of well-being (Abbot et al. 2006). The psychological components that the scale aims to measure includes facets such as the ability to adjust to difficult environments in order to suit one’s needs, personal growth, sense of life purpose, autonomy in one’s thoughts and actions, the ability to make or maintain quality relationships, and the levels of positive self-acceptance (Abbot et al. 2006). Research Participants complete the survey by answering the questions which reflect each of the six areas of psychological well-being on a scale between 1 and 6, with a rating of 1 implying that the participants strongly disagrees and a rating of 6 implying that the participant strongly agrees with the survey question asked of them [ CITATION Ryf95 l 1033 ] The questionnaire inventory includes questions in the form of statements such as “in general, I feel like I am in control of the situation I find myself in” or “I mostly like my personality” and more. The question statements correlate with the relevant areas of wellbeing being measured, namely, autonomy, environmental mastery, personal growth, positive relations, purpose in life, and self-acceptance (Ryff, & Keyes, 1995). High scores in a particular category implies that the participants have mastered that area of well-being in their life, and low scores in certain areas indicates that the participant faces adversity when trying to deal with that concept in their life (Ryff, & Keyes, 1995). Self-Efficacy The concept of self-efficacy has become a topic of interesting debate in the recent decade, particularly in educational and psychological domains. Self-efficacy is defined as the belief in one’s personal capacity to utilise their cognitive, motivational, and behavioural abilities needed to perform adequately in each situation [ CITATION Mas68 l 1033 ]. Social cognitive theorists define self-efficacy as an individual’s belief in their capacity to control distressing demands of the environment by adapting through necessary action. The concept of “general” self-efficacy encompasses a broader overall confidence in one’s adaptive abilities to deal with the demands of their environment [ CITATION Fer08 l 1033 ] The concept has been constructed through two views. The first view looks at the concept how it was initially put forth and the second view tries to understand self-efficacy in a more generalised manner, defining the term as the “optimistic self-belief of personal capability to cope efficiently and competently with a variety of situations” [ CITATION She06 l 1033 ] General Self-Efficacy Scale (10-item) . Developed in 1979 by Jerusalem and Schwarzer, the scale utilised to measure general self-efficacy and its relative attributes is known as the General Self-Efficacy Scale. The General Self-Efficacy Scale measures self-efficacy from the age of 12 years old and up. The scale aims to assess how an individual perceives their levels of self-efficacy in relation to their abilities to adapt and cope in stressful activities in day-to-day life [ CITATION She06 l 1033 ]. Social cognitive psychologist, Albert Bandura identifies four major components of self-efficacy, experience with mastery in one’s life tasks, social modelling in which an individual has witnessed another person’s success in coping with stressful tasks, social persuasion in which a person if positively commended on their ability to complete a task, and psychological responsiveness which refers to an individual’s emotional reactivity to stress and how they feel about their capacity for success during emotional stress [ CITATION She06 l 1033 ]. Personal Growth Initiative Personal growth initiative is the deliberate act of a person to achieve self-improvement (Robitschek, 1998). Personal change is a complex process as it consists of cognitive and behavioral changes that may occur in various areas of life. Higher levels of Personal growth initiative assist a person in exploring way in which to create opportunities that promote and enhance positive self-growth (Robitschek et al., 2012). The cognitive aspects of personal growth initiative are ‘readiness for change’ and ‘planfulness’. Planfulness, refers to an individual’s capacity to strategize methods of enabling personal growth and self-improvement. Readiness for change is the ability to recognize avenues in which to develop and grow. The behavioral components of personal growth initiative include intentional behavior in which a person deliberately paves the way to self-improvement, as well as how a person utilizes external resources to enhance personal growth, such as asking for help. (Robitschek et al., 2012). Studies have shown that well-developed skills in personal growth initiative leads to higher levels of well-being, positive interpersonal relationships and stress-management when faced with difficulty across the lifespan. The positive correlation between personal growth initiative and high well-being levels highlights the necessity for more research on these domains and the relationship between them [ CITATION Mas68 l 1033 ]. Personal Growth Initiative Scale (PGIS-II, 16-item) The Personal Growth Initiative Scale is a self-report measuring instrument that results in a single score for personal growth initiative in an individual. The questionnaire has nine items that are rated on a Likert scale from 1, indicating that the participant strongly disagrees and 6 indicating that the participant strongly agrees [ CITATION JFr18 l 1033 ]. The relationship between Psychological Well-being (subscales), Self-Efficacy, and Personal Growth Initiative Correlation Correlation is a statistical method of measuring the relationship shared between two variables. Correlational research studies these two variables as they occur in their natural environment, they are not manipulated. In order to use correlation as a data analysis tool, both variables under investigation will have statistical scores that are most often identified as X and Y [ CITATION JFr18 l 1033 ]. In the process of using correlation for data analysis, there are three characteristics that need to be explored. Firstly, the direction of the relationship, identified by either positive or negative signs of correlation. Secondly, the form of the relationship between the two variables, usually presenting itself in a linear form. Lastly, the strength and consistency of the correlation needs to be considered [ CITATION JFr18 l 1033 ]. The Pearson Correlation The data analysis tool used for the given data is the Pearson correlation. The Pearson correlation aims to measure the magnitude of a linear relationship between two variables and is represented by the letter “r” [ CITATION JFr18 l 1033 ]. The Pearson correlation explores the degree to how these two variables vary together and separately [ CITATION JFr18 l 1033 ]. When there is a perfect linear relationship, every change in the X variable is accompanied by a corresponding change in the Y variable. Correlations are valuable tools for statistical measurements and applied in multiple contexts, specifically for prediction, validity, reliability, and theory verification [ CITATION JFr18 l 1033 ]. Coefficient of determination (r²) measures the magnitude of variability in one variable that can be determined from the relationship with the other variable [ CITATION JFr18 l 1033 ]. Data Interpretation Self-Efficacy Self-efficacy and Psychological Well-being The correlation between self-efficacy and psychological well-being was measured using an alpha level (α) of 0.05. The correlation (r) value was 0.551 and the significance level (p) was 0.000. Thus, it is significant because (p) < (a). The correlation co-efficient is 0.30 which depicts a large effect. Thus, the collected data indicated a strong correlation between the two variables of self-efficacy and psychological wellbeing. Self-efficacy and Autonomy The correlation between self-efficacy and autonomy was measured using an alpha level (α) of 0.05. The correlation (r) value was 0.447 and the significance level (p) was 0.002 Thus, it is significant because (p) < (a). The correlation co-efficient is 0.20 which depicts a medium effect. Thus, the collected data indicated a medium magnitude of correlation between the two variables of self-efficacy and autonomy. Self-efficacy and Environmental Mastery The correlation between self-efficacy and environmental mastery was measured using an alpha level (α) of 0.05. The correlation (r) value was 0.661 and the significance level (p) was 0.001. Thus, it is significant because (p) < (a). The correlation co-efficient is 0.44 which depicts a large effect. Thus, the collected data indicated a strong correlation between the two variables of self-efficacy and environmental mastery. Self-efficacy and Positive Relations The correlation between self-efficacy and positive relations was measured using an alpha level (α) of 0.05. The correlation (r) value was 0.207 and the significance level (p) was 0.043. Thus, it is significant because (p) < (a). The correlation co-efficient is 0.04 which depicts a small effect. Thus, the collected data indicated a weak correlation between the two variables of self-efficacy and positive relations. Self-Efficacy and Personal Growth The correlation between self-efficacy and personal growth was measured using an alpha level (α) of 0.05. The correlation (r) value was 0.081 and the significance level (p) was 0.065. Thus, it is not significant because (p) > (a). The correlation co-efficient is 0.01 which depicts a small effect. Thus, the collected data indicated a very weak correlation between the two variables of self-efficacy and personal growth. Self-efficacy and Self-Acceptance The correlation between self-efficacy and self-acceptance was measured using an alpha level (α) of 0.05. The correlation (r) value was 0.092 and the significance level (p) was 0.064. Thus, it is not significant because (p) > (a). The correlation co-efficient is 0.01 which depicts a small effect. Thus, the collected data indicated a weak correlation between the two variables of self-efficacy and self-acceptance. Self-Efficacy and Purpose in Life The correlation between self-efficacy purpose in life was measured using an alpha level (α) of 0.05. The correlation (r) value was 0.240 and the significance level (p) was 0.034 Thus, it is significant because (p) < (a). The correlation co-efficient is 0.06 which depicts a small effect. Thus, the collected data indicated a weak correlation between the two variables of self-efficacy and purpose in life. Personal Growth Initiative Personal Growth Initiative and Psychological Well-being The correlation between personal growth initiative and psychological well-being was measured using an alpha level (α) of 0.05. The correlation (r) value was 0.0.231 and the significance level (p) was 0.000. Thus, it is significant because (p) < (a). The correlation co-efficient is 0.05 which depicts a small effect. Thus, the collected data indicated a weak correlation between the two variables of personal growth initiative and psychological wellbeing. Personal Growth Initiative and Autonomy The correlation between Personal Growth Initiative and Autonomy was measured using an alpha level (α) of 0.05. The correlation (r) value was 0.222 and the significance level (p) was 0.001. Thus, it is significant because (p) < (a). The correlation co-efficient is 0.05 which depicts a small effect. Thus, the collected data indicated a strong correlation between the two variables of Personal Growth Initiative and Autonomy. Personal Growth Initiative and Environmental Mastery The correlation between Personal Growth Initiative and Environmental Mastery was measured using an alpha level (α) of 0.05. The correlation (r) value was 0.344 and the significance level (p) was 0.001. Thus, it is significant because (p) < (a). The correlation co-efficient is 0.12 which depicts a medium effect. Thus, the collected data indicated a mid-range correlation between the two variables of Personal Growth Initiative and Environmental Mastery. Personal Growth Initiative and Positive Relations The correlation between personal growth initiative and positive relations was measured using an alpha level (α) of 0.05. The correlation (r) value was 0.241 and the significance level (p) was 0.001. Thus, it is significant because (p) < (a). The correlation co-efficient is 0.06 which depicts a small effect. Thus, the collected data indicated a weak correlation between the two variables of personal growth initiative and positive relations Personal Growth Initiative and Personal Growth The correlation between Personal Growth Initiative and Personal Growth was measured using an alpha level (α) of 0.05. The correlation (r) value was 0.478 and the significance level (p) was 0.000. Thus, it is significant because (p) < (a). The correlation co-efficient is 0.23 which depicts a medium effect. Thus, the collected data indicated an average correlation between the two variables of Personal Growth Initiative and Personal Growth. Personal Growth Initiative and Self-Acceptance The correlation between Personal Growth Initiative and Self-Acceptance was measured using an alpha level (α) of 0.05. The correlation (r) value was 0.544 and the significance level (p) was 0.000. Thus, it is significant because (p) < (a). The correlation co-efficient is 0.30 which depicts a large effect. Thus, the collected data indicated a strong correlation between the two variables of Personal Growth Initiative and Self-Acceptance. Personal Growth Initiative and Purpose in Life The correlation between Personal Growth Initiative and Purpose in Life was measured using an alpha level (α) of 0.05. The correlation (r) value was 0.561 and the significance level (p) was 0.000. Thus, it is significant because (p) < (a). The correlation co-efficient is 0.31 which depicts a large effect. Thus, the collected data indicated a strong correlation between the two variables of Personal Growth Initiative and Purpose in Life. Conclusion The essay mentioned the three types of scales used in order to collect data from the participants, namely the Ryff’s scale of psychological well-being, the General Self Efficacy scale as well as the Personal Growth Initiative scale. The essay also analysed the data findings using the Pearson correlation analysis and explained the significance and magnitude of the findings. References Abbott, R., Ploubidis, G., Huppert, F., & al, e. (2006). Psychometric evaluation and predictive validity of Ryff’s psychological well-being items in the UK birth cohort sample of women. Health Qual Life Outcomes 4. doi:https://doi.org/10.1186/1477-7525-4-76 chen, & chen. (2016). Frederick, J., & Gravetter, L. B. (2018). Essentials of statistics for the behavioural sciences. Cengage Learning. Juarez, F., & Torres, F. (2008). Psychometric properties of General Self-Efficacy Scale in Columbian Sample. International Journal of Psychological Research. Maslow, A. (1968). Toward a psychology of being (2nd ed.). Van Nostrand. Rogers, C. (1961). On becoming a person. Houghton Mifflin. Ryff, C. (1989). Happiness is everything, or is it? Expanations on the meaning of psychological well-being. Journal of psychological well-being, 1069-1081. Ryff, C., & Keyes, C. (1995). The structure of psychological well-being revisited. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology(69), 719-727. Sherbaum, C., Charash-Cohen, Y., Charash, M., & Kern, J. (2006). Measuring General Self-Efficacy, A comparison of Three Measures Using Item Response Theory. Education and Psychological Measurement, 1047-1063.

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