ITECH 7400 – IT Service Management & Professional Culture Assessment Task 2 ABDUL RAOOF MOHAMMED – 30378036 Contents Executive summary 2 1.0 Introduction 2 2.0 Case Study Report for “Software Testing” (ACS, 2004) 2 2.1 Question  2 2.1.1 Overview of theory 2 2.1.2 Analysis and solution 3 2.2 Question  3 2.2.1 Overview of theory 3 2.2.2 Analysis and solution 4 3.0 Conclusion 4 References 4 Executive summary We discussed a case study – “Software Testing” (ACS, 2004) where-in we see that Jane, the quality assurance engineer of a small software company is under an ethical dilemma. Her company is given a project from a big shoe manufacturing company to create a software for them. Jane suspects that there might be flaws in the software, but it has already gone through the standard tests successfully. If she signs off the software on the given time, the client would be greatly affected and if she doesn’t, her company could go out of business. I’ve briefly described the case study, the dilemma in it and applied Utilitarianism and Deontology theories to find an ethically correct solution to the problem. Introduction In the given case study, we see that a small software company is been given a project to create an integrated inventory control system for a major shoe manufacturer. We learn that everything went smooth until the quality assurance engineer, Jane suspects that the software may not have been tested enough despite of passing through the standard required tests and if found to be true, it could significantly damage the client and its employees. On the other hand, if she refuses to sign off the software on time, her company may go out of business. Jane is an ethical dilemma weather to sign off the software or not. I’ll be individually applying Utilitarianism and Deontology theories in the given case study and give my feedback and analysis and conclude by mentioning what way I felt is better and reason it analytically. 2.0 Case Study Report for “Software Testing” (ACS, 2004) 2.1 Question  1. Apply the consequence based (utilitarian) ethical theory to this case and provide an answer to the ethical question raised. Distinguish between act and rule utilitarianism 2.1.1 Overview of theory UTILITARIANISM: An act or policy is morally permissible if it produces the greatest good (measured in terms of happiness) for the greatest number of people affected. Tavani (2015) That implies that happiness of the larger group of people is preferred over the minorities. There are two types of Utilitarians, Act based and Rule based. Act based implies that act is morally permissible if it brings happiness to large number of people. In Rule based Utilitarianism, we establish set off rules that bring most amount of happiness to most number of people. 2.1.2 Analysis and solution Implying Act Utilitarianism to this case study: We see that Jane suspects that the software might need more testing but that will take more time and the consequence would be that her company may go out of business but it will be fruitful to their client as there won’t be any software malfunctions in future. As the client is a nation level shoe company, it implies it has more number of people involved which will be directly and indirectly affected by Jane’s decision and Act utilitarianism states happiness of more number of people is valued over the minority. Result: Jane should not sign off the Software as this will bring most happiness to more number of people. If using Rule Utilitarianism, Jane should follow the standard protocol in which the software has passed all the tests which means she should sing off the software for deployment. Result: This would not lead to happiness of most number of people. So this should be avoided and Act Utilitarianism should be used to get happiness to most number of people. 2.2 Question  Apply the duty-based (deontology) ethical theory to this case and provide an answer to the ethical question raised. Distinguish between rule and act deontology. 2.2.1 Overview of theory DEONTOLOGY: Theory that bases its moral system on duty or obligation rather than on consequences and outcomes that result from actions. Tavani (2015) It means we have to perform our duty and not consider the consequences. Being moral has nothing to do with happiness. Performing the duty is moral and this may bring unhappiness and may not provide happiness to most number of people. It is again of two types Rule based – is when we have to work according to the standard rules provided that are designed to keep things in check morally. Act based – is when there is a clash in moral duties and then we have to analyse individual actions and situations to determine the morally appropriate course of action to take. This can be done with the help of seven prima facie duties i.e. fidelity, reparation, gratitude, non-maleficence, justice, beneficence, and self-improvement. 2.2.2 Analysis and solution Analysing using Deontology, Jane should treat others as she would like to be treated herself. That means she has to do her duty and as the quality assurance engineer, her job is to check the quality of the software. Result: As Jane suspects that there could be flaws in the software and it would need more testing, she should not sign off the software. 3.0 Conclusion I applied both Utilitarianism and deontology to the given case study and it gave me the following results. According to my analysis, both the ethical theories states that Jane should not sign off the software as according to Utilitarianism, it would bring most amount of happiness to greatest number of people. And also, according to Deontology, we see that Jane should follow her duty and her duty is to test the software and assure the quality of it and since she isn’t sure of the software’s quality, she should not sign off the software. References Tavani, H. (2015). Ethics and technology: Controversies, questions and strategies for ethical computing (5th ed.). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley. Rodgers, E., & Dietz, C. (2015). Ethics of social media behaviour: Act versus rule utilitarianism. Scholars, 24, 1-6. Retrieved July 12, 2017 from https://www.mckendree.edu/academics/scholars/rodgers-issue-24.pdf. Brinkman, B. & Sanders, A. (2013). Ethics in a computing culture. Boston, MA: Course Technology, Cengage. Bosupeng, M. (2017). Whistle Blowing: What Do Contemporary Ethical Theories Say?
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