Research Question Does altering in the conditions like the concentration in the sucrose solution, change in the temperature and amount of oxygen directly affect the growth in population of yeast over a 192-hours of fixed period? Rationale for the experiment Saccharomyces. cerevisiae is a The yeast that is just starting to grow at the cellular, molecular, and genomic stages., S. cerevisiae is a very strong modelling system in order to understand eukaryotic biology1 and 2. Since it can be obtained worldwide in a great range of human-associated products like wine, sake, beer, and some of the other fermented beverages as well as in the wild product like plant, soil, and insect biotopes. Saccharomyces. cerevisiae has recently beenalso found in population genomics3, 4, and 5. The number of published Sacccharomyces. cerevisiae genome sequences has increased in recent years, revealing a greater degree of diversity in the genes and population structure is also very complex in this yeast (Peter et al., 2018). Saccharomyces cerevisiae is found in a wide range of foods, but it is rarely identified as a spoilage agent. It is primarily responsible for the fermentation of foods and beverages which are consisting of the large amount of sugar. Since Sacchacromyces. cerevisiae has an ability to tolerate ethanol concentrations up to 15%, therefore very easily can ruin alcoholic drinks such as wine and beer on occasion (Dao et al., 2018). Saccharomyces cerevisiae is also present in dairy products such as milk, cheese, and yoghurts, as well as in the fermented vegetables and in minimum amounts also in those vegetable products which are processed, though the role of this species in product spoilage is unknown (Yang et al., 2019). Reaction of sucrose with yeast to produce ethanol and carbon dioxide Yeast consumes sucrose, so it must first break it down into glucose and fructose in order to pass it through its cell wall. The enzyme iInvertase is produced by yeast to break down sucrose. Now this enzyme breaks yeast into ethanol and carbon dioxide (Kawai et al., 2020). Since yeast is a fungus, it requires energy to survive and develop. This energy comes from sugar and yYeast, like human beings, also respire in which it utilizes oxygen and to produce sugar (Rodríguez Madera, Pando Berriman and Suárez Valles, 2021) As a result, the high concentration of sugar activates this microorganism to grow and rise in number, but this is also true that in very high sugar concentration the yeast cells are unable to grow like honey.. Via a process known as “respiration,” yeast, like human beings, can utilize oxygen to produce energy from sugar. As a result, it can be proving that high concentration of sugar helps the yeast cells to divide quickly and increase in number, which results in the rise of the yeast cells. The most important substance for the growth of yeast cells is water and it has been found that it is 90% more quickly to grow in the water. If the solution is concentrated osmotically then the water molecules start moving from the yeast cells to the solution because of the decrease concentration of the water in the solution and the death of the yeast cells start therefore it is necessary that water should be present in greater concentration in order to increase the growth of yeast cells (Lange et al., 2017). The amount of sugar available for respiration and synthesis of cell materials is the limiting factor up to a certain concentration, which makes the yeast able to absorb more water contents than they are needed for the growth. This is also true that both process of the synthesis and respiration will proceed in a fastest rate if the high concentration of sugar is present in the solution, water absorption slows to the point that it becomes the limiting factor (González-Garcinuño et al., 2017). Alcohol is poisonous to both yeast and humans, so when the alcohol content is too high, the yeast is unable to expand. Therefore, wine has a maximum alcohol content of around 12%. Methodology The initial experiment used a 2 percent sucrose substrate and 10mL of yeast medium suspension (2 drops). This has been done by collecting the yeast cells in two intervals of time, one is at 24 hours interval and the other with 120 hours of time span. For counting purpose of the yeast cells a compound microscope is used by making a smear and covering it with the cover slip of 0.5 cm2 size. In this study dependent and independent variable are used like number of yeast cells is used as a dependent variable and sucrose solution is used as an independent variable. Modification of the methodology The approach which is used in order to find reliable and most accurate data in order to get the solid conclusion regarding the dependent and independent variables is original Therefore. As a result, the original experiment was modified by increasing the population sample size. The inclusion of several concentrations improved the validity and precision of the study, in order to maintain and establish a causal relationship. To ensure that parallax error did not invalidate the results, the same individual counted the number of yeast cells were counted at each time interval. Raw and processed data Table 1 Interpretation of the table The data of the above table 1 shows how the percent concentration of sugar disaccharide influences yeast growth over a fixed time which comprises of the 192 hours. The change in the mean of average percentage of reacting sample concentration has been found to be moderate, and thus could be greatly improved with additional statistical research. Table 1 is explaining that three types of samples are used having different concentration of the sugar(sucrose) solution in order to find that change in concentration will impact on the growth of the yeast cells. It has been found that in sample 1 the number of yeast cells after 144 hours is becoming 112 (SE), in sample 2 it reached up to 148(SE), and in sample 3 this number increased up to 248(SE),. Therefore, it can be concluded that when concentration of the sucrose in the solution increased. Then yeast cells number also increased as the microorganism when getting more favorable conditions start dividing in more number and the growth of the microorganism increases. Graph 1: explains the yeast cells growth mean yield across each sucrose concentration over the time of 192- fixed point Interpretation As seen in the graph 1 above, yeast growth on sugar substrate occurs in three stages at the same time: exponential growth, decay, and constant horizontal growth (carrying capacity). This is since each of the concentration organisms exhibits a sudden increase in growth from 24 to 144 hours. Furthermore, three types of samples with three different concentration of the sucrose solutions are used along with different time periods. Hence, 3 percent solution clearly demonstrates that more concentrated substrates promote faster development. And a higher concentration induces faster growth than a lower concentration this leads to confirm the research question of whether the change in the concentration of a sucrose solution has an affect on yeast cell development. While the 1 and 2 percent solutions showed that the change in the percentage of the yeast growth is linear while, all three solutions showed a consistent growth pattern after the 144-hour mark. Analysis According to the regular error, error bars, 3 percent was done with greater overall precision, that can be observed from table 2. Furthermore, the error bars which are overlapping between 120h and 144h mean that the outcomes for each concentration are in the range which is common in all three solutions. This is a reason that, the error bars are not converging from 24 to 48 hours, implying that their outcomes are not in the suitable range. This may indicate that no definitive correlation is existing after the 115-hour mark, and some more research is required for further study. Graph 2: Change in mean percentage of the yeast cell population based on 192 h testing period Interpretation This data shows that species 1 and 2 have a larger average percentage shift from the mean, indicating that the error bars had a moderately low precision. As shown in table 1, the percent differential remains relatively low at 3%. Furthermore, the negative trend-line indicates that the overall shift was declining at each time interval. Analysis The most significant change occurred between hours 24 and 72, indicating exponential yeast development. Furthermore, from 92h to 144h, a steady decay is maintained, implying that 3 percent reached carrying capacity before 2 percent, and that 2 percent reached carrying capacity before 1percent. As a result, evidence suggests that yeast growth is influenced by concentration. Evaluation Rimon, You have copied the 20/20 example that I provided as a guide. None of the conclusions that are reached in that document match your data at all. You cannot use their work. You can easily see that the graphs are not similar. Please redo your assignment using your data and your own work. I am not sure how much of the rationale is your own work but it will become clear when it is submitted through Turnitin.com which is a requirement according to the task sheet.
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