KB7052 Research Project Research Project Proposal Student Details Surname or Family Name Enter your surname(s) or family name(s)BABY Forename(s) or Given Name(s) Enter your forename(s) or given name(s)ALAN Student Registration Number Enter your Northumbria University student registration number19035629 Programme of Study Enter the programme you are studyingMSc RENEWABLE AND SUSTAINABLE ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES WITH AP Research Project Details Title State the title of your research projectEVALUATION OF PRESSURE RETARDED OSMOSIS AS A PROCESS Project Aim and Research Objectives (500 words)Introduction Pressure Retarded Osmosis (PRO) is a membrane process that uses the energy from the mix of high and low-salinity streams to generate mechanical energy (Wang, 2012). In PRO, water penetrates into high concentration, partly pressurised draw solution across a semi-permeable membrane of a low concentration feed stream. The drawing solution is partly pressurised, but its hydraulic pressure is lower than its osmotic pressure. Consequently, there is always a net osmotic motor force for water transfer from the feed to the drawing solution. The permeate stream is pressurised and the drawing fluid dilutes. The energy in the pressurised permeate can then be transformed into a turbine generator set into electrical energy.Literature Review In the 1970s the PRO concept was implemented, and in the next two decades several plant configurations were considered. In 1974 Norman suggested the first schematic of an osmotic salination energy generator. Initial attempts to build PRO were focused on membranes and membrane modules initially developed for RO because of its similarity to RO. In this way, early test results could be obtained without the need for specially tailored instruments, but the power outputs were still much lower than anticipated. In 1981 a model is developed to predict PRO performance with experimental results from Forward Osmosis and Reverse Osmosis (Lee, Baker and Lonsdale, 1981). In 1990 several PRO plant configurations are proposed and determined that without an energy recovery device, PRO would not be economically competitive. After eight years, the possibility of application of PRO at the Dead Sea is checked and concluded that, electrical energy produced with PRO could be competitive with average US electricity prices at that time (Sekino, 1993). During early 2000s the importance of pressure exchangers in PRO is re-ensured. In 2008 a Norwegian power company called ‘Statkraft’ started installed first PRO prototype. But in 2014 they started discontinue PRO prototype installation because of low power density and low system efficiency. Recent modelling experiments have shown that advanced membrane properties have only a slight effect on PRO performance, considering significant improvements in laboratory-scale PRO membrane performance.Research Problem The efficiency of Pressure Retarded Osmosis as a process to produce renewable energy is low and it is not economically feasible. What are the factors affecting the efficiency of the process? Theoretically analyse, how each factor is contributing to the overall efficiency of the system?Aim Evaluation of the effect of different Pressure Retarded Osmosis performance variables on total efficiency.Research Objectives Theoretically calculate the efficiency of Pressure Retarded Osmosis as a process. Finding out the factors affecting the efficiency. Examining how each variable contributes to the overall efficiency. Calculate the other losses across the turbine. Generate the graphs showing the energy distribution during the process. Research Plan (500 words)Research Methodology The aim of this research is to evaluate Pressure Retarded Osmosis as a process. This is more of a Descriptive Research because, this project only uses the evidence from the literature to generate a method evaluation of the ability of PRO. Pre existing models and data is used for the research. Therefore, most of the data collected is secondary. This is a Quantitative research. Microsoft Excel is enough for the project no other software is needed as per the instruction given from the University. The online data base will be used for the storage of data.Research Methods Due to the COVID limitations and instructions given from the University, this is more of a descriptive research than an experimental research. Descriptive analysis seeks to reliably and consistently define a group, condition or phenomena. It can answer what, where, when and how questions, but not why questions. A descriptive research design may use a wide range of research methods to analyse one or more variables. Unlike in laboratory studies, the researcher does not control or modify any of the factors, but instead monitors and tests them.The detailed study of the PRO as a process will carry out using the available literature and articles. The possible out come will be an update the 2002 evaluation in the literature. Microsoft Excel will be a sufficient software for this project. Data from one or two existing PRO models is collected from the articles and it is analysed. The contribution of each factor towards efficiency is calculated and energy distribution graphs are plotted. Knowledge related to previous PRO studies can be gained from the experts in this field.Timeframe and Key Milestones Project start date: – 29-01-2021 Submission of project plan: – 26-02-2021 Project end date: – 05-04-2021 Submission of report: – 05-05-2021 Detailed Gantt Chart is submitted to the supervisor. Research Data People and Personal Data Will your work involve people or personal data or both?No Secondary Data Will your work involve secondary data, not in the public domain?No Commercial Data Will your work involve commercially sensitive data, not in the public domain?No Environmental Data Will your work will involve the collection of environmental data?No Anonymising Data Describe the arrangements you will follow to anonymise data. How will this be covered in the informed consent you will obtain? If this is not appropriate to your work, explain why this is the case?No data involving personal information is collected during the research project. Storing Data Describe the arrangements you will follow for the secure transportation and storage of data collected and used during your study. You should explain what kind(s) of storage you intend to use (e.g., cloud-based, portable hard drive, USB stick, U-drive, OneDrive), and the protocols you will put in place to keep the data safe and secure.U- drive will be used to store the data. Your Programme of Study Relevance to Programme of Study Explain how your proposal is aligned with the educational ethos of your programme of study (maximum 150 words). You will need to read the programme details on the University’s website at https://www.northumbria.ac.uk/study-at-northumbria/postgraduate-study/MSc. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Technologies is the programme that I am studying in the University of Northumbria. Renewable energy is the energy of the future. Constant research is carrying out in the field of renewables. This topic is about the production of electricity from PRO without causing any damage to the environment. This project does not have any high-risk factors or collection of any sensitive information. This topic is suitable for improving my research skills in my field of expertise.
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