acknowledge my heartfelt gratitude | My Assignment Tutor

BUSINESS & LAW CAREER AND PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY: DMU POSTGRADUATES Student ID: Student Name: Course or Subject Name: Date: Abstract This research study has evaluated the various issues faced by the management of DMU that are related to the digital divide. This has affected the education of the postgraduate students deeply, and this research has aimed to find potential solutions for this problem. The thematic interview methodology has been used in this research study, which has shown that the major factors related to this issue is the recent COVID-19 pandemic and the lockdown that has been caused by it. The potential solutions are explained in the recommendations section. They are expected to show new ways to tackle this situation and improve the postgraduate education quality in DMU, enhancing the careers of their students. Acknowledgement I hereby acknowledge my heartfelt gratitude to my professor for guiding me throughout this research project. I also thank my peers for their excellent support. Dated: Declaration I hereby declare that this research project has been carried out while following the guidelines of DMU. Dated: Table of Contents Chapter 1: Introduction. 7 Background of the research. 7 Rationale and significance of the research. 7 Problem statement 7 Aim.. 8 Objectives. 8 Research Questions. 8 Chapter 2: Literature Review.. 9 Introduction. 9 Concept of Digital divide. 9 Importance of right grooming to prepare the university students to get accustomed to the university management problems. 9 Perception of universities to ensure professional development of their students. 10 Importance of reducing Digital Divide to ensure better access on the credentials of online learning postgraduate programs. 10 Necessities of a proper resource sharing hub for promoting adult education in the community of postgraduate students. 10 Conceptual framework. 11 Literature gap. 12 Conclusion. 12 Chapter 3: Methodology. 13 Philosophy. 13 Approach. 13 Design. 13 Data collection methods. 13 Data analysis techniques. 14 Ethical considerations. 14 Research timeline. 14 Chapter 4: Data analysis. 16 Interview data analysis. 16 Theme 1: Various factors influenced the occurrence of management issues in DMU.. 16 Theme 2: BAL postgraduate students being presented with better Career and Development opportunities  19 Theme 3: Digital infrastructure enhancing the communication process of DMU, thus developing future career opportunities of BAL postgraduate students. 23 Theme 4: Necessities of a proper resource-sharing hub that can help for promoting adult education in the community of BAL postgraduate students. 24 Findings. 25 Discussion. 27 Chapter 5: Conclusion and recommendations. 29 Conclusion. 29 Linking with objectives. 29 Recommendations. 31 Alternative research methodology. 31 References. 32 List of Figures Figure 1: Conceptual Framework. 11 Figure 2: Gantt chart 15 Figure 3: Issues observed in lag for studies. 21 Chapter 1: Introduction Background of the research Considering the opportunities in the technological revolution, the entire teaching and learning processes among the global universities and schools have touched the mark to present proficiency in the services for the better future of the students. The present research has been constructed by evaluating the influential factors for reducing the technological problems in the online teaching process in DMU. However, the current research has been done by analysing the current improvement and further requirements for the operations in the DMU after the severe effect of the pandemic. Rationale and significance of the research Before analysing the rationale of the research, understanding the situational criteria in the operational activities of the university is necessary. The significance of this research is to speculate better working opportunities inside DMU by mitigating technological issues and the digital divide in the communities of the university. Due to the pandemic situation, neither the students nor the management and the faculty was prepared earlier to deal with the sudden rise and demand of online learning process for such a long period of more than one year. In this context, understanding the present situation post-pandemic is the most crucial factor in this research. The entire teaching process and communication with the teachers and learners are dependent on online technology. Thus, the supervision of live work has become a trouble for the management and the organisation is looking for better opportunities to improve the infrastructure for better performance of the faculties in the learning process. Problem statement As per evaluating the management issues in DMU, the main concern in this research project has been identified for determining best resolutions to the problems for better service providence by the faculty members. During the COVID-19 pandemic, all of the teachers and the learners were forced to attend online classes and continue the courses in DMU to maintain the spontaneity in the learning process without any gap. Hence, the issues have been observed as the management failed to maintain the operational strategies as earlier to control the activities of the faculty and faced lots of gap in the required communication for updates on the learning activities. The problem could be observed among a diversified group of students that are attending the BAL schools under the educational programs of the DMU Post. Aim This research aims to evaluate better opportunities to determine successful future careers of the students in DMU as a leading university for the future of students in business and law schools. Objectives To identify and manage the Digital Divide present in the processing of better technologies that are required in the DMU management by conducting online interviews among the members of the managing committeeTo design a better system in the infrastructure of DMU that can guide the BAL postgraduate students in different cities with improving the communication processTo determine useful recommendations for establishing better communication among the BAL postgraduate students with observing the changes in DMU’s managerial decisionsTo evaluate the necessities of a proper resource sharing hub that can help for promoting adult education in the community of BAL postgraduate students with the interview results from the DMU management members Research Questions What is the importance of resolving management issues to prepare the students of BAL schools towards a successful future?What are the requirements for designing an improved infrastructure and communication process in the management of DMU for the better future of the students?What is the importance of proper resource sharing hub to determine the success factors in the academic infrastructure for DMU students?What are the contributions of DMU in the larger communities to promote adult education and establish a better future with the coursework for current and further students? Chapter 2: Literature Review Introduction In this literature review, the various aspects of the digital divide and its effects on the educational as well as professional careers for universities in the UK will be discussed. Furthermore, the overall efficiency for the resource-sharing hub in addressing the issues regarding adult education will also be evaluated. Concept of Digital divide The digital divide is defined as the differences that the two people have who live in internet connected areas and internet-less areas respectively. This is considered as one of the greatest issues in terms of spreading information and news, as the digital divide naturally results in one of the groups of people staying connected through the internet, and the other group living isolated lives. Naturally, this also affects the ease of access for various online services, as these online services depend on the connectivity of the internet. Furthermore, the overall business operations of the online-based organisations are dependent on the accessibility of the internet, which is why this digital divide becomes an important factor for such organisations to keep note. Importance of right grooming to prepare the university students to get accustomed to the university management problems As per following the opinion of Cram and D’Arcy (2016), the large organisations like the BAL School are established on the means to develop their management strategies for ensuring a better future of the students. In this context, the involvement and activity of the management are crucial to determine the work structure of an academic organisation. The criteria and requirements of improvement could be altered and increase depending on the crucial situations faced by the organisations. For example, the courses practised in the BAL schools require live demonstration of incidents in the classrooms. However, the main concern addressed by the management should be to present the situation in favour of the teaching faculties and the students for continuing the course programs with success. Moreover, the sincerity of postgraduate students is valid in terms to participate in the development programs that can enhance the rate of co-operation with the teachers for improving the facilities in the organisation. Perception of universities to ensure professional development of their students The strategies and leading components followed by the world-leading BAL school depicts the faculty and students to get involved in the process of education by understanding the social requirements involved in it (Khuman, 2019). Meanwhile, the involvement of global students cannot be the same as expected in the crucial situation like the COVID-19 impact. Along with the teachers, most of the students have been comfortable in the process of classroom teaching that as a part of regular activity in the world-leading BAL schools. Hence, the perception of postgraduate students was quite different as they have been accustomed to the distance learning process. This is the main reason as the management of DMU Post could get better opportunities by considering the guidance and opinion of ECP students for promoting the current learning issues happening in the BAL course programs. Importance of reducing Digital Divide to ensure better access on the credentials of online learning postgraduate programs The digital divide is one of the major factors behind the success or failure for the online education system, as one of the basic requirements of online education is that all the students remain connected with the online platforms. Naturally, as the digital divide indicates that people may be denied of the internet services simply based on their geographical locations, the institutions delivering online services have to aim to reduce the level of digital divide within their area of service, so that their overall educational service operations are enhanced in terms of quality. Furthermore, the reduction of digital divide can also prove to be greatly beneficial for the students, as it will allow them to get better access to the university resources, thus allowing them to get better quality of education and better future professional career. Necessities of a proper resource sharing hub for promoting adult education in the community of postgraduate students The necessity for a proper resource-sharing hub is quite high for a university, as the students can get easy access to their study materials from there. Furthermore, the necessity for adult education is also quite high, as it allows the university to enhance the overall quality of education and research works actively in the country, thus contributing to the national development in studies. This is especially true for postgraduate students, where their overall career is related to research studies. To do this, they require repositories of information and data, which have to be arranged by the concerned university. Conceptual framework Figure 1: Conceptual Framework Concept of Digital divide Importance of right grooming to prepare the university students to get accustomed to the university management problems Importance of right grooming to prepare the university students to get accustomed to the university management problems Perception of universities to ensure professional development of their students Importance of reducing Digital Divide to ensure better access on the credentials of online learning postgraduate programs Importance of reducing Digital Divide to ensure better access on the credentials of online learning postgraduate programs (Source: Learner) Literature gap The current literature review has addressed the various aspects of the digital divide, and as to how it poses a challenge against the online education in the universities. However, the exact management issues that the DMU BAL students are facing in their postgraduate courses, which is affecting their future career development, has not been specifically addressed. This gap will be addressed in this research study. Conclusion This literature review has evaluated the various aspects of the overall business activities of the organisations. Furthermore, the strategies used by the universities to mitigate such situations have also been evaluated. Chapter 3: Methodology Philosophy Realism philosophy has been used in this research study. The effectiveness of realism philosophy allows the researcher to inspect the factual knowledge of digital communication efficiency to promote the current infrastructure in the DMU management. This is the most important part of the research to determine the current requirements for improving online learning in the process of the university to guide the BAL postgraduate students. Moreover, human participation has also been included in this research to evaluate the realistic approach of philosophy (Sim et al., 2018). Approach The inductive approach has been used in this research study. The reason behind selecting the inductive approach is that the researcher has used the findings by evaluating the themes from the interview results as the raw data on the effectiveness of online learning in the infrastructure of DMU. Moreover, the possible challenges in DMU infrastructure have been highlighted in the pandemic situation as the entire learning system of the university was transferred in the online process. The analysis and evaluation of interview data would be better presented with the opportunities for depicting better infrastructure for the development of understanding that can promote the online learning system in DMU (Tuffour, 2017). Design The descriptive research design has been used in this research study. This is because the descriptive design allows the researcher to collect data from scientifically valid evidence, and logically analyse that data. This allows the researcher to describe the research subject from a scientific and logical point of view (Zangirolami-Raimundo et al., 2018). As this research has aimed to evaluate the challenges and issues faced by the management of DMU Post, using a descriptive design has allowed an accurate determination and assessment of these issues. Data collection methods Basias and Pollalis (2018) stated that depending on the nature and area of research, traditional forms use mainly two data collection methods such as primary and secondary one. The current research has been conducted based on the primary data collection method. Using the opinion of BAL postgraduate students for better infrastructure in the DMU, an interview has been done among the selected sample of students. The interview data have been used as the reliable sources of the primary data collection method to understand the practical requirements for improving technology and online learning opportunities in DMU. Data analysis techniques The thematic analysis technique has been used to analyse the collected primary data. The researcher has identified the thematic analysis process more authentic to classify and determine proper themes that can identify and evaluate the research problems and can contribute in finding the solution against those problems (Tabatabaei et al., 2020). For this, the common themes have been identified from the collected set of interview answers. Based on the resemblance and relevance of interview results, the themes relating to the research objectives have been analysed and elaborated to achieve those objectives. A total of 4 themes were identified and analysed in this research. Ethical considerations The entire research has been accomplished with the guidance and taking sufficient ethics approval from the authority of DMU for using the students ‘opinion on the progress aspect of the organisation. Following GDPR 2018, all raw data have been protected under the observation of the research authority with zero scopes of third party entry in the password encrypted data storage room enabled by a numerical lock (Gruschka et al., 2018). Research timeline TaskStart DateDurationStarting the Research01-Oct-2035Submission of Proposal05-Nov-201Beginning the Dissertation06-Nov-201Developing the research aim, objectives and questions07-Nov-201Constructing the literature review08-Nov-202Designing Research Methodology10-Nov-202Conducting interview12-Nov-209Arranging primary data21-Nov-201Completing thematic analysis 22-Nov-208Finalising the results30-Nov-201Submission01-Dec-201 Table 1: Research timeline (Source: Learner) Figure 2: Gantt chart (Source: Learner) Chapter 4: Data analysis Interview data analysis For the collection of the data through the interview section, three students have been selected as active participants. Each of the participants is the members of the DMU and BAL school, they were asked four questions based on which the importance of digitalisation on the infrastructure of DMU and its effect on the BAL school would be evaluated. Theme 1: Various factors influenced the occurrence of management issues in DMU According to Joshi and Singh (2017), COVID-19 situation has rendered a lasting impact in the field of education. There have been months of lockdown to contain the spread of the virus. Apart from the educational pursuits, the staff working in the De Montfort University (DMU) is especially facing problem for the lack of proper digital infrastructure. Considering this one of the students said, “The current pandemic situation has significantly disrupted the management system of the university, as a result of this there has been a huge impact on the academic calendar. Most of the syllabus is not complete and we are unable to complete the Course for the students”. The stakeholders in the DMU consist of the professors, trainers, mentors and students. Even before the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, the management of the university has been suffering the lack of quick online and digital infrastructure. These deterrent factors will become a hindrance for the students to complete their coursework within the time. This will also hamper the admission of the new batch of students in the virus academic departments for the next academic year. Lack of Proper Online Infrastructure The crucial challenge that has been facing by the teachers, professors, students and trainers is the lack of online communication. While all other educational institution and universities have transitioned into e-learning, DMU has been archaic in the digital adoption (Ferreira et al., 2017). Even much before COVID-19 pandemic, there were no facilities of digital learning except the IT department. The main issue is launching a proper digital platform where an unlimited amount of participants could be inducted at a time. The functions like regular classes, training, orientation, management meeting, and staff meeting teacher-student meeting and so on should be conducted without any interruptions. However, there has been a lack of enthusiasm from the management to launch safe and secure digital platforms even after the pandemic induced lockdown. Department wise, the professors tried to induct their respective classes in the third-party apps like Google Meet, Zoom App and so on. However, they have a limited amount of joining at a time. The confidential management meeting must be conducted in a more private platform. DMU must hire a third-party app and digital developer to make efforts of creating s digital platform. DMU can also take the help of their IT departments and make professors, trainers and students involved in creating an effective digital solution (Habitat and Ahmed, 2020). A team must be created for the up keeping of the digital platform for fixing regular security bugs, updates, and induction of added features, taking feedback and resolution and so on. However, it needs an amount of budget for the management to execute it. The developers must meet at least once a week to create a secured framework of the digital platform, With the UK gearing up for the second lockdown; the management has already been considerably late in the digital implementation. Lack of Good Governance DMU has been a promising educational institution with the latest infrastructure since its inception. However, with the passing of the time, it has been suffering from a series of faulty management styles. The management style of the university is much different from that of managing a business organisation. The managers who have expertise in the business management right now head the management boards, However, they lack the methodological knowledge, skill set and direction to govern the welfare of the university. The DMU must give more chance to its professor, alumni and the mentor to be promoted to the Board of directors (Gornitzka et al., 2017). The management competence and commitment, which is not conducive to the educational institution, is hampering the decision-making practice, internal audit effectiveness, university regulations, and effectiveness of accounting practice and so on. The current management style that has been followed in the DMU is the hierarchical management style. This is one of the faulty management styles, which is followed in DMU. The DMU must adopt a hierarchical management style. The hierarchical management style will help in determining the clear demarcation of the roles and responsibilities of the University governance (Scott, 2018). This will also help in facilitating clear management policies and university guidelines through meticulous authorisation. Due to these gaps at DMU, the majority of the student faces a major setback in the continuation of their education system. Based on this the other student commented that ” We are very confused as to how the way the university is managing the academic flow, this is because the allocated classes through online mode are not being conducted in an organised manner nor are we able to complete our courses”  Improper Distribution of the University Funding The University Funding received from the UK Government, sponsors and the donators are irregularly distributed in the development of the proper management infrastructure. There have been recent reports of the corruption of the funding figures initiated by some members of the management committee. This has been perpetuated because there is an absence of a regular internal audit. Internal audit is a body that is tasked with the testing and evaluation of the fund distribution, university management, curriculum management and so on within the DMU. The absence of the internal audit as negatively affected the implementation of the policies, activities and operations within the university management. According to Jongbloed and Vossensteyn (2016), improper fund distribution is being channelized in the building and expansion of the university campus. However, expansion of the brick and mortar building would be useless for now as implementing proper learning and secured digital learning facility is the need of an hour. Moreover, the management is least bothered to improvise and renovate the existing building structure. An immediate formation of a competent internal audit is the need of the hour. This will facilitate in addressing the fund distribution issue within the managing committee. This will also contribute to the better management performance avoiding the management failures channelizing the fund in improvising the learning infrastructures (Belitski et al., 2019). The temporary halt in recruitment The COVID-19 pandemic has been a detrimental factor in receiving the university grants regularly from the various quarters. DMU has been forced to continue with their management and university curriculum with the existing staff, professors and trainers. There has been a temporary halt in the recruitment of the new non-teaching and teachings staffs compared to student admission. According to Johnson (2017), this has lead to the disparity in the ratio between the student and the staff ratio. The essential elements like the infrastructure development, curriculum development and training have been greatly affected due to the lack of the concerned staffs. Moreover, this year, five staffs have taken retirements from the managing and staffs commits leaving the post vacant. The pandemic and the lack of digital infrastructure have halted the online application and recruitment process. The lack of the workforce has created many issues within the management. This is serious owing to the lack of experienced hands. From the curriculum point of view, students are facing a lack of mentors for their doubt clearing sessions. Many times, the teaching staffs have to take up other subjects apart from their specialization for helping the students. The beginning of the online recruitment process should be a priority to fill up the vacant position within the DMU management. The above points establish the fact that the lack of proper digital infrastructure and the indifference of the management to adopt the new technologies have been the principal reasons for every issue. The digital infrastructure implementation is the need of the hour. Not only it will begin the management functions online, but it will also facilitate the learning and recruitment filling up vacant positions in management. Theme 2: BAL postgraduate students being presented with better Career and Development opportunities According to Dhawan (2020), it is said that the sudden outbreak of the COVID-19 shook the entire world and the education system changed overnight. The educators had to shift to an online mode of teaching which was a challenge was for both the educators and learners. As the number of cases of COVID-19 started to rise, the management had to suspend all the face-to-face lectures, seminars and tutorials, which resulted in a lack of materials to the students. Workshops and practical session were also cancelled due to the sudden outbreak of the COVID virus. On this particular situation, one of the students conveyed, “The pandemic has significantly affected our course activities, we are not able to complete our studies nor are we able to clear our queries with the teachers. In such a scenario it is also becoming really difficult for the teacher to continue with face-to-face lectures”. In this context, the guidance of ECP students is valid to evaluate the proper application of strategies where the students have adequate experience to deal with the complications present in the practice of BAL School educational programs. The guidance and training provided by the ECP students are helping to make the students at DMU Post able enough for handling the situations related to online classes and they could be more efficient by attending those classes until the fear of pandemic ends. The management decided to conduct online classes without having a proper plan and thus the students, academic staff; faculties were not ready for the changes. The university is lagging to provide infrastructure and facilities, which would allow online classes for the students. Due to lockdown, the university students are struggling with their pending semester examinations, new admissions and lectures. Some of the reasons the students of DMU are facing lag in their studies have been listed below. Connectivity issue As claimed by Nambair (2020), it is said that the due to the connectivity issue during the online classes there is poor audio and video quality and as a result, the student misses the important part of their learning. As the university decided to go online, the lectures are given virtually and due to poor connectivity issues, the students are unable to understand some of their learning modules. While time difference is becoming a constraint for the international students and as a result, the students from other countries cannot attend most of the lectures provided by the university. Many students complain about the crushing of their sites during their classes and as a result, the students cannot stay focused on their studies and cannot complete their course on due time. Interruption to learning According to Jacob et al. (2020), it is said that the students are having learning loss under the current situation because of the cancellation or postponing of the exams and thus there is an interruption to learning. As there is a constant delay in examination students are not completing their course module on time. Moreover not every student have access to laptops and reliable Wi-Fi and they have to rely on their mobile to attend the classes and sometimes it cannot be possible for them to attend because of shut down of mobile phones.  Students cannot stay motivated and well-focused As opined by De Costa (2020), it is said that the new normal has been challenging for both the students and teachers as it is draining them emotionally and mentally. The traditional way of learning helps both the educator and the learner to be motivated and well-focused but in online classes, they are not so attentive because some students are doing well with the changes but some students cannot cope up with the changes because of the environment where they are studying. This has become a huge challenge for the students as they are not getting the appropriate environment for studying and are lagging in their course. The perception and involvement of the ECP students are at the advanced stage where they can provide better suggestion to the BAL Postgraduate Students for adopting the fast grooming opportunities of the online classes that are mandatory in the pandemic situation. There were many difficulties raised among the teacher and the students due to online lectures class. Commenting on the situation, one of the students said, “The online lecture was in a way beneficial for us to continue with our coursework. However, there were issues like connectivity issues, lack of clearance in the voice and miscommunication within the deliverance of the lectures” Figure 3: Issues observed in lag for studies (Source: Learner) Online teaching lacks on practical experiments As stated by Austin et al. (2016), it is said that the practical work in under and the postgraduate course is an essential element at its core, which is included in the learning curriculum. In both undergraduate and postgraduate course, there are many practical workshops and seminars, which require a hand on experiments for the students and online classes lacks in this matter as the students, will not learn to apply the knowledge practically. The practical kits, which are included in the course module, are bit costly and all the students cannot buy them and practice it in their home. Some workshops, which are included in the undergraduate and postgraduate courses need a face-to-face environment and will help the students to earn more credit while virtual classes are lagging in this matter. Issues related to content In virtual classes, the educators teach with the precedent content because of lack of time, as the educators need to prepare completely new plan and strategies to conduct a lecture. Thus, the topics which are needed to be covered in a semester are not completed in due time and at the same time, students are not getting detail knowledge on the topic. No responses from the tutors As claimed by Kecojevic et al. (2020), it is said that the final year students have been hit very hard because of the changes in the mode of learning because of the outbreak of COVID-19 pandemic. The course module is very vast and there are no responses from the educators as most of the chapters have remained incomplete. The practical portion of the course has been omitted which has resulted in lagging in their subject and the students cannot finish their course on due time. The students cannot clear their doubts, as the educators are not communicating with the students. Biased educators are giving tough times to students As opined by Khouya (2018), it is said that teachers being biased to students demotivated them from learning. Due to lack of time and not having a proper plan to take the online classes, the educators are being biased to some of the students and choosing those students whose work they like and put all the time and opportunities to them. As a result, the rest of the students are lagging in their studies. Lack of time management According to Oliphant and Branch-Mueller (2018), it is said that time management is one of the important aspects in students life as this will help them to finish their courses in due time. Moreover, whereas it is mostly students who prefer web-based learning programmes for their place and time flexibility but cannot attend the classes due to everyday commitments. Many students cannot manage their time with online classes and other household activities. Another issue that the students are facing is due to the virtual classes the educators are not providing the detail of their assignments and there is no proper timetable to follow this and as results students are unable to manage their time well and missing the deadlines. Lack of teleconferencing platforms According to Aliyyah et al. (2020), it is said that intensive online learning reacquires teleconferencing platforms to communicate with the students for sharing the detail information about the course. The university lacks in teleconferencing platforms, have non-possession of computer skills or competencies in this field, and thus cannot effectively conduct the classes. Adaptability struggle As claimed by Cheng and Tsai (2019), it is said that switching from traditional classroom studies to the virtual classroom makes the learning experience entirely different for the students. The students are facing the problem to change in this mode of learning. The online classroom demands creating a web page springing into action. Every student is not very self-sufficient with the technologies and hence they cannot easily adopt the changes. Furthermore, many students find fixing basic computer problem troublesome. It has been a challenge for the students to learn new technologies and then start their studies.  Due to the outbreak of the pandemic, the students are going through hard times. The lectures, which educators are providing, are not sufficient to complete the course and the practical assignments, which will help them to get a job after the completion of their course, are lagging. The university lacks proper designing of the course module to take the online classes and non-cooperation from the educators are creating a barrier for the students. Most students complain of low internet connectivity which results in the interruption in their studies. With these issues, most of the students are lagging in their course, and they are unable to complete it on the due time. Based on these particular factors, some of the students commented, “The DMU must bring reforms in their overall digital infrastructure so that all the students would be able to continue with the studies in a situation like COVID-19. I also faced many difficulties in process of online lecture classes due to lack of proper management in the scheduling of each lecture”.      Theme 3: Digital infrastructure enhancing the communication process of DMU, thus developing future career opportunities of BAL postgraduate students The third theme of the interview focuses on the importance of proper resources sharing hubs to determine the success factors within the academic infrastructure for DMU students. In response to this particular question, one of the students conveyed, “Bringing new technologies in the infrastructure would benefit the overall management issues of the university. Further, in a situation like the COVID-19 pandemic, the Digital divide will have to be addressed through greater digital infrastructure, and this will bring greater opportunities for us to maintain the equilibrium with our academic courses”. Similarly, adding on the similar issues the other student also commented, “As of the current digitalised scenario, digital infrastructure is the new cutting edge for the better enhancement and development of the education system. Through identifying and managing the digital divide by enhancing the digital infrastructure, the DMU would be able to bring enhancement in their overall management system and communication process which would eventually be beneficial for the students in maintaining the consistency with their education”. The above comment of the students indicates that DMU has the better potential to enhance their overall infrastructure by mitigating their Digital Divide in the management system. On the other hand, some of the students also feel that digital infrastructure has its pros and cons based on which many students commented. Commenting on this one of the students said, “The digitalisation in the infrastructure can also put the overall security and confidentiality of the university on danger. Since the enhancement in the technologies there are many ways through which the systems can be hacked that would overall affect the DMU infrastructure which would eventually affect the career opportunities of the BAL students”. In response to this particular comment, the other student replied that “but the fact also cannot be denied that digital infrastructure would bring major modification in the overall education system of the DMU which would eventually be beneficial for us. Further, as in the case of the cons then there are always options that can be implemented by DUM to secure their security and privacy”. Further, other student participants also add, “More than cons, there are pros of implementing digital infrastructure as it would resolve most of the issues within the education system of the DMU. And, we cannot deny the fact that despite much complication and issues in the communication process, we were still able to continue with our studies in a pandemic due to digitalisation”. The answers of the students above suggest that the majority of them are in favour of digital infrastructure within DMU and feel that it would ultimately give better career opportunities to the students of BAL University. However, the DMU will have to ensure that the digital infrastructure they implement must be convenient for all the students.  Theme 4: Necessities of a proper resource-sharing hub that can help for promoting adult education in the community of BAL postgraduate students The fourth theme of the interview highlights the contribution of DMU in the larger communities to promote adult education and in the establishment of better futures with the coursework for current and further students. In response to this particular theme, one of the students said that the “DMU has always been forward in the enhancement of students, the plans and strategies are always focused in improving the overall career opportunities for students. Further, the DMU always works on simplifying the overall coursework in such a manner that it does not give pressure or burden to the students or the teaching body”. In adding to this particular comment the other student said  “along with this the DMU always ensures that they bring the most organised  and unique course plans for both teacher and the students which have been very helpful for us maintaining consistency with our overall course study”. However, some of the students also comment, “the current pandemic of COVID-19 has brought a major disruption within the systematic course plans of DMU as a result of this there has been a major gap within the overall deliverance of the coursework for the students.” On arguing with the statement, the other student said “However, DMU has tried its best to ensure the continuity of the courses for the students. Yes! We did face many issues and complications in the online mode of class but DMU is currently working on their digital issues to drive quality digital infrastructure for the enhancement of their education system which would eventually be beneficial for us”. The response of the students suggests that DMU has always been successful in positively delivering quality education infrastructure for its students. The disruption or the discontinuation within the coursework was significantly observers within the pandemic situation. To mitigate this, the DMU will have look for alternative options, which would help them resolve the issues and would be able to deliver the same quality of education system for their students.           Findings The meticulous approach in the interview has been one of the good aspects that have been given the extra leash of informatics to make a strong viewpoint. The themes have been instrumental in finding students’ welfare. This will help in the excruciating the methodological approach in the field of the business and laws benefiting the students in the multiple formats. The findings hinted that the Digital Divide has been instrumental in awakening the follow up by the students when the DMU has conducted the online classes. Such issues are being taken seriously by the management to focus mostly on the aspects of the DMU management that needs to be focused on variable ways of deployment for building up online infrastructure. Various ways can help the motivational aspects for the management as well as the students. The lessening the Digital Divide has been the focus of the management. The designing of better infrastructure enabling the students for the coursework has been the prime focus of the teachers and management who participated in the interview. The COVID-19 situation has forced the DMU to switch to online learning and the examination. However, the gap has forced many students to go contactless. That is because, despite having access to the device, many students have lost their part-time jobs, which were instrumental in providing their internet bills. As a result, students are getting limited free access making it impossible to access the updated online resources and classes all the time. Therefore, the interview has checked the steps that management has taken to improvise the digital infrastructure. The DMU has therefore improved its online learning facility by creating a private network and online learning platform. The management has been holding the meeting via telephone and video conferencing for the proper planning for digital planning. This is followed by the regular follow-ups for the progress for the digital infrastructures. The students of the DMUs IT department have been involved in enhancing the digital infrastructure. This has helped the students to feel involved as well as a voice in the students’ vision for developing the digital infrastructure. The digital infrastructure has been coupled with the implementation of cloud computing. According to management, cloud computing is a crucial medium for engaging students with stored study material and e-learning resources. Many more findings can be concluded with proper resource implementation. Several aspects such as the communication platform need to be improvised. The updates will include the inducting a chat platform where the students can communicate with the teachers during the class and after class. This will ensure no disturbance or verbal interruptions are made during the online class. The interview also concluded that the biggest issues that have been plaguing DMU are the digital divide. Therefore, the students are given some provisions enabling them to access the internet. There were some instances when the data collected during the interview was not adequate to draw conclusive solutions for tackling the digital divide. Many teachers were sceptical to participate in the interview process. While many refused to comment, many teachers asked the researcher to wait until the full plan for reducing the digital divide is implemented. The research has also found out that although there is considerable enthusiasm regarding implementing the digital infrastructure, very little has been done for so many years to implement the much necessary steps. This COVID-19 pandemic has been a considerable shock to the management, as they never anticipated the requirements for the digital platform so soon. Therefore, the implementation of the digital infrastructure has been slowed down. The fresh strain of the Corona Virus has pushed the whole country into the lockdown until March 21′. Therefore, the implementation of digital infrastructure has been slow. More and more students and teachers are for now opting to continue their preparation in the subjects of business, law and many other subjects on the third party learning and video conferencing app such as Zoom, Google Meets and so on. The main issues are addressed in a meticulous format that can help the raiders to understand the research shortly. Alternatives pathways can be formulated with the help of the findings. It can also help the management of DMU for accelerating the growth and the development of the digital infrastructure. This can also help the DMU to reduce the Digital Divide. Digital Divide has deprived many students of accessing the educational material. The findings will encourage the management to implement the necessary updates and improvisations after taking the feedback and students. Discussion The Digital Divide has disrupted the academic calendar during the COVID-19. The finding of the research had been based on the interview of the three students regarding the development of the digital infrastructure and learning amidst the noticeable digital gap within the DMU. The questionnaires have been set up to assess the research aim and objectives. The findings have been concluded based on the answers provided by the participants. DMU management has been encouraged to conduct online classes more often. Even if the creation of the online learning resource of DMU has not been initiated fully, students are ready to start their classes from video conferencing. The students who are unable to get in touch with the digital infrastructure must be communicated with the course works or given the facilities from the end of the university. University management is touted to get in touch with many social help groups who can financially help the students to get access to the internet pans and necessary infrastructure to continue the coursework. The adult education initiative is a good initiative that focuses on intellectual and skill development of the students. The DMU too has been simplifying the coursework so that students are not overburdened with the recession of the coursework. There has been increasing worry about the widened digital gap. However, this can be reduced with constant support and endeavour from the university management. The courses must be designed concisely with the proper online referencing that can help the weaker and less informed students to catch up with the course faster. Such research will help the management to take into account the opinion of the students regarding the digital gap. The students are also encouraged to give ample feedback regarding the implementation of the digital infrastructure and the digital implementation from their end. The DMU has been known as an institution that genuinely cares for the career and progress of its students. Therefore, the best possible steps are being taken by the DMU management to usher in the digital infrastructure and focus on aspects like adult education. Resolving the existing issue could drastically improve the grades of the students. It will also encourage the students to take part-time skills as digital learning is providing much-needed flexibility. Chapter 5: Conclusion and recommendations Conclusion The research concludes that digital infrastructure is a necessary aspect of the University for a holistic learning. This can effectively give the much-needed boost to the course work. The issues that are discussed here with the solutions can be implemented with the support of the students as well as the management. The management needs to be more focused on eradicating the differences in the digital divide. The digital infrastructure will help the university authority to deliver quality infrastructure for the students. The existing digital divide must be addressed by implementing the greater amount of the infrastructure bringing the required amount of the consistency within the educational front.  The security and safety of the digital platform should also be the concern of the management. The sensitive personal information will maintain the equilibrium within the digitization format. A good career opportunity will occur in the major deliverance of the systematic course plan. Ensuring the continuity will help in creating a flow of educational pursuits in the remote learning format.  DMU has the potential of becoming one of the best universities for academic pursuit. The only change that it needs to apply within its fold is to make the essential amendments within the digital implementation. This will help in focusing the numerical aspects of the admission for online courses like adult education. The straight cut approach will help the management to focus on the necessary changes. The various aspects of the digital divide have also been discussed in the detailed format. In a focused way, this research will address the questions that are crucial for addressing the digital divide in detailed format.  Linking with objectives Objective 1: To identify and manage the Digital Divide present in the processing of better technologies that are required in the DMU management by conducting online interviews among the BAL postgraduate students As per following the influence of Digital Divide as a major gap in the technological improvement of the communication process, reducing this issue is a major term to promote the opportunities in the online learning programs at the BAL postgraduate programs under DMU. In the literature review chapter, one section has described the effects of Digital Divide and the process for reducing it to get more access of technological advancements among more communities. This factor is effective in terms to determine that without restricted access the BAL postgraduate students would utilise the opportunities of online learning infrastructure in DMU. Moreover, while analysing the interview results, one theme was designed and determined by focusing on the enhancement of digital infrastructure for improving communication among the communities of DMU. Objective 2: To design a better system in the infrastructure of DMU that can guide the BAL postgraduate students in different cities with improving the communication process Connected with the first objective, this particular objective has been addressed in different chapters of the study. Among those, one section in the literature review chapter has discussed the perception of a World leading BAL school that can ensure professional development in the further infrastructure of DMU. Besides, the interview results depicted from the BAL postgraduate students have presented 2 relevant themes linked to this objective. The first theme has explained the current perception of BAL postgraduate students in context to present better carrel and development opportunities. The next theme has explained the requirements of enhancing the communication process of DMU by improving the digital infrastructure.                      Objective 3: To determine useful recommendations for establishing better communication among the BAL postgraduate students with observing the changes in DMU’s managerial decisions This objective has been addressed in the recommendations section of this chapter to understand further changes and implementation in DMU’s managerial decisions. Objective 4: To evaluate the necessities of a proper resource sharing hub that can help for promoting adult education in the community of BAL postgraduate students with the interview results from the DMU management members One theme as analysed the necessities of proper resource sharing hub to promote adult education as a future recommendation for improving the opportunities among the community of BAL postgraduate students. Moreover, in the literature review chapter, the necessities of a proper resource-sharing hub have been analysed to determine the importance of better communication for BAL postgraduate students. Recommendations Recommendation 1: The discussion in the above section indicates that DMU has a better potential of improving their education infrastructure if they can mitigate their digital divide. To address the particular issue, DMU can create their personalised conferencing medium through online mode that would help them resolve the gaps in the communication process. This would also help them in conducting the class on the online platform without must interruptions or the gaps in the communication process. Further, DMU can also collaborate with various online educational platforms where they would be able to deliver their course work to the interested students or the learners. To meet this, the DMU will have to design their coursework in such a manner that it does not complicate that overall education process for the students.  Recommendation 2: The authority of the DMU must provide a better connection network to all the students who are not getting the internet connection in its locality and in the residence. Hence, through this process the students can get access all the classes and the lessons og the university with comfortably.  Recommendation 3: Once in a week, a regular conference class must be conducted by the university, so that if any problem occurs in any particular day to any particular student here in DMU, that student will not lag behind from the lessons.  Alternative research methodology As per following the primary research method, this research could get better access with the alternative data sources by applying secondary data collection method. Moreover, while applying secondary data research, the researcher would get the aid of earlier published reports on the effectiveness of online teaching and future prosperity on the technological advancements of the online learning process. References Aliyyah, R.R., Rachmadtullah, R., Samsudin, A., Syaodih, E., Nurtanto, M. and Tambunan, A.R.S., 2020. The Perceptions of Primary School Teachers of Online Learning during the COVID-19 Pandemic Period: A Case Study in Indonesia. Journal of Ethnic and Cultural Studies, 7(2), pp.90-109. Austin, M.J., Anthony, E.K., Knee, R.T. and Mathias, J., 2016. Revisiting the relationship between micro and macro social work practice.Families in Society, 97(4), pp.270-277. Basias, N. and Pollalis, Y., 2018. Quantitative and qualitative research in business & technology: Justifying a suitable research methodology. Review of Integrative Business and Economics Research, 7, pp.91-105. Belitski, M., Aginskaja, A. and Marozau, R., 2019. Commercializing university research in transition economies: Technology transfer offices or direct industrial funding?.Research Policy, 48(3), pp.601-615. Cheng, K.H. and Tsai, C.C., 2019. A case study of immersive virtual field trips in an elementary classroom: Students’ learning experience and teacher-student interaction behaviors. Computers & Education, 140, p.103600. Cram, W.A. and D’Arcy, J., 2016. Teaching information security in business schools: Current practices and a proposed direction for the future. Communications of the Association for Information Systems, 39(1), p.3. De Costa, P., Li, W. and Rawal, H., 2020. 12 Should I Stay or Leave? Exploring L2 Teachers’ Profession from an Emotionally Inflected Framework.The Emotional Rollercoaster of Language Teaching, 4, p.211. Dhawan, S., 2020. Online learning: A panacea in the time of COVID-19 crisis. Journal of Educational Technology Systems, 49(1), pp.5-22. Ferreira, A.D.S.M., Loiola, E. and Gondim, S.M.G., 2017. Motivations, business planning, and risk management: entrepreneurship among university students. RAI Revista de administration e inovacao, 14(2), pp.140-150. Gornitzka, Å.,Maassen, P. and De Boer, H., 2017. Change in university governance structures in continental Europe. Higher Education Quarterly, 71(3), pp.274-289. Gruschka, N., Mavroeidis, V., Vishi, K. and Jensen, M., 2018, December. Privacy issues and data protection in big data: a case study analysis under GDPR. In 2018 IEEE International Conference on Big Data (Big Data) (pp. 5027-5033). IEEE. Habiba, U. and Ahmed, S.Z., 2020. ICT Infrastructure and Access to Online Services: Determining the Factors Affecting Faculty Satisfaction with University-Subscribed Resources. International Information & Library Review, pp.1-19. Jacob, O.N., Abigeal, I. and Lydia, A.E., 2020. Impact of COVID-19 on the higher institutions development in Nigeria.Electronic Research Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities, 2(2), pp.126-135. Johnson, M.A., 2017. Contemporary Higher Education Reform in Ecuador: Implications for Faculty Recruitment, Hiring, and Retention. education policy analysis archives, 25(68), p.n68. Jongbloed, B. and Vossensteyn, H., 2016. University funding and student funding: international comparisons. Oxford Review of Economic Policy, 32(4), pp.576-595. Joshi, C. and Singh, U.K., 2017.Information security risks management framework–A step towards mitigating security risks in university network.Journal of Information Security and Applications, 35, pp.128-137. Kecojevic, A., Basch, C.H., Sullivan, M. and Davi, N.K., 2020.The impact of the COVID-19 epidemic on mental health of undergraduate students in New Jersey, cross-sectional study.PloS one, 15(9), p.e0239696. Khouya, Y.B., 2018. Students Demotivating Factors in the EFL Classroom: The Case of Morocco. Advances in Language and Literary Studies, 9(2), pp.150-159. Khuman, A.S., 2019. The Importance of Transnational Education and International Engagement. Transnational Higher Education in Computing Courses: Experiences and Reflections, p.217. Mohajan, H.K., 2018. Qualitative research methodology in social sciences and related subjects.Journal of Economic Development, Environment and People, 7(1), pp.23-48. Nambiar, D., 2020. The impact of online learning during COVID-19: students’ and teachers’ perspective. The International Journal of Indian Psychology, 8(2), pp.783-793. Oliphant, T. and Branch-Mueller, J., 2018.”Doing the courses without stopping my life”: Time in a professional Master’s program.International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning, 19(4). Scott, P., 2018. Compliance and creativity: Dilemmas for university governance. European Review, 26(S1), pp.S35-S47. Siegel, D.S. and Leih, S., 2018. Strategic management theory and universities: An overview of the Special Issue. Strategic Organization, 16(1), pp.6-11. Sim, J., Saunders, B., Waterfield, J. and Kingstone, T., 2018. Can sample size in qualitative research be determined a priori?. International Journal of Social Research Methodology, 21(5), pp.619-634. Snyder, H., 2019. Literature review as a research methodology: An overview and guidelines. Journal of Business Research, 104, pp.333-339. Tabatabaei, N., aliNadi, M. and Sajjadian, I., 2020. A Comprehensive Investigation to Identify Working Memory Components Utilizing Thematic Analysis Technique: A Qualitative Research. International Clinical Neuroscience Journal, 7(4), pp.208-215. Tuffour, I., 2017. A critical overview of interpretative phenomenological analysis: a contemporary qualitative research approach. Journal of Healthcare Communications, 2(4), p.52. Zangirolami-Raimundo, J., Echeimberg, J.D.O. and Leone, C., 2018. Research methodology topics: Cross-sectional studies. Journal of Human Growth and Development, 28(3), pp.356-360.


Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *