American Psychological Association Referencing Style | My Assignment Tutor

An Abridged Guideto theSchool of Access EducationUpdated T2 2020American PsychologicalAssociation Referencing Style(7th ed.)The CQUniversity Abridged Guide to the APA Referencing Style (author-date) is based on:American Psychological Association. (2020). Publication manual of the AmericanPsychological Association (7th ed.). https://doi.org/10.1037/0000165-000This document can be found on CQUniversity’s referencing webpage athttp://www.cqu.edu.au/referencing (American Psychological Association Abridged GuideTerm 2, 2020).Other information about academic writing is available via the Academic Learning Centre’sMoodle site.Maintained by School of Access EducationEdition T2 2020Published by CQUniversity AustraliaCOMMONWEALTH OF AUSTRALIAWARNINGThis material has been reproduced and communicated to you by or on behalf ofCQUniversity pursuant to Part VB of the Copyright Act 1968 (the Act).The material in this communication may be subject to copyright under the Act.Any further reproduction or communication of this material by you may be the subject ofcopyright protection under the Act.Do not remove this notice.CQUniversity CRICOS Codes: 00219C – Qld; 01315F – NSW; 01624D – Vic. An Abridged Guide to the APA Referencing StyleEdition T2, 2020Academic Learning Centre SAEi Table of ContentsHow to use this guide………………………………………………………………………………..1What is the purpose of this booklet? ………………………………………………………………. 1What is referencing? ……………………………………………………………………………………. 1Why do I need to reference?………………………………………………………………………….. 1What should I reference? ……………………………………………………………………………… 2Five key steps to referencing …………………………………………………………………….2Section 1: What does referencing look like? ………………………………………………3Section 2: How do I use citations in-text? ………………………………………………….5How to paraphrase………………………………………………………………………………………. 6How to summarise……………………………………………………………………………………….. 8How to use direct quotations……………………………………………………………………….. 10How to introduce quotations and paraphrased sentences………………………………… 14How to use tables, figures or images ……………………………………………………………. 15Section 3: How to create a reference list ………………………………………………….19Steps for creating a reference list…………………………………………………………………. 19Steps for adding publication details to the reference list…………………………………. 20Section 4: What is Academic Integrity? …………………………………………………..30How will they know I have plagiarised? ……………………………………………………….. 30Steps for avoiding plagiarism………………………………………………………………………. 31Section 5: How to create in-text citations and reference list items …………….31Books (Hard copy)……………………………………………………………………………………… 32Ebooks ……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 38Journals and magazines ……………………………………………………………………………… 40Hard copy newspaper articles……………………………………………………………………… 44Online news articles …………………………………………………………………………………… 44Reports……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 46Conference papers……………………………………………………………………………………… 48Dissertation or master’s thesis…………………………………………………………………….. 49Webpage or standalone document on the web ……………………………………………….. 50Government documents found online……………………………………………………………. 52Legal documents………………………………………………………………………………………… 55University-provided electronic and multimedia study materials ………………………. 59 iiAn Abridged Guide to the APA Referencing StyleEdition T2, 2020Academic Learning Centre SAE Specialised sources…………………………………………………………………………………….. 62Appendices …………………………………………………………………………………………….76Appendix A: What do the terms and abbreviations used in this guide mean? …….. 76Appendix B: Symbols and their use………………………………………………………………. 78Appendix D: Initialisms and their use…………………………………………………………… 81Appendix E: Abbreviations and their use………………………………………………………. 84Appendix F: Latin words and their use as abbreviations ………………………………… 88Appendix G: Referencing a journal article with or without a DOI……………………. 89Appendix H: Check your reference list …………………………………………………………. 90Appendix I: Quick guide for citing multiple authors……………………………………….. 91Appendix J: Quick guide for referencing multiple authors………………………………. 92Appendix K: Citing and referencing figures and tables…………………………………… 93Index ……………………………………………………………………………………………………..95An Abridged Guide to the APA Referencing Style P a g e | 1Academic Learning Centre SAE Edition T2, 2020How to use this guideThis guide provides an introduction to the intricacies of referencing using the CQUniversity’sabridged version of the APA 7th Edition referencing conventions. Section 1 offersexplanations of terms and concepts that are vital for the development of your knowledge, soyou can become proficient at APA style referencing. There are subtle variations in the APAstyle of referencing, and it is important for you to use the CQUniversity APA Guide’s style.Once you are familiar with some of the concepts and key words, you will find it much easierto use Part 2 of this guide, which contains examples of in-text citations and reference listitems. Referencing requires attention to detail, so you will need to refer to these examplesand explanations a number of times as you develop your skills. Finding information quickly1. Use the contents page to locate particular concepts of referencing or resourceexamples.2. Use the index page to find relevant examples.3. Apply Ctrl + F to find the relevant resource quickly. What is the purpose of this booklet?When writing a university assignment, there are certain referencing rules you need to follow.Please note that there are other referencing styles (e.g., Harvard, Turabian, Vancouver andthe Australian Guide to Legal Citation), so check your Unit Profile to confirm that the unitrequires APA referencing. This booklet will explain what referencing is and show you how toreference using the CQUniversity APA referencing style.What is referencing?There are different types of university assignments (e.g., essays, oral presentations, reports,reflections, blogs, PowerPoint presentations, case studies). When you write an assignment,you will be expected to include the details of any resources that you have used in yourassignment. These are called “in-text citations”. A citation is located at the place where youhave used someone else’s words or ideas. In addition, a list of all the resources you havecited in-text is located at the end of the assignment; the list is called “references”. Theseprocesses are collectively known as “referencing”.Why do I need to reference?Writing an assignment will often involve locating information from a range of differentsource types (e.g., webpages, journal articles, books, course readings). Each time you“borrow” ideas, data, information or illustrations from other sources to use in yourassignment, you will need to cite and reference the source.Referencing will help you:• Demonstrate your knowledge of a topic and provide evidence of scholarly research.• Give credit to the author or creator of the original source of an image, idea or pieceof information.• Avoid plagiarism and its associated penalties.An Abridged Guide to the APA Referencing Style P a g e | 2Academic Learning Centre SAE Edition T2, 2020What should I reference?You must cite and reference any source you use when writing an assignment even if you havejust borrowed an idea or image, rather than copying exact words. This includes any of thefollowing.• Hard copy (paper based) sources, e.g., books, journal articles, newspapers,magazines, pamphlets, newsletters.• Electronic sources e.g., webpages, videos, blogs, film clips, audio files, Moodlenotes and readings.• Other sources, e.g., interview transcripts, doctoral dissertations.• Visuals, e.g., images, figures, tables.Five key steps to referencingWhile researching and draftingStep 1. Decide which type of source you want to use, e.g., book, webpage, journal.Step 2. Record the relevant source details: author, date, title, publisher, URL etc.In your assignment Step 3.Use the notes you have made from the sources you read to create sentencesand paragraphs to provide evidence or examples that support your ideas. Step 4.Ensure that details for the in-text citation (e.g., author’s surname, date, pagenumber) are correct. Make sure you follow the APA style guidelines. At the end of the assignment Step 5.Create a reference list, and each item must have a corresponding item as an intext citation. An Abridged Guide to the APA Referencing Style P a g e | 3Academic Learning Centre SAE Edition T2, 2020Section 1: What does referencing look like? Referencing in the assignmentExampleIn this example of a paragraph youcan see what referencing looks like inthe body of the assignment.Notice the inclusion of the author’sname and date in most sentences.These are known as citations. They letthe reader know the details about thesource of the information.These citations acknowledge all ideasor words that belong to anotherperson even if it is not a direct quote.These citations are integrated into thesentences, so the paragraph flows andis easy to read.Note. Author surnames can be locatedeither inside the brackets or used aspart of the sentence. See section onstyles of in-text citation for anexplanation.Retired Australians have been included as a campaign target for Volunteer Tourists for a number of reasons.The evolution of this group makes them attractive as they have commenced planning their retirements andare trying to do the most with their lives after their retirement, including travel. Research by Gibson (2002)on later life and retirement in the United States revealed that many of the participants experienced a feelingof more freedom to do what they want to do during retirement and later life. This is also evident in a reportpublished by The Association of Superannuation Funds of Australia (ASFA, 2014) that states leisureactivities form part of the standard budget for retirees in their 70s, and it contributes to an “important part ofwhat many retirees want to do in retirement” (p. 9). This point is further supported by Upe (2013) whostates that Australia has 5.5 million baby boomers, and many are able to travel as they are now retired. Inaddition, Solomon et al. (2013) explain that baby boomers are also much more active and physically fit thanthe preceding generation. These authors point out that baby boomers who are facing retirement areexperiencing a shift in their retirement approach from achievement orientation to quality of life. In Australiathe 55 plus age group makes up 24% of the population and they have 56% of the country’s net wealth (Upe,2013). They prefer to enjoy their retirement by spending their money rather than leaving it as an inheritancefor their children (Solomon et al., 2013). It is evident that the over 55s have many traits that make themsuitable candidates as Volunteer Tourists including their freedom, funds and a longing for education andnew experiences. An Abridged Guide to the APA Referencing Style P a g e | 4Academic Learning Centre SAE Edition T2, 2020 Reference list (end of the document)ExampleYou will need to include a list of all the sourcesyou have cited in your assignment.The reference list is placed at the end of theassignment on a separate page.Each item in this list will have a correlatingitem in the assignment body or appendices.Each reference in your list will need to be setout using APA style.The reference list is:• in alphabetical order;• in double line spacing; and• formatted with a hanging indent.For more guidance, see Appendix H: Checkyour reference listReferencesAssociation of Superannuation Funds of Australia. (2014). Spending patterns of older retirees:New ASFA retirement standard. https://www.superannuation.asn.au/ArticleDocuments/269/ASFA-RetirementStandardOlder-Sep2014.pdf.aspx?Embed=YGibson, H. (2002). Busy travellers: Leisure-travel patterns and meanings in later life. WorldLeisure Journal, 44(2), 11–20. https://doi.org/10.1080/04419057.2002.9674266Solomon, M., Previte, J., & Russell-Bennett, R. (2013). Consumer behaviour: Buying, having,being (3rd ed.). Frenchs Forest.Upe, R. (2013, February 16). Baby-booming travel. The Age. https://www.theage.com.au/national/boomers-lead-travel-boom-20130215-2eijj.html An Abridged Guide to the APA Referencing Style P a g e | 5Academic Learning Centre SAE Edition T2, 2020Section 2: How do I use citations in-text?Here are four key techniques you can use when you want to include other authors’ ideas, words, images and data in your assignment. Have a look at thefollowing pages for more detail on each of these techniques. ParaphrasingSummarisingDirect quotationsTables and figuresConvey the author’s idea/wordsindirectly.Using this option, you must usesome of your own words ANDchange the sentence structure. Acitation must be included.Briefly sum up another author’swork e.g., a whole chapter orproject.Quoting an author’s words exactlyas they were written, using a shortor long quotation. A citation mustbe included, e.g., author, year, andpage number.When using another author’sfigures, tables or data to supportyour own, you may copy and pasteimages, tables, charts and figures,but you must include your own titleand a caption to cite the source. SeeAppendix K.Example 1Jones (2016) found that significantreductions in infection rates (15%)could be achieved when nursingstaff were reminded about handhygiene.Example 2A study by Jones (2009) found thatattention to hand hygiene bynursing staff played a significantrole in infection rates.Example 3A short quotation:Reminders to nursing staff to payextra attention to recommendedhand hygiene procedures resulted“in a 15% reduction in infectionrates” (Jones, 2016, p. 3).Figure 1CQUniversity Research OfficersCollecting Water Samples.Note. From CQUni Pitching in to Help withCapricorn Coast Water Supply Study, byCQUniversity, 2017 (https://www.cqu.edu.au/cquninews/ stories/engagement-category/2017/cquni-pitching-in-to-help-withcapricorn-coast-water-supply-study). An Abridged Guide to the APA Referencing Style P a g e | 6Academic Learning Centre SAE Edition T2, 2020How to paraphraseInstead of quoting another author’s words exactly, you may paraphrase them. To paraphrase, you must change some of the words AND change thesentence structure. When you use an author’s ideas, but express them in different words, you are paraphrasing. A paraphrased item is not enclosed inquotation marks because it is not a word-for-word quotation. However, it is important that the sentence structure and the vocabulary are not too similarto the original text and that you acknowledge the source of the original document with an in-text citation. Failing to do so will result in plagiarism.Many lecturers would prefer you to paraphrase or summarise an author’s words rather than use a direct quotation. This is because paraphrasing requiresoriginal thought and shows that you understand the ideas and can integrate them into your work. Steps for paraphrasingExamples1. Read the sentence that you want to paraphrase a number oftimes to get the meaning of the text. Once you understand it,write it in your own words.2. Highlight any specialised technical words or specific terms.These must be included in your paraphrase, as without thesewords, the meaning of the paraphrase will change completely.3. Underline any keywords that can be changed.4. Find other words and phrases that have similar meanings thatcan be used to replace the keywords in the text. Use athesaurus or dictionary to help if need be.5. Rewrite the ideas and reorganise the structure or order.6. Add a lead-in phrase where the author’s family namebecomes part of the sentence to use an author prominentcitation and the year the article was published in parentheses.7. Choose author prominent or information prominent style (seenext page for explanation).Original text“Improved attention to hand hygiene reduced the rate of patient infections by15% in a twelve-month period.”Paraphrase, author prominentJones (2016) found that in the course of a year, a significant reduction inpatient infection rates was achieved as the result of an enhanced focus on thehand hygiene procedures of nursing staff.Paraphrase, information prominentIn the course of a year, a significant reduction in patient infection rates wasachieved as the result of an enhanced focus on the hand hygiene proceduresof nursing staff (Jones, 2016). An Abridged Guide to the APA Referencing Style P a g e | 7Academic Learning Centre SAE Edition T2, 2020 Rules for paraphrasingExamples• Ensure the paraphrased information supports the claimmade by you as the writer.• Ensure the paraphrase is written differently from theoriginal source.• Page numbers are not required for paraphrasing. However,for very long and complex work, a page number may behelpful for the reader to locate relevant information.• Provide a corresponding reference in the reference list atthe end of the assignment to accompany each citation.Final version of student’s workNurses play an important role in the reduction of infection rates in hospitals.Jones (2016) found that in the course of a year, a significant reduction inpatient infection rates was achieved as the result of an enhanced focus on thehand hygiene procedures of nursing staff.ReferenceJones, A. (2016). An investigation of infection rates in Australian hospitals.Journal of Australian Nursing, 12(2), 34–45. Styles of citation in-text: author prominent and information prominentWhere you place a citation depends on the emphasis you wish to apply and can be important to the argument you present.Author prominentWhen you want to emphasise the author, then you use the author’s name as part of your sentence. The citation and the paraphrase would start somethinglike this: Sherwood (2012) concludes that . . .Information prominentWhen you want to emphasise the information from an author, then your citation becomes information prominent. The citation will appear at the end of asentence. The citation and the paraphrase will look something like this: . . . as evidenced from a recent Australian study (Jones, 2012).An Abridged Guide to the APA Referencing Style P a g e | 8Academic Learning Centre SAE Edition T2, 2020How to summariseInstead of quoting or paraphrasing an author’s words, work or ideas, you may decide to summarise them. A summary includes a condensed form of theinformation, keeping the main point of the text but omitting detailed examples. The original idea or meaning must be maintained. Technical wordsremain. Summarising is useful when you use the idea expressed in the source but not the specific language. Other advantages of summarising includeexpressing the key point of a source in fewer words and demonstrating your understanding of the source more effectively. Steps for summarisingExamples1. Read the text several times and check the meaning of unfamiliarwords.2. Underline technical words as they should not be changed.3. Reread the text and make notes of the main points, leaving outexamples and evidence.4. Consider the main points as a whole and your purpose for usingthe information5. Think of words or phrases which have similar meaning to thosein the original text.6. Develop an outline using short sentences written in your words.Rearrange these sentences to suit your purpose.7. Remind your reader that you are summarising the work ofsomeone else by citing their name in the summary (citation).Developing learning modules for adult learners requires the designer oreducator to consider a range of appropriate strategies to match thestudents’ preferences for learning. Duverge (2016) outlines several ofthese preferences. Firstly, educators should appreciate that adult learnerswould prefer to learn independently or explore the topic; therefore, tasksshould be designed accordingly. Furthermore, adults like to know that theskills and knowledge they are expected to develop will be useful to theirlife or career.Here is an example showing ideas from several sources combinedinto one summary.Notice that a semi-colon has been used to separate each source inthe citation and that they are in alphabetical order.A key study by Lee (2016) found that many new university studentsexperience considerable anxiety when learning how to cope with theacademic literacy demands of assignment writing, and this finding iswell-supported in the literature (Brown, 2012; Green et al., 2009;Redding & Shipton, 2011). An Abridged Guide to the APA Referencing Style P a g e | 9Academic Learning Centre SAE Edition T2, 2020 Rules for summarisingExamples• Do not provide the same citation at the start and at the end ofeach sentence. Note that the sentence in bold is notreferenced.• Ensure the summarised version is much shorter than theoriginal text and that it is written in your own words.• Include a citation details (author and date) for each sourcecited.• “Although it is not required to provide a page or paragraphnumber in the citation for a paraphrase, you may include one…[to] help interested readers locate the relevant passagewithin a long or complex work” (APA, 2020, p. 269).• Do not change the intended meaning of the original text.• Do not use quotation marks because it is not a direct quote.• Enter the complete source details in your reference list.In this example the source of the bold sentence is not clear. The studentmust repeat the citation within that sentence.Developing learning modules for adult learners requires the designer oreducator to consider a range of appropriate strategies to match adultlearners’ preferences for learning. Duverge (2016) explains that adultlearners would prefer to learn independently or explore the topic; therefore,tasks should be designed accordingly. Adults like to know that the skillsand knowledge they are expected to develop will be useful to their lifeor career. Providing immediate feedback regarding errors or alternateexplanations to assist with learning new concepts is a strategy that enablesadults to learn from misunderstandings (Duverge, 2016). An Abridged Guide to the APA Referencing Style P a g e | 10Academic Learning Centre SAE Edition T2, 2020How to use direct quotationsYou are quoting when you use someone else’s exact words in your writing. Direct quoting is one way of showing that you have gathered informationfrom other authors to support your point of view or thesis. Do not overuse this technique. Instead, aim to paraphrase more of the words and ideas ofothers to show how well you understand them and can use the source to support your point of view. When you quote, you must indicate where thequotation begins and ends, and provide an in-text citation. The citation makes it clear whose words you are using and where you found them.A general rule in academic work is that no more than 10% of an assignment should be in the form of direct quotations. You can use short quotations(fewer than 40 words) or long quotations (40 words or more). Steps for using quotationsExample1. Read chosen texts and form ideas about yourtopic.2. Make a note of the ideas using your own words.3. Identify sentences in a journal article to supportthe idea. Make a note of this.4. Incorporate the quote into the paragraph byadding a few extra words just before the quotedwords to help the quote fit smoothly into thesentence.5. Provide the surname, year of publication and thepage number that the quote was taken from.6. Write the full publication details in the referencelist at the end of the assignment.Hand hygiene of medical staff → infection rates. Especially nurses → study found“Improved attention to hand hygiene reduced the rate of patient infections by 15% in atwelve-month period” (Jones, 2016, p. 34).Nurses play an important role in the reduction of infection rates in hospitals. A recentstudy showed “improved attention to hand hygiene reduced the rate of patientinfections by 15% in a twelve-month period” (Jones, 2016, p. 34). This indicates thathand hygiene can result in significant reductions in the rate of infection.ReferencesJones, A. (2016). An investigation of infection rates in Australian hospitals. Journal ofAustralian Nursing, 12(2), 34–45. An Abridged Guide to the APA Referencing Style P a g e | 11Academic Learning Centre SAE Edition T2, 2020 Rules for short quotationsExamplesShort quotations should:• have fewer than 40 words,• be incorporated into your sentence smoothlywithout disrupting the flow of your paragraph,• be enclosed in double quotation marks,• include the page number in the citation,• have the full stop after the citation if the quotationis information prominent,• have the full stop after the page number if thecitation is author prominent, and• be in the same font size as the rest of theassignment.If the text you want to quote starts with a capital letter, it isacceptable to change the upper-case letter to a lower-caseletter so that it fits with the grammar of your sentence;proper nouns remain uppercase (i.e., Australia or Robert).Do not correct any incorrect spelling, punctuation orgrammar in the original quotation; instead, insert the wordsic, italicised and in square brackets, directly after the errorin the quotation.Author prominentUnterhalter (2007) argues that “genderequality in schooling is an aspirationof global social justice” (p. 5).Information prominentIt has been argued that “gender equality inschooling is an aspiration of global socialjustice” (Unterhalter, 2007, p. 5).In Wilson’s (2013) report “thebuilding inspector estimated that there[sic] house was a fire hazard” (p. 32).In his report “the building inspectorestimated that there [sic] house was a firehazard” (Wilson, 2013, p. 32). An Abridged Guide to the APA Referencing Style P a g e | 12Academic Learning Centre SAE Edition T2, 2020 Rules for long quotationsExampleWhen using quotations of more than 40 words:• use them infrequently,• introduce it in your own words with the lead-instatement ending with a colon (:),• separate it from the lead-in statement and fromthe text that follows with Enter,• do not enclose it in quotation marks,• begin each long quotation on a new line,• indent them by 1.27 cm from the left margin(Ctrl + M), and• apply double line spacing,• no added space before or after the quotation.For a long information prominent quotation, the full stopgoes after the quotation and before the citation.Information prominentThough many may recoil from makingtheir private lives public in digital spaces,there are obvious benefits for youngpeople:The public life is fun. It’screative. It’s where their friendsare. It’s theatre, but it’s alsocommunity: in this linked, loggedworld, you have a place to thinkout loud and be listened to, tomeet strangers and go deeper withfriends. (Nussbaum, 2007, p. 27)Author prominentRowan (2001) summarises the effects of alimited world view when she states that:This poses a real challenge foreducators. In many cases, we aredrawing on educational resources,or curriculum documents which arein themselves fairly narrow in theview of the world they represent.This helps to make this view seemnatural and normal. (p. 39)This view exemplifies the . . . An Abridged Guide to the APA Referencing Style P a g e | 13Academic Learning Centre SAE Edition T2, 2020 Rules for long quotationsExampleIf you need to omit a word or words from a quotation,indicate this with an ellipsis (three dots).If you need to add a word or words to a quotation, putthem in square brackets [ ].The use of emotive language can beeffective in influencing audiences tobelieve in a certain way:This passage attacks everyone whoopposes the introduction of identitycards on personal terms. It also makesunsubstantiated assumptions about thebackgrounds and economiccircumstances of opponents in orderto undermine their credibility.[Therefore], the passage …demonstrates flawed reasoning.(Cottrell, 2011, p. 117)Cottrell (2011) explains how emotivelanguage can be used to persuadeaudiences:The passage encourages complicity inthe audience. By abusing opponents,the author encourages a divisionbetween in-groups, or “people likethem”, or “people like us”. [Inaddition,] the passage draws on emotivesubjects, referring to crime and securityto win over the audience. (p. 117) An Abridged Guide to the APA Referencing Style P a g e | 14Academic Learning Centre SAE Edition T2, 2020How to introduce quotations and paraphrased sentencesVerbs that help with author prominent referencingTo assist with making citations part of your own writing and providing more information about the status of the information you are citing, you need touse signal words and phrases. Your choice of words can indicate whether the authors you are citing are presenting established findings, putting forwarda case, making a suggestion or drawing conclusions. In addition, your work may become tedious to read if every quotation or paraphrase is introducedin the same manner. The signal word often becomes a place in writing where repetitiveness occurs. Table 1 provides examples of signal words useful forintegrating other authors’ ideas and words into academic writing.Table 1Signal Words for Use with In-text Citations Say or MeanArgueExplainOtherstateassertdisputedescribeagreeremarkadddisagreeclarifyquestionmaintainconfirmquestionjustifyofferhold the viewfinddebatereasonpredictpoint outaffirmclaimshowidentifyhighlightimplydemonstrateemphasisecontendsuggest Use present-tense to refer to research (though there are important exceptions).Note. If you are citing more than one author, remember to change the verb form:Single author: Smith (2020) argues that . . .Multiple authors: Jones and Brown (2020) argue that . . .An Abridged Guide to the APA Referencing Style P a g e | 15Academic Learning Centre SAE Edition T2, 2020How to use tables, figures or imagesSometimes it is useful to include reproductions or copies of items such as photos, graphs, tables, diagrams and drawings in your work. These items maybe used as evidence to support academic arguments in the text. They can be used to present complex information clearly and effectively.A table contains information that is organised using columns and rows. Figures can be maps, charts, diagrams, drawings, graphs and photographs. Theymust be labelled, cited and referenced, and each is done in a particular way. Tables and figures are often used in reports, but rarely appear in essays.They may be copied from another’s work, adapted from one or multiple sources of information or may be data from your own research. Steps for using tablesExample• Ask yourself if you need to provide exactnumerical data or compare and contrast valuesin a table or if the trends or patterns provided bya graph would be better used in this case.• Decide whether you need the whole table or partof the table.• Refer to the table in the body of the report.Integrating the table as if it were a quote or partof the paragraph will assist your reader tounderstand why you included it.• Label the table within the text with a number e.g.,Table 1, Table 2 etc. If the table is placed withinan appendix, it takes the appendix letter and anumber e.g., Table A1.• If the table is required in text and does not takethe whole page, place the table at either the topor bottom of the page. Add one blank doublespaced line between the table and any text toimprove readability.As seen in Table 2, asylum claims in 2013-2014 dropped in both Australia and NewZealand but increased in other countries.Table 2New Asylum Claims Lodged in Selected Regions by Semester 2013–2014Note. The table shows that Europe had the highest rates of new asylum claims 2013–2014.Adapted from World at War: UNHCR Global Trends: Forced Displacement in 2014, byUnited Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, 2015 (https://www.unhcr.org/enau/statistics/country/556725e69/unhcr-global-trends-2014.html). An Abridged Guide to the APA Referencing Style P a g e | 16Academic Learning Centre SAE Edition T2, 2020 Rules for using tablesExampleAbove the table• Provide a table number in bold font. No italics.(e.g., Table 1)• Numbered in the order of appearance in the text.• The table title appears one double-spaced linebelow the table number. Provide a brief butdescriptive title. The title is italicised, and the firstletter of all major words is capitalised (title case).Below the table• Under the table, start with the word “note” initalics followed by a full stop. Then provide abrief outline to help readers understand the table.Include any definitions of abbreviations e.g.,Note. This table demonstrates . . .• After the outline, cite that the source is either“From” or “Adapted from” another resource:See Appendix K for specific templates, citationexamples and reference list examples.• Do not include the original table number, headingor caption when you copy these items. The tablenumber should be the correct number for yourwork.The population increase through immigration had the biggest impact on the heavilypopulated states, and the Northern Territory had the smallest increase (see Table 3).Table 3Number of Migrants by State and Territory 2015–16Note. The table demonstrates that New South Wales and Victoria had the highest rates ofmigration 2015–2016. Adapted from 3412.0 Migration, Australia, 2015–2016, by AustralianBureau of Statistics, 2017 (https://www.abs.gov.au/AUSSTATS/[email protected]/Lookup/3412.0Main+Features72015-16?OpenDocument). Note. See Appendix K for specific templates, caption examples and reference list examples.An Abridged Guide to the APA Referencing Style P a g e | 17Academic Learning Centre SAE Edition T2, 2020 Steps for using figuresExampleSteps for choosing to use figures are similar to those providedfor tables in the previous section. Figures can be maps, charts,diagrams, drawings, graphs and photographs. Follow these rulesif you copy or adapt a figure to use in your assignment (similarto the right) or an image like the one seen below.• The figure number (e.g., Figure 1) appears above thefigure title and image in bold font. Not italics.• The figure title appears one double-spaced line belowthe figure number. Provide brief but descriptive titleand capitalise the figure title in italic title case.• Make sure that copied figures are a suitable size foryour reader to view. For the image portion of thefigure (e.g., axis labels) use font size 8-14 points.• Under the figure, first provide a brief outline to helpreaders understand the figure. Include any definitionsof abbreviations e.g., Note. This figure demonstrates…• After the outline, cite that the source is either “From”or “Adapted from” another resource: See Appendix Kfor specific templates, citation examples and referencelist examples.• Do not include the original figure number, heading orcaption when you copy these items. The figure numbershould be the correct number for your work.• Number figures in the order of appearance in the text.• Figures must be referred to in the main body of the textby their number: Figure 2.It is evident that migration to Australia has increased, which is adding to thediversity of the Australian population. Additionally, the Australian Bureau ofStatistics (ABS, 2017) states that overseas migration is now the principal factor forpopulation increase within Australia (see Figure 2).Figure 2Net Overseas Migration in Australia 1976 to 2016Note. This figure demonstrates how Australian migration peeked in 2010. Adapted from 2071.0Cultural Diversity in Australia, 2016, by Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2017(https://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/[email protected]/Lookup/by%20Subject/2071.0~2016~Main%20Features~Cultural%20Diversity%20Article~60). An Abridged Guide to the APA Referencing Style P a g e | 18Academic Learning Centre SAE Edition T2, 2020 Rules for using figuresExampleFigures, which include maps, charts, diagrams, drawings andphotographs, as used in most student assignments are covered byAustralian copyright laws, i.e., you do not have to pay to use theimage. However, you are still required to cite each figure (belowthe image) and reference them, in the reference list.See example citation on right: The figure is “From” a resourcei.e., the figure has not been changed. When the figure has beenadapted or changed in any way, use “Adapted from”. SeeAppendix K for guidance on providing a citation below the figurewhen a figure is from a journal article, book, book chapter orwebpage/ web. Appendix K also provides guidance on how toreference figures from different types of sources.When including a figure in a work that will be published, youmust obtain permission from the copyright holder or use a figurethat is free to use. For full details of copyright attributions, see p.391 of the APA manual (7th ed.). Webpages where you canobtain free to use figures (mostly photographs and other images)include:• Wikimedia• Creative Commons• Pexels• Flickr (select “Free images”)• iStock (select “Royalty Free Images”).Even if a figure is freely available, you are still required to citeand reference each figure. See Appendix K. No citation is neededif you created the image i.e., if you are the artist (photographer,painter etc.).CQUniversity’s Business graduate, Wayne Blair has an extensive list of accolades,including Best Supporting Actor in a Television Drama 2018 in Mystery Road andthe director of the highest-grossing Australian film 2012, The Sapphires. Wayne,seen second from the left in Figure 3, has also acted in the Netflix film Extraction.Figure 3Wayne Blair with the Cast and Director of the Film ExtractionNote. From Look Out for the CQUni Alumnus in Netflix’s Smash Hit Movie, by CQUniversity, 2020(https://www.cqu.edu.au/cquninews/stories/general-category/2020-general/look-out-for-the-cqunialumnus-in-netflixs-smash-hit-movie). An Abridged Guide to the APA Referencing Style P a g e | 19Academic Learning Centre SAE Edition T2, 2020Section 3: How to create a reference listAt the end of your assignment, you will need to include a list of all the sources you have used in your assignment. This is known as a reference list.Your reference list will need to be formatted using APA style.This section contains some general guidelines that you will need to follow when writing your reference list. However, there are some more specificguidelines in the form of examples in Section 5 that will show you how to reference many different types of sources. There is also a Quick Guide forReferencing Multiple Authors (Appendix J).Organising your resources is a useful skill, so as you decide what will be useful for your research and writing it is important to generate a draft referencelist to avoid losing any relevant information about the source details. This process can be time consuming, but once done it provides a useful tool fordeveloping in-text citations. Remember to check this initial list against those used in-text and remove any unused items because a reference list shouldonly include references that have been used within your assignment. The reference list does NOT include all your background reading.Steps for creating a reference listWhen including a source in the reference list you must provide the reader with enough information to locate that source. The following pagesdemonstrate how specific sources are included in the reference list. This guide does not contain an exhaustive list of examples, so at times you will needto problem solve to decide how to reference the source you used.There are two key steps when writing your reference list:Step 1. Find the relevant details shown in the following figures. Look at the examples that follow and in Section 5; there is a pattern to this task.Step 2. Format the details according to APA style. Each time you gather information it is placed in a similar order in the citation.An Abridged Guide to the APA Referencing Style P a g e | 20Academic Learning Centre SAE Edition T2, 2020Steps for adding publication details to the reference list Referencing books and ebooksExampleFor a book or an ebook, the following elementsshould be presented in this order:1. Author’s surname (family name) comes firstfollowed by a comma and then the initials.Provide a space between initials. Thesecond initial represents the middle name.Keep the order of the authors’ names.2. Place the copyright year in parenthesesfollowed by a full stop.3. Title of the book is in italics and sentencecase i.e., capitalise the first letter of the titleand any proper nouns. End with a full stop.4. Capitalise the first letter of any subtitle.5. If the book has an edition or volumenumber, placed the number in parenthesesafter the title. This is not in italics. If both,add edition number first and volumesecond, separated by a comma.6. Publisher (No publisher location needed.)7. Include a DOI (Digital Object Identifier)number when available:https://doi.org/10.xxxx/xxxxxxxDo not include a URL or database URL forebooks in academic databases. Include aURL for ebooks found on other websites.No URL is needed for hard copies.Hard Copy Book: Elements 1-6Cottrell, S. (2019). The study skills handbook (5th ed.). Macmillan Education.Ebook: Elements 1-7Štumpf, M. (2017). Electromagnetic reciprocity in antenna theory.https://doi.org/10.1002/9781119466420 Note. The ordinal number is not in superscript, e.g., 4th not 4th.An Abridged Guide to the APA Referencing Style P a g e | 21Academic Learning Centre SAE Edition T2, 2020More detail about use of abbreviations, acronyms and the technical terms used in referencing can be found in Appendices A, B, C, D, E and F. Referencing a chapter in an edited book.ExampleFor a chapter in a book or an ebook, the followingelements should be presented in this order:1. Chapter author’s surname (family name)followed by a comma and then the initials.2. Place the copyright year in parenthesesfollowed by a full stop.3. Title of the book chapter in sentence case i.e.,capitalise the first letter of the title and anyproper nouns. End with a full stop.4. Editors’ initials followed by surname. Place(Ed.) for one editor and (Eds.) for multiple editorsafter the editors’ names.5. Title of book in sentence case and in italics.6. If the book has an edition or volume number,placed the number in parentheses after the title.This is not in italics. If both, add edition numberfirst and volume second, separated by a comma.7. Page range of the chapter.8. Publisher (No publisher location needed.)9. Include a DOI (Digital Object Identifier)number for ebooks when available:https://doi.org/10.xxxx/xxxxxxxDo not include a URL or database URL forebooks in academic databases. Include a URL forebooks found on other websites. No URLs neededfor hard copies.Example: PrintLangtree, T. (2018). Self-concept. In A. Berman, S. Snyder, T. Levett-Jones, T. Dwyer,M. Hales, N. Harvey, T. Langtree, L. Moxham, K. Reid-Searl & D. Stanley (Eds.),Kozier and Erb’s fundamentals of nursing: Concepts, process and practice (4thAustralian ed., Vol. 3, pp. 1028–1043). Pearson Australia.Example: EbookLichosik, D. (2019). Robotic surgery. In F., Charney-Sonnek & A. E., Murphy (Eds.),Principles of nursing in oncology (pp. 107–130). Springer.https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-76457-3 An Abridged Guide to the APA Referencing Style P a g e | 22Academic Learning Centre SAE Edition T2, 2020 Referencing journal articles with a DOIExampleThe following elements should be presented in thisorder:1. Author’s surname (family name) comesfirst followed by a comma and the initials.Provide a space between initials. Keep theorder of the authors’ names.2. Place the year of publication inparentheses followed by a full stop.3. Title of article is in sentence case i.e.,capitalise the first letter of the title and firstletter of proper nouns (Australia). End witha full stop. No italics.4. Capitalise the first letter of any subtitle.5. Title of journal in italics and title case i.e.,capitalise the first letter of all major words.End with a comma.6. Volume number in italics.7. Issue number in parentheses. No gap. Noitalics. If there is no issue number, followthe volume number with a comma.8. Include article page range e.g., 25–45.9. Https DOIs are hyperlinked (active, bluefont and underlined). When an old DOInumber is provided as doi:10.xxxx/xxxxx orhttp://dx.doi.org, change the DOI numberto the https://doi.org/10.xxxx/xxxxxformat.ExampleJarvis, D., Stoeckl, N., Addison, J., Larson, S., Hill, R., Pert, P., & Watkin Lui, F. (2018).Are Indigenous land and sea management programs a pathway to Indigenouseconomic independence? The Rangeland Journal, 40(4), 415–429.https://doi.org/10.1071/RJ18051 An Abridged Guide to the APA Referencing Style P a g e | 23Academic Learning Centre SAE Edition T2, 2020 Journal article without a DOIExampleFor journals retrieved from academic databases, noURL is required. Only include elements 1-8. Seeprevious page for details.Examples of academic databases: APA PsycNET,PsycINFO, Academic Search Complete, CINAHL,Ebook Central, EBSCOhost, Google Scholar, JSTOR(excluding primary source collections), MEDLINE,Nexis Uni, Ovid, ProQuest), PubMed, ScienceDirect,Scopus and Web of Science etc.• For hard copy journals without a DOI, noURL is required.• Exceptions: Articles found in UptoDate seeSection 5.• For journals with no DOI and not found in anacademic database, include the URL locationafter the page numbers.See the flow chart in Appendix G to help you selectthe correct information when referencing yourjournal article.ExampleMilne, J. (2017). Accurate chronic wound assessment in the community setting. Journal ofCommunity Nursing, 31(2), 25–28. An Abridged Guide to the APA Referencing Style P a g e | 24Academic Learning Centre SAE Edition T2, 2020 Referencing a legal caseExampleFor a legal case the following elements should bepresented in the following order:1. The case name (in italics). Only the name of thefirst plaintiff and the first defendant should becited. If there are multiple proceedings betweenthe parties, include the number of proceedingsin square brackets after the case name.2. The year of case3. The volume number4. Reporter abbreviation5. The starting page of the source. In addition,when referring to a specific page in the case,add a comma and the page number of thereference after the starting page e.g., 1, 5.6. If the country is not clear from the case name,provide the country abbreviation in parenthesesafter the first page number, followed by a fullstop e.g., (U.K.). (Austl.).In-text citationAccording to the precedent set in Mabo v Queensland (1989), it is possible to claim . . .. . . (Mabo v Queensland, 1989).Reference exampleMabo v Queensland (1989) 166 CLR 186.Mabo v Queensland [No. 2] (1992) 175 CLR 1, 5. An Abridged Guide to the APA Referencing Style P a g e | 25Academic Learning Centre SAE Edition T2, 2020 Referencing a webpage or a standalonedocument on the webExampleFor information on a webpage, the followingelements should be presented in the following order:1. Name of the author or organisation ordepartment. End with a full stop.2. Year of publication in parentheses. Themonth and day can be provided if availablee.g., (2020, February 25). Provide asspecific a date that is available on thewebpage. Use “n.d.” if no date is provided.End with a full stop.3. Title of article is in sentence case i.e.,capitalise the first letter of the title and firstletter of proper nouns (Australia). End witha full stop.4. If a subtitle is present, add a colon (:) andcapitalize the first letter of the subtitle. Endwith a full stop.5. If the author and the site name are thesame, omit the site name from thereference. See Example 1.6. URLs are hyperlinked (active, blue font andunderlined). The words “retrieved from”are not required. On occasion a retrievaldate may be required when the informationis subject to change and is not achieved;see Section 5 for more examples.Example 1: When the author and the site name are the same, omit site name.Department of Education. (2017, April 10). Child care reforms pass parliament.https://www.education.gov.au/news/child-care-reforms-pass-parliamentExample 2: When the author and site name are different, include site name.Grove, J. (2020, January 30). What can be done to resolve academic authorship disputes?Times Higher Education. https://www.timeshighereducation.com/features/what-canbe-done-resolve-academic-authorship-disputes An Abridged Guide to the APA Referencing Style P a g e | 26Academic Learning Centre SAE Edition T2, 2020 Referencing a webpage or a standalonedocument on the webExampleLong URLsCut and paste URLs to avoid transcript errors. Donot change the URL. If the URL is very long, it isacceptable to shorten a URL using URL shorteningservices. Ensure that it links directly to the correctlocation.ExampleAustralian Bureau of Statistics. (2016, November 18). Disability, ageing and carers,Australia: Summary of findings, 2015 (cat. no. 4430.0).https://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/[email protected]/mf/4430.0 Rules for adding publication details to thereference listExamplesIdentify the type of resource you are using (Journal,book, book chapter, webpage etc.) and then followthe guidance on how to include all the relevantpublication details.For guidance on how to format your reference list,see Appendix H.ReferencesBunda, T. (2017). Special issue: Indigenous education research. The Australian EducationResearcher, 44(1), 1–4.Cottrell, S. (2019). The study skills handbook (5th ed.). Macmillan Education.Martin, S. (2020, January 12). Scott Morrison looks for wriggle room on climate as hedetects the whiff of backlash. The Guardian, https://www.theguardian.com/australianews/2020/jan/12/scott-morrison-looks-for-wriggle-room-on-climate-as-he-detectsthe-whiff-of-backlashOumlil, A. B., & Williams, A. J. (2011). Financial services and the elderly poor:Development and implementation of sustainable intervention strategies. Journal ofFinancial Services Marketing, 15(4), 274–286. https://doi.org/10.1057/fsm.2010.23 An Abridged Guide to the APA Referencing Style P a g e | 27Academic Learning Centre SAE Edition T2, 2020 Rules about authors’ namesExamples• In the reference list, the surname of each authorneeds to be spelt, and all other names are to bepresented as initials.• Therefore, it is important to identify the author’ssurname. In the examples provided, “Cottrell” isalways the surname, and other names need to bepresented as initials.• When an author has two or more initials, thesecond or third initial represents the middle names.• Titles such as Doctor or Professor are notincluded.Stella Cottrell = Cottrell, S.Cottrell, Stella = Cottrell, S.Stella Maria Cottrell = Cottrell, S. M.Stella M. Cottrell = Cottrell, S. M. Rules for using capitalisation in a reference listSentence Case• For sentence case, capitalise the first letter in the first word; all other words are in lower case. The exceptions are names or proper nouns(e.g., Australia).• Within a reference list, the title of a book, journal article, webpage or standalone document is in sentence case regardless of how the titles iscapitalised in the original. See example below.• If the title contains a colon, the first letter after the colon is capitalised.Title case• For title case, capitalise the first letter of all major words. Do not capitalise articles, (i.e., “the”, “a”, “an” etc.) prepositions (e.g., “for”,“on”, “off”, “about” etc.) or conjunctions (e.g., “and”, “but”, “or” etc.). Capitalise the first letter of the word “the” if it is the first word inthe title. Capitalise the first letter of any preposition of four or more letters: “between”, “from”.• Journal names, businesses and organisations require title case (capitalise the first letter of all major words). An Abridged Guide to the APA Referencing Style P a g e | 28Academic Learning Centre SAE Edition T2, 2020 Rules and examples for capitalising titles intext and in a reference listExamplesStandalone documentA standalone document is a book, ebook, report,dissertation, thesis, film, video, podcast, TV series,YouTube video, artwork, map, music album andunpublished manuscript.In-text capitalisation: Italic and title case(Capitalise all major words.)Reference list: Italic and sentence case (Capitalisethe first letter of the title and the first letter of anyproper nouns.) See Section 5 for referencing a book,ebook, podcast, YouTube etc.In-text capitalisationThe statistics from The National Report on Schooling in Australia 2016 indicate that…(Australian Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting Authority [ACARA], 2018).Reference example: ReportAustralian Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting Authority. (2018). The national report onschooling in Australia 2016. https://www.acara.edu.au/reporting/national-report-onschooling-in-australia/national-report-on-schooling-in-australia-2016 An Abridged Guide to the APA Referencing Style P a g e | 29Academic Learning Centre SAE Edition T2, 2020 Rules and examples for capitalising titles intext and in a reference listExamplesPart of a greater wholeAn item in a greater whole is a journal article, bookchapter, ebook chapter, newspaper article, magazinearticle, blog post, television episode, webisode,webpage, tweet, Facebook update, encyclopaediaentry, Wikipedia entry, dictionary entry and song.In-text capitalisation: Television EpisodeThe Mystery Road episode “The Truth” explores themes of . . . (McGregor & Perkins, 2018).Reference example: Television EpisodeMcGregor, S (Writer), & Perkins, R (Director). (2018, July 1). The truth (Season 1, Episode 6)[TV series episode]. In J. Sen, I (Executive producer), Mystery Road. BunyaProductions & Golden Road Productions.In-text capitalisation: Inside double quotationmarks, title case (Capitalise all major words).Generally speaking, avoid including the whole title ofa document such as a journal article unlessabsolutely necessary.Reference list: No quotation marks, sentence case(Capitalise the first letter of the title and the firstletter of any proper nouns: Australia.). Note. SeeSection 5 for guidance on how to reference a bookchapter, ebook chapter, newspaper article, tweet etc. An Abridged Guide to the APA Referencing Style P a g e | 30Academic Learning Centre SAE Edition T2, 2020Section 4: What is Academic Integrity?Incorrect referencing techniques (even if they are innocent mistakes) can lead to problems with “plagiarism”. The word “plagiarism” comes from theLatin word “plagiarius” which means “kidnapper”. According to the McMillan Dictionary, plagiarism is “the process of taking another person’s work,ideas, or words, and using them as if they were your own” (McMillan Dictionary, n.d.). In other words, you would be plagiarising if you copied theideas, words or thoughts of the authors of your research without acknowledging them in your paragraphs, even if you have paraphrased. This includesusing another student’s work or your own previously submitted work, without acknowledging or citing it. Always act with integrity and use correctreferencing techniques to make sure you do not accidentally plagiarise someone else’s work. Plagiarism is considered serious misconduct and must beavoided at all times. You should avoid plagiarism and report it because:• Plagiarism is unethical.• Plagiarism does not allow you to develop as an academic writer.• Plagiarism attracts severe penalties.How will they know I have plagiarised?While enrolled at CQUni, each time you upload an assignment it is processed through the Turnitin program. This is a program that checks for similaritybetween your work and others; therefore, identifying possible plagiarism in your assignment. You can learn to use Turnitin to check your assignment foraccidental plagiarism before you submit your final copy to your lecturer. Watch the video:https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=44n03oRjwCg&feature=youtu.beIf it seems you have plagiarised, you will be sent an email to advise you that plagiarism has been detected in your assignment. You will need to answerthe email and explain what happened. You may also be required to attend some academic integrity training. You may face severe academic penalties,including possibly failing and being withdrawn from the course.An Abridged Guide to the APA Referencing Style P a g e | 31Academic Learning Centre SAE Edition T2, 2020Steps for avoiding plagiarism Steps for avoiding plagiarismRecord the sources you use.Before beginning to take notes from any source, record all the bibliographic information.Take careful notes.Take carefully written notes. Develop a system to distinguish between what you have copied directly fromthe source, (directly quoted) what you have put into your own words (paraphrased or summarised) and yourcomments about the information in that source.Paraphrase appropriately.Change words and structure of the original work keeping only technical words the same.Use in-text citations in every writtendraft.Get into the habit of including citations in-text (author, date) as you write each draft of your assignment.Keep your work secure.Avoid sharing paper or electronic drafts of your work with other students.Use Turnitin to check for textmatching on assignment drafts.You can use the Turnitin software to check your draft assignment for evidence of matching text beforesubmission. Section 5: How to create in-text citations and reference list itemsThis Abridged Guide to the APA Referencing Style (7th ed.) provides referencing guidance about how to cite specific sources in the text of yourassignment (in-text citations) and in the reference list. However, this guide does not contain an exhaustive list of examples, so it may be necessary toexamine more than one example or a combination of examples to identify the best way to reference a specific item. Sometimes you need to problemsolve to decide how to reference the item you have used.When adding a reference to the reference list, you must provide the reader with enough information to enable them to locate the source. The followingspecific examples of referencing, and the examples provided in Section 3, will help you to work out what kind of information you need to collect aboutyour source. Find one of the examples in this guide similar to your source and gather similar information for your reference. Then if you are still unsure,you can ask the Academic Learning Centre (ALC) to assist you. Look out for ALC advertised workshops: https://www.cqu.edu.au/student-life/servicesand-facilities/academic-learning-centreAn Abridged Guide to the APA Referencing Style P a g e | 32Academic Learning Centre SAE Edition T2, 2020Books (Hard copy) In-text citation examplesModel to follow in the reference listOne authorInclude the author’s family name and theyear of publication.Rogers (2015) outlines three . . .Rogers (2015) claims “. . .” (p. 10).Rogers, B. (2015). Classroom behaviour: A practical guide toeffective teaching, behaviour management andcolleague support. Sage Publications.Two authorsFor citations, only use an ampersand (&)when the authors’ names are given withinparentheses in-text. Use ‘and’ when theauthors’ names are incorporated in thetext. For the reference list, use & betweenthe last two authors’ names.White and Wyn (2013) outline . . .Gender equality and indigenous youthare two points of discussion coveredin detail (White & Wyn, 2013).White, R., & Wyn, J. (2013). Youth and society. OxfordUniversity Press.Three to twenty authorsIn-text citationInclude the first author’s surname followedby “et al.” (meaning “and others”) andthe year.Reference listInclude the family names and initials ofALL the authors. Separate the authors withcommas and use an ampersand (&) beforethe last author.Palladino et al. (2016) . . .. . . (Palladino et al., 2016).Palladino, L., Green, M., & Roemuss, K. (2016). Professionalhairdressing. Cengage Learning Australia. An Abridged Guide to the APA Referencing Style P a g e | 33Academic Learning Centre SAE Edition T2, 2020 Twenty-one or more authorsIn-text citationInclude the first author’s surname followedby “et al.” (meaning “and others”) andthe year.Reference listIf there are 21 or more authors, give thenames of the first 19 authors followed byan ellipsis (three full stops) and the nameof the last author/editor, without the use ofan ampersand.See Appendix J for guidance on how toreference multiple authors in a referencelist.Wiskunde et al. (2019) states . . .. . . (Wiskunde et al., 2019).Wiskunde, B., Arslan, M., Fischer, P., Nowak, L., Van denBerg, O., Coetzee, L., Juárez, U., Riyaziyyat, E.,Wang, C., Zhang, I., Li, P., Yang, R., Kumar, B., Xu,A., Martinez, R., McIntosh, V., Ibáñez, L. M.,Mäkinen, G., Virtanen, E., . . . Kovács, A. (2019).Indie pop rocks mathematics: Twenty One Pilots,Nicolas Bourbaki, and the empty set. Journal ofImprobable Mathematics, 27(1), 1935–1968.https://doi.org/10.0000/3mp7y-537Multiple works by the same author,published in different yearsIn-text citationWhen including two works by the sameauthor in the same parentheses, place themin chronological order according to thedate of publication (i.e., oldest to newest).Recent research has indicated that . . .(Brown, 2014, 2015).Brown, M. (2014). Wipeout water world: An accountingpractice set using MYOB AccountRight version 19.Pearson Education.Brown, M. (2015). Pedro’s Pizzas: An accounting practice setusing MYOB AccountRight version 19. PearsonEducation. An Abridged Guide to the APA Referencing Style P a g e | 34Academic Learning Centre SAE Edition T2, 2020 Multiple works by same author/s, sameyearIn-text citationWhen including multiple works by thesame author published in the same year,add a lower-case letter (a, b, c, etc.) nextto the year. The letters relate to thealphabetical order of the titles.Reference listLetters should also be included next to theyear.According to Ahmed (2013a), thePakistan army were called to restoreorder in the Punjab province.Ahmed (2013b) recounts thechronological events of the PunjabProvince of British India.Ahmed, I. (2013a). The Pakistan garrison state: Origins,evolutions, consequences (1947–2011) (1st ed.).Oxford University Press.Ahmed, I. (2013b). The Punjab partitioned and cleansed.Rupa Publications India.Works by different authors with thesame family name, same yearIn-text citationIf there are two or more authors with thesame surname, include the first author’sinitials in all in text citations, even if theyear of publication differs.Reference listBe sure to place these sources inalphabetical order according to theirsurname and then according to their firstinitial and finally the date.The role that humankind plays inshaping . . . (A. Jones, 2012).G. Jones (2012) pointed out theimportance of sustainability in themanagement of certain environments.Jones, A. (2012). Human geography: The basics. Routledge.Jones, G. (2012). Current research in sustainability. TildePublishing. An Abridged Guide to the APA Referencing Style P a g e | 35Academic Learning Centre SAE Edition T2, 2020 No author but an authoring body(institution, corporation or otherorganisation)It has been suggested that “. . .”(Organization for EconomicCooperation & Development[OECD], 2014, p. 23).Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development.(2014). Leadership for 21st century learning.Brookings Institution Press.Source within a source: SecondarysourceWhen referring to an author (primarysource) read in another publication(secondary source).Note. Use secondary sources sparingly.Only use when the original work is not inprint, unavailable, or not available inEnglish. Try to find and use the primarysource if possible.In-text citationFirst, cite the original source of the idea(primary reference) and follow this withthe source in which you found it(secondary source).Reference listInclude only the author/s of the secondarysource (i.e., the source you actually read).Crawford et al. (1998, as cited inEvans et al., 2016) suggest that“spirituality underpins the meaningthat people make of illness” (p. 6).Crawford et al. (1998, as cited inEvans et al., 2016) suggest that manypatients make sense of illness throughtheir spirituality.Research suggests that many patientsmake sense of illness through theirspirituality (Crawford et al., 1998, ascited in Evans et al., 2016).Evans, K., Nizette, D., & O’Brien, A. (2016). Psychiatric andmental health nursing (4th ed.). Elsevier. An Abridged Guide to the APA Referencing Style P a g e | 36Academic Learning Centre SAE Edition T2, 2020 Referring to two primary sources withinthe one secondary sourceNote. Use secondary sources sparingly.Only use when the original work is not inprint, unavailable, or not available inEnglish. Try to find and use the primarysource if possible.Thoughtful listening enhances apatient’s sense of humility(Gunasekara et al., 2014; Shattell etal., 2006, as cited in Evans et al.,2016).Evans, K., Nizette, D., & O’Brien, A. (2016). Psychiatric andmental health nursing (4th ed.). Elsevier.No date can be establishedUse this infrequently.Lansdown (n.d.) found “. . .” (p. 13).Lansdown, M. (n.d.). Bridging courses. CQUniversity.Several sources are cited at onceDo not overdo this.Alphabetise according to the name of thefirst author in each source. Use semicolonsto separate sources. List each author as aseparate entry in the reference list.Paraphrasing is essential in order to citethe essence of what the authors all agreeupon.Research suggests . . . (Jones et al.,2017; McCrae & Nolan, 2016).Recent studies (Jones et al., 2017;McCrae & Nolan, 2016) state . . .Jones et al. (2017) and McCrae andNolan (2016) agree that . . .Jones, J. S., Rogers, V. L., & Fitzpatrick, J. J. (2017).Psychiatric mental health nursing: An interpersonalapproach (2nd ed.). Springer Publishing Company.McCrae, N., & Nolan, P. (2016). The story of nursing inBritish mental hospitals: Echoes from the corridors.Routledge.Second or later editionReference listIf it is not the original work or first edition,include the number and the abbreviation‘ed.’ after the title in parentheses.Mentors have multiple roles, but “thecore of mentoring is partnership”(Evans et al., 2016, p. 43).Evans, K., Nizette, D., & O’Brien, A. (2016). Psychiatric andmental health nursing (4th ed.). Elsevier. An Abridged Guide to the APA Referencing Style P a g e | 37Academic Learning Centre SAE Edition T2, 2020 Edited bookA book which includes chapters written bydifferent authors.When referencing one chapter from anedited book, reference it as a “chapter inan edited book”. See below.Daly et al. (2017) explore how thecontext of nursing has changed.Daly, J., Speedy, S., & Jackson, D. (Eds.). (2017). Contexts ofnursing: An introduction. Elsevier.Chapter in an edited bookIn-text citationThe author of the chapter is used for thecitations.Usher and Holmes (2017) argue . . .. . . (Usher & Holmes, 2017).Usher, K., & Holmes, C. (2017). Reflective practice. In J.Daly, S. Speedy, & D. Jackson (Eds.), Contexts ofnursing: An introduction (5th ed., pp. 111–127).Elsevier.One volume of multi-volume workWorld Health Organization (2013)outlines that . . .. . . (World Health Organization[WHO], 2013).World Health Organization. (2013). Manual of diagnosticultrasound (2nd ed., Vol. 2). https://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/43881/ 9789241547451_eng.pdf?sequence=1One issue or volume in an edited seriesBody image is influenced by complexfactors (Healey, 2014).Healey, J. (Ed.). (2014). Issues in society: Positive body image(Vol. 372). Spinney Press. An Abridged Guide to the APA Referencing Style P a g e | 38Academic Learning Centre SAE Edition T2, 2020Ebooks In-text citation examplesModel to follow in the reference listEbook available on the webIn-text citationFor direct quote in ebooks, use an approachthat best helps the reader to find thequotation:• (Author, date, p. 3)• (Author, date, Chapter or section name,para. 3)• (Author, date, “Shortened chapter orsection name”, para. 3)Reference listInclude the author, date, book title, publisherand a DOI or publisher URL. If the ebookhas no DOI and is found in an academicdatabase, no URL is needed.“. . .” (Štumpf, 2017, p. 5).Štumpf (2017) defines . . .Koutoukidis et al. (2016) propose . . .Štumpf, M. (2017). Electromagnetic reciprocity inantenna theory. IEEE Press.https://doi.org/10.1002/9781119466420Koutoukidis, G., Stainton, K., & Hughson, J. (2016).Tabbner’s nursing care: Theory and practice (7thed.). Elsevier.Ebook chapter available on the webPiirto (2016) argues that “. . .” (p. 134).Piirto, J. (2016). The five core attitudes and seven I’s ofthe creative process. In R. A., Beghetto & J. C.,Kaufman (Eds.), Nurturing creativity in theclassroom (2nd ed., pp. 131–161). CambridgeUniversity Press. https://doi.org/10.1017/9781316212899.011 An Abridged Guide to the APA Referencing Style P a g e | 39Academic Learning Centre SAE Edition T2, 2020 In-text citation examplesModel to follow in the reference listEbook available via ACQUIREReference listIf the ebook is only found in ACQUIRE, usethe database URL. If the ebook is widelyavailable in academic databases, no URL isneeded.According to Guo (2016), the maincategories of differential equations . . .Guo, W. (2016). Advanced mathematics for engineeringand applied sciences (3rd ed.). Pearson.Diagnostic and Statistical Manual ofMental Disorders (DSM)American Psychiatric Association(APA, 2013) . . .. . . (American Psychiatric Association[APA], 2013).American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic andstatistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.).https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.books.9780890425596 An Abridged Guide to the APA Referencing Style P a g e | 40Academic Learning Centre SAE Edition T2, 2020Journals and magazinesEach reference includes the following details in this order: author’s surname, author’s initial(s), year of publication, article title (sentence case), name ofjournal (in italics and title case), volume number (in italics), issue number (in parentheses), page range and a DOI if available. The volume number,issue number and page range are usually printed at the top of the article above the abstract. This information can also be found in the footers of thepages.Use the DOI flow chart to help select the correct information to form a complete reference for your selected journal article: See Appendix G. In-text citation examplesModel to follow in the reference listJournal article with a DOISee Section 3 for a full explanation of what toinclude in a journal reference with a DOI.Include a DOI (Digital Object Identifier) for alljournals that have one. Https DOIs are hyperlinked(active, blue font and underlined). When an oldDOI number is provided as doi:10.xxxx/xxxxx orhttp://dx.doi.org, change the DOI number to thehttps://doi.org/10.xxxx/xxxxx format. This allowsthe reader to directly access the journal.DOIs can often be found on the front page of thearticle. If you cannot find the DOI, check withhttps://www.crossref.org/Hamacher et al. (2016) claim . . .. . . (Hamacher et al., 2016).Chapman et al. (2014) recommend that“. . .” (p. 6).The barriers include “. . .” (Chapman etal., 2014, p. 6).Hamacher, A., Kim, S. J., Cho, S. T., Pardeshi, S.,Lee, S. H., Eun, S. J., & Whangbo, T. K.(2016). Application of virtual, augmented,and mixed reality to urology. InternationalNeurourology Journal, 20(3), 172–181.https://doi.org/10.5213/inj.1632714.357Chapman, R., Smith, T., & Martin, C. (2014).Qualitative exploration of the perceivedbarriers and enablers to Aboriginal andTorres Strait Islander people accessinghealthcare through one VictorianEmergency Department. ContemporaryNurse, 48(1), 48–58. https://doi.org/10.5172/conu.2014.48.1.48 An Abridged Guide to the APA Referencing Style P a g e | 41Academic Learning Centre SAE Edition T2, 2020 In-text citation examplesModel to follow in the reference listJournal article without a DOISee Section 3 for a full explanation of what toinclude in a journal reference without a DOI.Example 1. For journals retrieved from academicdatabases, no URL is required. Examples ofacademic databases: APA PsycNET, PsycINFO,Academic Search Complete, CINAHL, EbookCentral, EBSCOhost, Google Scholar, JSTOR(excluding primary source collections), MEDLINE,Nexis Uni, Ovid, ProQuest), PubMed,ScienceDirect, Scopus and Web of Science.ExceptionExample 2: Most journal articles do not require aretrieval date; however, on rare occasions, anarticle may need a retrieval date if it is retrievedfrom a database where the article is periodicallyupdated. See UpToDate example.If the journal does not have a DOI and it is notretrieved from an academic database, include aURL that provides a direct link to the cited work.See Appendix I for citing multiple authors.See Appendix J for referencing multiple authors.Example 1Klaus and Steinwedel (2015) . . .. . . (Klaus & Steinwedel, 2015).Example 2Stein and Taylor (2019) claim that . . .. . . (Stein & Taylor, 2019).Example 1Klaus, K., & Steinwedel, C. (2015). Maggotdebridement therapy: Advancing to thepast in wound care. MedSurg Nursing,24(6), 407–411.Example 2 (exception to rule)Stein, M. B., & Taylor, C. T. (2019). Approach totreating social anxiety disorder inadults. UpToDate. Retrieved September13, 2019, from https://www.uptodate.com/contents/approach-to-treating-socialanxiety-disorder-in-adults?search=Approach%20to%20treating%20social%20anxiety%20disorder%20in%20adults&source=search_result&selectedTitle=1~150&usage_type=default&display_rank=1 An Abridged Guide to the APA Referencing Style P a g e | 42Academic Learning Centre SAE Edition T2, 2020 In-text citation examplesModel to follow in the reference listHard copy journal without a DOIMost journal articles are now accessed online. NoURL is needed for hard copy journals.Darvin and Norton (2015) propose . . .Research suggests that identity is . . .(Darvin & Norton, 2015).Darvin, R., & Norton, B. (2015). Identity and amodel of investment in applied linguistics.Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 35,36–56.Missing volume or issue numberIf a journal does not have a volume number, don’tworry, simply include the volume number in italicsfollowed by a comma. If both the volume and issuenumber are not provided, omit these elements fromthe reference.Class conscious reveals . . . (Kauffmann,1993).Sanchiz, M., Chevalier, A., & Amadieu, F. (2017).How do older and young adults startsearching for information? Computers inHuman Behavior, 72, 67–78. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2017.02.038Systematic reviewNote. If a systematic review is found in a journal, reference it as a journal with a DOI or journal without a DOI. If a systematic review is found inCochrane Database of Systematic Reviews or JBI Database of Systematic Reviews and Implementation Reports, cite as per examples below i.e.,replace the journal name with the database name.Cochrane Database of Systematic ReviewsArticles from the Cochrane Database of SystematicReviews are only available in that database.Therefore, use the database name in place of thejournal name as seen in example.Provide the author, date, article name, databasename and DOI.Gallagher et al. (2019) state “…” (p. 4).. . . (Gallagher et al., 2019).Gallagher, M., Jones, D. J., & Bell‐Syer, S. V.(2019). Prophylactic antibiotics to preventsurgical site infection after breast cancersurgery. Cochrane Database of Systematicreviews. https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD005360.pub5 An Abridged Guide to the APA Referencing Style P a g e | 43Academic Learning Centre SAE Edition T2, 2020 In-text citation examplesModel to follow in the reference listJBI Database of Systematic Reviews andImplementation ReportsThe database name is in the place of the journalname.. . . (Starnes, 2019).Starnes (2019) identifies . . .Starnes, E., Palokas, M., & Hinton, E. (2019).Nurse-initiated spontaneous breathingtrials in adult intensive care unit patients:A scoping review. JBI Database ofSystematic Reviews and ImplementationReports, 17(11), 2248–2264. https://doi.org/10.11124/JBISRIR-2017-004025JBI Library of Systematic ReviewsProvide a DOI when available.. . . (Chau et al., 2010).Chau et al. (2010) . . .Chau, J., Lee, D., & Lo, D. (2010). Eye irrigationfor patients with ocular chemical burns: Asystematic review. JBI Library ofSystematic Reviews, 8(12), 470–519.https://doi.org/10.11124/jbisrir-2010-126Online magazine articleAlways evaluate information found in magazinesfor “scholarliness”—including bias, validity,trustworthiness of the authors etc. Magazines arenot generally considered scholarly sources forresearch.If no DOI is available, include the URL that links tothe article. If no volume, issue or page number isavailable, omit these elements.. . . (Enserink, 2020).Enserink, M. (2020, January 10). Study disputescarbon dioxide-fish behavior link. Science,367(6474), 128–129. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.367.6474.128 An Abridged Guide to the APA Referencing Style P a g e | 44Academic Learning Centre SAE Edition T2, 2020Hard copy newspaper articles In-text citation examplesModel to follow in the reference listHard copy newspaper article with an authorIn the reference list, do not omit the word “The”from any newspaper’s name.Higgins (2014) suggests that“Australian diplomats played a keyrole” in . . . (p. 3).Higgins, E. (2014, December 10). Consul key inChina ice escape. The Australian, p. 3. Online news articles In-text citation examplesModel to follow in the reference listA news article found on an online newspaperE.g., The Guardian, The AustralianMorton (2019) “. . .” (p. 7).. . . (Morton, 2019).Morton, R. (2019, December 21). The long, hotsummer. The Saturday Paper.https://www.thesaturdaypaper.com.au/news/environment/2019/12/21/the-long-hotsummer/15768468009264A news article found on a news websiteE.g., ABC News, SBS News, Sky NewsKelsey-Sugg and Nobel (2020) . . .. . . (Kelsey-Sugg & Nobel, 2020).Kelsey-Sugg, A., & Nobel, E. (2020, January 17).Postcode prejudice is rife in Australia —and it affects rich and poor. ABC News.https://www.abc.net.au/news/2020-01-17/postcode-stigma-and-suburb-shamingin-australia/11802786 An Abridged Guide to the APA Referencing Style P a g e | 45Academic Learning Centre SAE Edition T2, 2020 In-text citation examplesModel to follow in the reference listA news article with no author found on anonline newspaperE.g., The Economist, The GuardianIn-text citationPlace short titles in the place of the author:. . . (Emission Goal, 2018).Long titles are shortened are placed in doublequotation marks in the place of the author:. . . (“Greek PM Calls,” 2014).Reference listIf there is no author, move the title to the authorposition.Economists suggested that homeownership would bring economicstability (“Explaining the Failures,”2020).Explaining the failures of the home-ownershipdream. (2020, January 21). The Economist.https://www.economist.com/films/2020/01/21/explaining-thefailures-of-the-home-ownership-dreamA news article with no author found on a newswebsiteAlways check the validity of a site that has noauthor.In-text citationLong titles are shortened and placed in doublequotation marks in the place of the author. Use titlecase. See section above for examples.Reference listIf there is no author, move the title to the authorposition.SBS News (“Agriculture BusinessPoints,” 2020) highlights that agricultureis expecting losses within . . .Agriculture business points to ‘extreme climaticconditions’ ahead of expected losses.(2020, January 17). SBS News.https://www.sbs.com.au/news/agriculturebusiness-points-to-extreme-climaticconditions-ahead-of-expected-losses An Abridged Guide to the APA Referencing Style P a g e | 46Academic Learning Centre SAE Edition T2, 2020 In-text citation examplesModel to follow in the reference listBook review published in an online newspaperGroskop (2017) suggests that “. . .”(para. 1).Groskop, V. (2020, January 13). You’re notlistening review: Why we must listen toour opponents [Review of the book You’renot listening: What you’re missing andwhy it matters, by K. Murphy]. TheGuardian. https://www.theguardian.com/books/2020/jan/13/youre-notlistening-kate-murphy-review ReportsUse sentence case for the title of a report, but always capitalise the first letter of proper nouns. In-text citation examplesModel to follow in the reference listReport (hard copy, individual author/s)According to Fredericks et al. (2016),. . .. . . (Fredericks et al., 2016).Fredericks, B. L., Longbottom, M., McPhail-Bell,K., & Worner, F. (2016). Dead or deadlyreport: Waminda Aboriginal women’shealth service. CQUniversity.Report (online, individual author/s)Reference listIf the author of the report is not the publisher,identify the publisher after the title of the report.Through investigating the literacyexperiences of children in earlychildhood, the researchers came to theScholfield, K., Bradbeer, S., Lyons, M., Johnson,K., & Williams. J. (2014). Literacy projectreport 2014. Southern Grampians Local An Abridged Guide to the APA Referencing Style P a g e | 47Academic Learning Centre SAE Edition T2, 2020 In-text citation examplesModel to follow in the reference listconclusion that . . . (Scholfield et al.,2014).Action Group. http://gsgllen.org.au/wpcontent/uploads/Literacy-Project-Report-2014-FINAL-1.pdfReport (online, corporate author)In-text citationWrite the corporate author in full the first time ofuse. Follow it with an acronym if you intend to usethe source again. See examples.Reference listIf the author of the report is the same as thepublisher, omit the publisher from the reference.First timeWorld Health Organization (WHO,2018) . . .. . . (World Health Organization[WHO], 2018).Subsequent timesWHO (2018) . . .… (WHO, 2018).World Health Organization. (2018). Takingaction on childhood obesity report.https://www.who.int/nutrition/publications/obesity/taking-action-childhood-obesityreport/en/Government report (online, department asauthor)Reference listIf the author of the report is the same as thepublisher, omit the publisher from the reference.The Queensland Government has set outa number of initiatives to. . .(Department of Health, 2019).Department of Health. (2019). 2018-2019 Annualreport. https://www.health.qld.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0019/882010/190927-DoH-Annual-Report-2018-19.pdfGovernment report (online, individual author/s)Reference listIf the author of the report is not the publisher,identify the publisher after the title of the report.Polyakova and Fried (2019) state that“foreign interference in democraticelections . . . ” (para. 1).Polyakova and Fried (2019) . . .Polyakova, A., & Fried, D. (2019). Democraticdefence against disinformation 2.0.Atlantic Council. https://www.atlanticcouncil.org/in-depth-research An Abridged Guide to the APA Referencing Style P a g e | 48Academic Learning Centre SAE Edition T2, 2020Conference papersIf the year the paper was presented differs from the year it was published, give the year of publication. In-text citation examplesModel to follow in the reference listConference sessions and presentationsReference listTypes of contributions:[Conference session].[Paper presentation].[Poster presentation].Harris et al. (2019) suggests thatwidening participation . . .Harris, L., Dargusch, J., Vanderburg, R., &Richardson, S. (2020, December 1–5).Transitioning to university: VET-entrystudents’ accounts of assessmentchallenges and supports [Conferencesession]. Australian Association forResearch in Education. https://www.aareconference.com.au/assets/1c91f22c9e/Session-book-with-abstract-titles-v7.pdfSymposium contributionSmallwood (2019) . . .. . . (Smallwood, 2019).Smallwood, G. (2019, September 18-19). Closingthe gap between Indigenous and nonIndigenous Australians. In L. Sinclair(Chair), Thinking innovatively incollaborative health care practice[symposium]. CQUNoosa Institute – WideBay Health Symposium, Bundaberg.http://bit.ly/33l3fZ1 An Abridged Guide to the APA Referencing Style P a g e | 49Academic Learning Centre SAE Edition T2, 2020Dissertation or master’s thesis Unpublished doctoral dissertation or master’sthesisFor unpublished master’s thesis, replace[Unpublished doctoral dissertation] with[Unpublished master’s thesis].In her thesis, Olaithe (2014) examinesthe relationship between . . .. . . (Olaithe, 2014).Olaithe, M. (2014). Neurocognitive disturbance inobstructive sleep apnoea: Mechanisms ofharm [Unpublished doctoral dissertation].University of Western Australia.Doctoral dissertation or master’s thesis(Available online via a commercial database)For a master’s thesis, replace [Doctoraldissertation, Name of Institution Awarding theDegree] with [Master’s thesis, Name of InstitutionAwarding the Degree].Finn (2018) states that “ . . . ” (p. 9).“ . . . ” (Finn, 2018, p. 9).Finn, C. B. (2018). Learning to learn withgradients (Publication No. 10930398)[Doctoral dissertation, Berkeley]. ProQuestDissertations and Theses database. An Abridged Guide to the APA Referencing Style P a g e | 50Academic Learning Centre SAE Edition T2, 2020Webpage or standalone document on the webInclude the following details in this order: author’s surname, author’s initial(s), year, title of document or webpage, site name (if different from author)and finally the web address. Remember, for online sources, the author is not always a person. Instead, it could be an organisation, a company, agovernment department, etc. URLs should be hyperlinked (Active, blue font and underlined).For in-text citations, write the organisation’s name in full followed by the acronym in parentheses for the first in-text citation. Subsequent in-textcitations only use the acronym. See examples below. In addition, see Appendices C to E for more detail about abbreviations and acronyms. In-text citation examplesModel to follow in the reference listStandalone document on the webSee Section 3 for guidance on how to reference astandalone document on the web.In-text citationThe title of a standalone document such as a reportis in title case and in italics.Reference listYear of publication on the web in parentheses. Themonth and day can be provided if available e.g.,(2020, February 25). Provide as specific a date isavailable. Use n.d. if no date is provided.The title is in sentence case.URLs in a reference list should link directly to thetext were possible. URLs are hyperlinked (blue,active and underlined). Very long URL can beshortened using a using URL shortening service.Ensure that it links directly to the correct location.The Australian Early DevelopmentCensus National Report 2018 indicatesthat Queensland had a 98% childparticipation rate in 2018 compartedwith . . . (Australian Early DevelopmentCensus [AEDC], 2019).First citationThe ICN Code of Ethics for Nursesoutlines that nurses have four coreresponsibilities (International Council ofNurses [ICN], 2012).Subsequent citations. . . (ICN, 2012).Australian Early Development Census. (2019).Australian early development censusnational report 2018. https://www.aedc.gov.au/resources/detail/2018-aedcnational-reportInternational Council of Nurses. (2012). The ICNcode of ethics for nurses. https://www.icn.ch/sites/default/files/inline-iles/2012_ICN_Codeofethicsfornurses _%20eng.pdf An Abridged Guide to the APA Referencing Style P a g e | 51Academic Learning Centre SAE Edition T2, 2020 In-text citation examplesModel to follow in the reference listInformation on a webpageIn-text citationNote 1. If the webpage provides information viaboth the PDF and HTML, it is easier to quote thepage number on a PDF document.Note 2. When quoting online information, use thepage numbers if visible. If page numbers are notprovided, use paragraph numbers. When there areno paragraph numbers, provide the closest headingas well as the number of paragraphs following it.See notes on paragraph numbers in Appendix Eand the JBI example.References listDate: Provide as specific a date is available e.g.,(2020, February 25). Use “n.d.” if no date isprovided. Title: The title is in sentence case anditalics. Site name: When the site name is differentfrom the author, include the site name: SeeExample 2. URL: link directly to the text werepossible. URLs are hyperlinked (blue, active andunderlined).First citationThe HERI Budget Overview 2019-20indicates that the Unique StudentIdentifier will be extended to highereducation (Department of Education andTraining [DET], 2019).Subsequent citations. . . (DET, 2019).. . . (Pollard, 2017).Pollard (2020) outlines “. . .” (para. 1).Department of Education (2019, April 9). HERIbudget overview 2019-20. https://www.education.gov.au/heri-budgetoverview-2019-20Pollard, S. (2020, February 14). New tools helpcommunities measure and reduce theiremissions. The Conversation.https://theconversation.com/new-toolshelp-communities-measure-and-reducetheir-emissions-locally-128627Information on the web with no dateThe copyright date often found at the bottom of thewebpage is not necessarily the date of publication.Proceed with caution when a source does notprovide a publication date. Use infrequently.There are five key factors in woundassessment: tissue type, wound exudate,peri-wound condition, pain level andsize (Ausmed, n.d.).Ausmed. (n.d.) Wound care: A guide to practicefor healthcare professional.https://www.ausmed.com.au/guides/wound-care An Abridged Guide to the APA Referencing Style P a g e | 52Academic Learning Centre SAE Edition T2, 2020Government documents found onlineGive the organisation’s name in full the first time, followed by the abbreviation in parentheses. Use only the abbreviation in subsequent citations. In-text citation examplesModel to follow in the reference listStandalone document from a governmentwebsiteIn-text citationFor in-text citations, the title of a standalonedocument such as a report (technical, governmentetc.) is in title case and in italics within the body ofthe text.Reference listUse the government department or agency asauthor.The title of a downloaded document within areference list is in sentence case i.e., only capitalisethe first letter of the first word and the first letter ofany proper noun (Australia). Indicate a subtitlewith a colon and capitalise the first letter after thecolon i.e., Title: SubtitleIf the author is different from the site name, includethe site name after the title: title case not in italics.First citationThe Department of Education (2018)indicates . . .The National Strategic Framework forRural and Remote Health is a tool forgovernance and . . . (Department ofHealth, 2011).. . . (Queensland Studies Authority[QSA], 2010).QSA (2011) provides a . . .Department of Education. (2018). Advancing ruraland remote education in Queensland stateschools. https://education.qld.gov.au/schools-and-educators/other-education/Documents/advancing-rural-education-qldstate-schools-action-plan.pdfDepartment of Health. (2011). National strategicframework for rural and remote health.https://www1.health.gov.au/internet/main/publishing.nsf/Content/national-strategicframework-rural-remote-healthQueensland Studies Authority. (2010). Aboriginaland Torres Strait Islander languages: P-10Queensland syllabus. QueenslandCurriculum and Assessment Authority.https://www.qcaa.qld.edu.au/downloads/p_10/atsi_languages_p-10_syll.pdf An Abridged Guide to the APA Referencing Style P a g e | 53Academic Learning Centre SAE Edition T2, 2020 In-text citation examplesModel to follow in the reference listAustralian Bureau of Statistics onlineWhen quoting online information, use theparagraph number if a page number is notprovided. When there are no paragraph numbers,provide the closest heading as well as the numberof paragraphs following it.Data obtained from the AustralianBureau of Statistics (ABS, 2019)indicates that male births outnumberedfemales by 2% in 2018.Australian Bureau of Statistics. (2019). Births,Australia, 2018 (cat. no. 3301. 0).https://www.abs.gov.au/AUSSTATS/[email protected]/ProductsbyReleaseDate/F41B99AB234B2074CA25792F00161838?OpenDocumentGovernment press releasesThe Commonwealth Scientific andIndustrial Research Organisation(CSIRO, 2019) outline . . .. . . (Commonwealth Scientific andIndustrial Research Organisation[CSIRO], 2019).Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial ResearchOrganisation. (2019, December 12).World’s largest machine learningconference comes to Australia [Pressrelease]. https://www.csiro.au/en/News/News-releases/2019/Worldslargest-machine-learning-conferencecomes-to-AustraliaFact sheetThe Department of Health (2015)identifies key strategies in theprevention of tick bites.Department of Health. (2015). Tick biteprevention [Fact sheet]. https://www1.health.gov.au/internet/main/publishing.nsf/Content/ohp-tick-bite-prevention.htm An Abridged Guide to the APA Referencing Style P a g e | 54Academic Learning Centre SAE Edition T2, 2020 In-text citation examplesModel to follow in the reference listWebpages from the same author, same yearReference listOrder in accordance with webpage title(alphabetically).Proper nouns in the webpage title are capitalised:names of places, people etc.According to Queensland Health(2018a), the . . .. . . (Queensland Health, 2018b).According to Queensland Health(2018b), . . .Queensland Health. (2018a). Potentiallyhazardous foods [Fact sheet].https://www.qld.gov.au/health/stayinghealthy/environmental/food/poisoning/hazardous-foodsQueensland Health. (2018b). Seeing a dietitian[Fact sheet]. https://www.qld.gov.au/health/staying-healthy/dietnutrition/dietitiansPatentsIn-text citationProvide the inventor’s name and the issue date.Reference listProvide the inventor’s name, date, name of patent,IP number in parentheses, IP Australia and URL.Carroll (2017) formalised and protectedthe solar pool heater . . .. . . (Carroll, 2017).Carroll, P. (2017). Solar pool heater(2017904561). IP Australia.http://pericles.ipaustralia.gov.au/ols/auspat/applicationDetails.do?applicationNo=2017904561 An Abridged Guide to the APA Referencing Style P a g e | 55Academic Learning Centre SAE Edition T2, 2020Legal documentsAs per the APA 7th Manual, consult the Bluebook for more guidance on constructing reference list entries for legal sources. In-text citation examplesfollow the rules set out in the APA 7th Manual. The Bluebook A uniform system of citation available via the ALC reading list. In-text citation examplesModel to follow in the reference listAct, Bill or RegulationIn-text citationThe title of the Act, Bill or Regulation replaces theauthor’s name.Reference listThe year is included in the title.Act: Title is in italics.Bill: Title is not in italics.Regulation: Title is in italics.When referring to the Act or Bill as a whole orciting multiple sections in text, do not provide thesection numbers in the reference list.ActAccording to the Trade Practices Act(1947), . . .. . . (Trade Practices Act, 1947).BillThe Climate Change and GreenhouseGas Reduction (Principle Target)Amendment Bill (2018) aims to . . .RegulationsThe Family Law Regulation (1984)underpins . . .. . . (Family Law Regulation, (1984).ActTrade Practices Act 1947 (Cth) § 2 (Austl.).https://www.legislation.gov.au/Details/C2010C00426BillClimate Change and Greenhouse Gas Reduction(Principle Target) Amendment Bill 2018(Cth) (Austl.). https://www.legislation.act.gov.au/b/db_60088RegulationsFamily Law Regulation 1984 (Cth) reg 20(3)(Austl.). https://www.legislation.gov.au/Details/F2017C00645 An Abridged Guide to the APA Referencing Style P a g e | 56Academic Learning Centre SAE Edition T2, 2020 In-text citation examplesModel to follow in the reference listLegal caseSee example in Section 3 for more details.In-text citationThe case name replaces the author’s name.Reference ListInclude the number of proceedings in squarebrackets after the case name if there are multipleproceedings between parties.According to the case of Mabo vQueensland (1992), it is possible toclaim . . .. . . (Mabo v Queensland, 1992)Mabo v Queensland [No. 2] (1992) 175 CLR 1.Legislation and regulation abbreviationsMany abbreviations are used when citing legaldocuments. See common abbreviations above or anexplanation of the abbreviations in Appendix E.Common abbreviationsSection(s) § or §§Chapter(s) ch or chsSchedule(s) sch or schsRule(s) r or rrRegulation(s) reg or regsWhen citing government legal or standards documents, use the abbreviation such as s or ss forpinpoint references.In-text citationIn § 4 of the Copyright Act (1968), several . . .… (Copyright Act, 1968, §§ 4–7). An Abridged Guide to the APA Referencing Style P a g e | 57Academic Learning Centre SAE Edition T2, 2020 In-text citation examplesModel to follow in the reference listStandardsStandards are documents with specifications,procedures and guidelines that aim to ensureproducts, services and systems are safe, consistentand reliable. They are based on industrial,scientific and consumer experience.In-text citationPlease note that the name of an organisation ordocument should be written in full the first time youuse it, followed by the relevant acronym.Thereafter, use only the acronym.Reference listFor hard copy versions, replace the URL with thepublisher, as seen in book example in Section 3.The Australian Standard 4685.0:2017provides guidance on the development,installation, inspection, maintenanceand operation of playgrounds(Standards Australia, 2017).Standard 1, Action 1.9 of the NationalSafety and Quality Health ServiceStandards (NSQHS) places animportance on reporting to governingbodies in a timely manner (AustralianCommission on Safety and Quality inHealth Care [ACSQHC], 2017).The Australian Institute for Teachingand School Leadership (APST)Standard 1.2 highlights the importanceof knowing how students learn(Australian Institute for Teaching andSchool Leadership [AITSL], 2011).Standards Australia. (2017). Playgroundequipment and surfacing – Part 0:Development, installation, inspection,maintenance and operation (AS4685.0:2017). https://www.standards.org.au/standards-catalogue/sa-snz/consumer/cs-005/as–4685-dot-0-colon-2017Australian Commission on Safety and Quality inHealth Care. (2017). National safety andquality health service standards (2nd ed.).https://www.safetyandquality.gov.au/publications-and-resources/resourcelibrary/national-safety-and-quality-healthservice-standards-second-editionAustralian Institute for Teaching and SchoolLeadership. (2011). Australian professionalstandards for teachers. https://www.aitsl.edu.au/teach/standards An Abridged Guide to the APA Referencing Style P a g e | 58Academic Learning Centre SAE Edition T2, 2020 In-text citation examplesModel to follow in the reference listGovernment debates recorded in HansardNicole Flint, Member for Boothby,move to “level . . .” (Commonwealth,2017, p. 2490).The Honourable Anastasia Palaszczukoutlined commitments to Queensland’s“…” (Queensland Parliament, 2017, p.3332).Commonwealth, Parliamentary Debates, House ofRepresentatives, 20 March 2017, 2490(Nicole Flint, Member for Boothby)https://parlinfo.aph.gov.au/parlInfo/download/chamber/hansardr/8f5fce8e-c3b9-4c68-a24f-a6b51d0b7f9/toc_pdf/House%20 of%20Representatives_2017_03_20_4846_Official.pdf;fileType=application%2FpdfQueensland Parliament, Record of Proceedings, 26October 2017, 3332 (Hon. AnastasiaPalaszczuk, Queensland Premier) (Austl.).https://www. parliament.qld.gov.au/documents/hansard/2017/2017_10_26_WEEKLY.pdfCoroner’s reportThe inquest findings from the StateCoroner, Mr Michael Barnes, highlightsthat . . . (Office of the State Coroner,2011).Office of the State Coroner. (2011). Inquest intothe death of Ryan Charles Saunders (COR4449/07(0)). Queensland Courts.https://www.courts.qld.gov.au/__data/asset An Abridged Guide to the APA Referencing Style P a g e | 59Academic Learning Centre SAE Edition T2, 2020 In-text citation examplesModel to follow in the reference listThe inquest findings highlight . . .(Office of the State Coroner, 2011).s/pdf_file/0004/107536/cif-saunders-rc-20111007.pdf University-provided electronic and multimedia study materialsSuggested texts such as journal articles, book chapters or webpages should be cited and referenced as an original source; see section related to books,book chapters, journals, ebooks etc.). CQUniversity provided study materials such as Study Guides may also be referenced; see section below.However, try to source published or reputable resource material where possible. The sources below should not be used too frequently. Other sources thatyou have located while researching are more suitable. In-text citation examplesModel to follow in the reference listLecture notes available on CQUniversity e-Units(Moodle)If the notes are available to the audience you arewriting for, cite and reference as indicated.If the work is for professional publication, cite thesources as personal communication.Reference listFor sites which require a “log in”, the URL shouldbe the homepage or log in URL.Smith (2020) outlines three . . .Smith, A. (2020, February 14). Title of notes[Lecture notes on Aboriginal land rights].CQU Moodle. https://moodle.cqu.edu.au An Abridged Guide to the APA Referencing Style P a g e | 60Academic Learning Centre SAE Edition T2, 2020 In-text citation examplesModel to follow in the reference listPowerPoint presentation on MoodleWhen referencing a PowerPoint widely availableon the web, see specialised sources section.When quoting, provide the slide number instead ofthe page number.. . . (Smith, 2019).“. . .” (Smith, 2020, Slide 4).Smith. A. (2019, January 23). Title ofPowerPoint. [PowerPoint slides]. CQUMoodle. https://moodle.cqu.edu.auDiscussion board message posted to MoodleCite Moodle posts as personal communication.According to T. Brown (personalcommunication, January 6, 2020), . . .n/aEcho360 presentation or video on MoodleCite as CQUniversity created Echo360presentations or videos as per example. Videoscreated outside the university (TED talks, YouTube,Videos podcasts etc.) are cited and referenced asper example in specialised sources.In-text citationWhen quoting information from video, provide atime stamp for the start of the quotation e.g., 2:12.No time stamp is needed for paraphrasing.. . . (Smith, 2020).“. . .” (Smith, 2020, 2:14).Smith, A. (2020, January 23). Title of Echo360 orvideo [Video]. CQU Moodle.https://moodle.cqu.edu.au An Abridged Guide to the APA Referencing Style P a g e | 61Academic Learning Centre SAE Edition T2, 2020 In-text citation examplesModel to follow in the reference listPersonal communicationE.g., emails, text messages, online chats, directmessages, personal interviews (not researchinterviews), phone conversations, live speech andunrecorded classroom lectures.Personal communication is cited in-text, but notincluded in the reference list.RHD Students: See pp. 259-261 of the APA (7thed.) Publication Manual for guidance on quotingresearch participants.Associate Professor A. Ambrosetti(personal communication, December 5,2019) outlined the key . . .Note. Do not use personalcommunication for quotes (APA, 2020,p. 260).n/an/aSource referred to in a study guide: SecondarysourceWarning: Only use this type of referencing if theoriginal cannot be found. Use secondary sourcessparingly.In-text citationFirst cite the original source of the idea (primarysource) and follow this with the source from whichyou read it (secondary source).Reference listReference the author of the study guide. This mightbe CQUniversity or the unit coordinator. The titleof the study guide is written as it appears on thefront of the document. It might also include theterm date.Brown et al. (2010, as cited in Heidke,2020) warn . . .. . . (Brown et al., 2010, as cited inHeidke, 2020).Heidke, P. (2020). NURS11158 Evidenceinformed nursing practice: Study guideTerm 1 2020. CQU Moodlehttps://moodle.cqu.edu.au An Abridged Guide to the APA Referencing Style P a g e | 62Academic Learning Centre SAE Edition T2, 2020Specialised sources In-text citation examplesModel to follow in the reference listAn artistic work (e.g., painting, photograph)If you have included an image in your work (i.e., acopy of the image), you are required to number,title, cite and reference the image. Go to Section 3:Tables and figures and see Appendix K forassistance with citing figures.If you have not included the image in your work,but you had discussed the image, cite and referencethe image as shown in the examples provided.Note 1. Where no author details have beenprovided, place the title of the work in theauthor/artist position. See Example 2.Note 2. Insert square brackets after the title to listthe type of artistic work e.g., photograph, sculpture,painting etc. See Example 3.Note 3. When there is no give title, provide a briefdescription of the work in square brackets in placeof the title e.g., [A photograph of…]. See Example4.McCurry (1985) captures the . . .Warsaw Ghetto Boy (1943) depicts . . .Barak (1880) depicts the ceremonythrough vivid use of . . .Lorenzo (2018) captures thedepersonalised plight of refugees living indifficult circumstances.McCurry, S. (1985). Afghan girl [Photograph].National Geographic. https://www.nationalgeographic.com/news/2016/10/afghan-girl-sharbat-gula-arrested/Warsaw Ghetto Boy [Photograph]. (1943).Wikipedia. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Warsaw_Ghetto_boyBarak, W. (1880). Ceremony with rainbowserpent [Painting]. National Gallery ofVictoria, Melbourne, Australia.https://www.ngv.vic.gov.au/explore/collection/work/1753/Lorenzo, T. (2018). [Photograph of a Yemenwoman stands in roofless house]. ThePulitzer Prises. https://www.pulitzer.org/winners/lorenzo-tugnoliwashington-post An Abridged Guide to the APA Referencing Style P a g e | 63Academic Learning Centre SAE Edition T2, 2020 In-text citation examplesModel to follow in the reference listAudiobookAdd the word Audiobook in square brackets afterthe book title.If the date of digitalisation was different from therecording date, give the date of the originalrecording in parentheses (round brackets) after theURL.Starting a budget can seemoverwhelming; however, the right tips canprovide significant savings (Pape, 2018).Pape, S. (2018). The barefoot investor: Theonly money guide you’ll ever need[Audiobook]. Audible.https://www.audible. com.au/pd/TheBarefoot-InvestorAudiobook/B072JX1MH6?qid=1581399943&sr=1-1&pf_rd_p=771c6463-05d7-4981-1Audio podcast episodeA podcast is a digital source in the form of anaudio or video file which can be download from theweb.In-text citationFor a quote of an audio or video podcast, providethe time at the start of the quotation e.g., 2:12. Notime needed for paraphrasing.Reference listThe host is the author. Year, month day. Providethe name of the program. Then identify the type ofaudio podcast episode in square brackets after theprogram title. Then provide program, followed bythe site name and URL.Therefore, “mitochondria are the so-calledpowerhouses of our cells” (Kruszelnicki,2017, 0:48).Kruszelnicki, K. (Host). (2017, November 21).Mitochondria: Fiery powerhouses[Audio podcast episode]. In GreatMoment in Science. ABC RadioNational. https://www.abc.net.au/radionational/programs/greatmomentsinscience/mitochondria-fierypowerhouses/9158506 An Abridged Guide to the APA Referencing Style P a g e | 64Academic Learning Centre SAE Edition T2, 2020 In-text citation examplesModel to follow in the reference listBlogSingh (2019) suggests . . .. . . (Singh, 2019).Singh, S. (2019, December 9). Help refugeestudents transition to tertiary ed andeveryone wins. Australian Associationfor Research in Education.https://www.aare.edu.au/blog/?p=4978Dictionary (hard copy – authors/editors)The Gibson walking splint . . . (Harris etal., 2014).Harris, P., Nagy, S., & Vardaxis, N. (Eds.).(2014). Mosby’s dictionary of medicine,nursing & health professions (3rd ANZed.). Elsevier.Dictionary (online)Use n.d. as the year of publication for work that isnot archived and is continuously updated. Add aretrieval date instead.For multiple entries of the same author with nodate, letter each entry: (n.d. -a) (n.d. -b).Quinine is defined as . . . (McMillanDictionary, n.d.).McMillan Dictionary. (n.d.). Quinine. InMcMillan Dictionary. RetrievedJanuary 22, 2020, fromhttps://www.macmillandictionary.com/dictionary/british/quinineEncyclopaedia (hard copy – author/editor)Stage actors require a broad range ofskills to use in theatre (Williams, 2015).Williams, S. (Ed.). (2015). The Cambridgeencyclopaedia of stage actors andacting. Cambridge University Press. An Abridged Guide to the APA Referencing Style P a g e | 65Academic Learning Centre SAE Edition T2, 2020 In-text citation examplesModel to follow in the reference listEncyclopaedia entry (online – author/editor)When no date is provided and the content iscontinuously changing, use a retrieval date and usen.d. for the date of publication.For multiple entries of the same author with nodate, letter each entry: (n.d. -a) (n.d. -b).According to Heath (n.d.), there arebetween 200 to 300 Indigenous languagesacross Australia.Heath, J. G. (n.d.). Australian AboriginalLanguages. In EncyclopaediaBritannica Online. EncyclopaediaBritannica. Retrieved February 14,2020, from https://www.britannica.com/search?query=+Australian+Aboriginal+languagesEncyclopaedia entry (online – group author)When content is continuously changing, include aretrieval date.For multiple entries of the same author with nodate, letter each entry: (n.d. -a) (n.d. -b).According to Encyclopedia.com (n.d.),handwashing is a vital factor in avoidingthe spread of infection.Encyclopedia.com (n.d.). Hand washing. InEncyclopedia.com. Retrieved April 14,2020, from https://www.encyclopedia.com/media/educational-magazines/handwashingFacebook post or pageTo reference a Facebook update, write statusupdate in square brackets after the update title.This format can be used for other social mediaservices: LinkedIn etc.To reference a Facebook page, write Facebookpage in square brackets after the word timeline.Use n.d. for Facebook page date; however, addretrieval date.Plans to automate essay scoring have notbeen implemented (ABC News, 2018).Gates (n.d.) explores the themes of femaleidentity and . . .ABC News. (2018, January 29). Robotmarking of NAPLAN tests scrapped.[Status update]. Facebook.https://www.facebook.com/abcnews.au/posts/10158046171864988Gates, M. (n.d.). Timeline [Facebook page].Facebook. Retrieved January 15, 2020, An Abridged Guide to the APA Referencing Style P a g e | 66Academic Learning Centre SAE Edition T2, 2020 In-text citation examplesModel to follow in the reference listfrom https://www.facebook.com/melindagates/Film or videoIn the film Ride It Like a Girl, Griffiths(2019) celebrates diversity by . . .Key features of the teaching style include. . . (Blake Education, 2009).Griffiths, R. (Director). (2019). Ride it like agirl [Film]. Transmission Films.Blake Education. (2009). Go facts: Naturaldisasters [DVD]. Teacher Superstore.https://www.teachersuperstore.com.au/go-facts-natural-disasters-dvd-videoForum post (not Moodle)Also consider examples for blogs, twitter andFacebook post.Note. Unit forums on Moodle should be cited aspersonal communication; see section Universityprovided electronic and multimedia studymaterials.National Aeronautical and SpaceAdministration (2020) offers anopportunity for anyone to discusshistorical spaceflights.National Aeronautical and SpaceAdministration [nasa]. (2020,November 2). Historical spaceflight:Missions that were, or will never be.[Online forum post]. NASASpaceflight.https://forum.nasaspaceflight.com/Historical source on the webCitationWhen quoting, include the page number orparagraph number.Reference listDiaryNightingale (1896) identified washinghabits as . . .LetterNightingale, F. (1896). Children’s Watch:Victoria [Diary]. British Library.https://www.bl.uk/learning/timeline/item106505.html An Abridged Guide to the APA Referencing Style P a g e | 67Academic Learning Centre SAE Edition T2, 2020 In-text citation examplesModel to follow in the reference listWhen there is no give title, provide a briefdescription of the work in square brackets in placeof the title See second example.For religious work, ancient Greek or Roman work,see Chapter 10 of the APA Manual on the ALC ereading list.Nightingale (1860) indicates therelationship between clean air and patienthealth.Nightingale, F. (1860). [Letter from FlorenceNightingale describing the benefits ofclean air]. British Library.https://www.bl.uk/collectionitems/letter-from-florence-nightingaledescribing-the-benefits-of-clean-airJBI Evidence summaryNote. JBI Evidence Summaries are referenced as adocument on the web. For evidence summariesfound in a journal, reference it as a journal article.Reference listURLs in a reference lists should link directly to thetext were possible. URLs are hyperlinked (blue,active and underlined).When the author is different from the site name,include the site name after the title and [Evidencesummary].Pressure injuries are . . . (Moola, 2019).Moola (2019) states that “. . .” (p. 2).Moola, S. (2019, March 4). Pressure injuries(burns): Pressure relieving mattresses[Evidence summary]. The JoannaBriggs Institute.http://connect.jbiconnectplus.org/ViewDocument.aspx?0=21817JBI Recommended practiceWhen the author and the site name are the same,omit the site name in the reference. As seen inexample provided.First citationBasic hand hygiene is . . . (Joanna BriggsInstitute [JBI], 2016).Subsequent citationsTherefore, . . . (JBI, 2016).Joanna Briggs Institute. (2016, January 11).Basic hand hygiene [Recommendedpractice]. http://connect.jbiconnectplus.org/ViewPdf.aspx?0=13569&1=2 An Abridged Guide to the APA Referencing Style P a g e | 68Academic Learning Centre SAE Edition T2, 2020 In-text citation examplesModel to follow in the reference listMapWhen you have included a copy of the map, go toSection 3 for guidance on how to title, cite andreference a figure: Also see Appendix K for citationtemplates.When you have not included a copy of the map, butyou are just discussing its contents, cite andreference as per examples provided.When a map is continuously changing (e.g., GoogleMaps), it may not have a title, so include adescription of the map in square brackets andinclude a retrieval date. See second example.Note. When including the image in text or in anappendix, see section on tables and figures abouthow to cite the image: See Appendix K.The water usage throughout Queenslandindicates . . . (Department of NaturalResources and Mines [DNRME], 2019).According to Google (n.d.), the durationbetween Brisbane and Sydney can varyfrom 10 hours 10 minutes to 14 hours 17minutes, depending on the mode oftransportation.Department of Natural Resources and Mines.(2019). Queensland globe watercourseidentification map [Map].https://qldglobe.information.qld.gov.au/qldglobe/public/watercourseidentification-map-2Google. (n.d.). [Google Maps directions fortransport from Brisbane to Sydney].Retrieved February 12, 2020, fromhttps://www.google.com/maps/@-27.4642284,153.0019474,12zMIMSChange three parts of the reference:1. medication name2. retrieval date3. URL.MIMS Australia. (n.d.). Keflex. In MIMSOnline. Retrieved February 3, 2020,from https://www.mimsonline.com.au/Search/AbbrPI.aspx?ModuleName=Product%20Info&searchKeyword=Keflex&PreviousPage=~/Search/QuickSearch.aspx&SearchType=&ID=8630001_2 An Abridged Guide to the APA Referencing Style P a g e | 69Academic Learning Centre SAE Edition T2, 2020 In-text citation examplesModel to follow in the reference listMobile AppIf you are not paraphrasing or quoting from theapp, but just mentioning it in-text, you do not needto cite and reference it, just provide the softwarename and the version. However, if you areparaphrasing or quoting from the app, cite andreference it.Not quoted or paraphrasedData sets were analysed with IBM SPSSStatistics (Version 25).Quoting or paraphrasingSkyscape (2013) …Skyscape. (2013). Skyscape medical Library(Version 2.6.21). [Mobile app]. AppStore. https://apps.apple.com/au/app/skyscape-medicallibrary/id818609413Musical scoreReference list: For additional detail, use squarebrackets to indicate the type of score (e.g., vocal ororchestral score). Example: Fiddler of the Roof[Orchestral score].The score by Bock (1964) . . .Bock, J. (1964). Fiddler on the roof [Vocalscore]. Warner Chappell.Pamphlet or brochureReference list: Place the word pamphlet orbrochure in square brackets after the title.When no date is provided, add n.d. for the date ofpublication.Although the most common site of aninjection is the forearm, other locationsmay be acceptable (Joanna BriggsInstitute [JBI], n.d.).Joanna Briggs Institute. (n.d.). Injections[Pamphlet]. http://connect.jbiconnectplus.org/ViewPdf.aspx?0=13&1=9Personal communicationE.g., emails, text messages, online chats, directmessages, personal interviews (not researchinterviews), phone conversations, live speech andunrecorded classroom lectures.Personal communication is cited in-text, but notincluded in the reference list.Associate Professor A. Ambrosetti(personal communication, December 5,2019) outlined the key . . .Note. Do not use personal communicationfor quotes (APA, 2020, p. 260).n/a An Abridged Guide to the APA Referencing Style P a g e | 70Academic Learning Centre SAE Edition T2, 2020 In-text citation examplesModel to follow in the reference listRHD Students: See pp. 259-261 of the APA (7thed.) Publication Manual for guidance on quotingresearch participants.PowerPoint (not in Moodle)Note. If date of publication is not present on theslides, click the file tab to locate the date.When quoting, provide the slide number instead ofthe page number.. . . (Department of Education, 2018).“. . .” (Department of Education, 2018,Slide 2).Department of Education. (2018). InfectionControl [PowerPoint slides].http://education.qld.gov.au/health/safety/hazards/infection.htmlRadio transcript from a webpageIf it is not evident from the title of the transcript,use square brackets to include a description of form[Podcast transcript], [Speech transcript], [Interviewtranscript] etc.Psychiatrist, Dr Iain McGilchrist suggeststhat only 2% of neurons in eachhemisphere of the brain cross (Malcolm,2017).Malcolm, L. (Host). (2017, November 26). Allin the Mind: The divided brain [Podcasttranscript]. ABC Radio National.https://www.abc.net.au/radionational/programs/allinthemind/the-dividedbrain/8895804ShakespeareProvide the original publication date and theedited publication date.For play quotations, cite the act, scene and line.. . . (Shakespeare, 1603/2018).Shakespeare (1603/2018) . . .“. . .” (Shakespeare, 1603/2018, 3.1.57).Shakespeare, W. (2018). Hamlet (A. B.Braunmuller, Ed.). Penguin Classics.(Original work published 1603).Software packages. . . (Web of Science Group, 2020).Web of Science Group. (2020). EndNote (X9)[Computer software].http://endnote.com An Abridged Guide to the APA Referencing Style P a g e | 71Academic Learning Centre SAE Edition T2, 2020 In-text citation examplesModel to follow in the reference listSongAustralian lyricists, such as Odette,directly tackle issues relating torelationship dynamics. In her lyrics,Brighton (2018) states that “. . .”.Brighton, O. (2018). Take it to the heart[Song]. On To a Stranger. EMIRecorded Music Australia.Tables and figuresIf you have included a copy of a table or figure(image, map, painting etc.) in your assignment, goto Section 3: Tables and figures for guidance onhow to number, title, cite and refence a copy of atable or figure.If you have not included a copy of a table or figure,but you have discussed the contents of the table orfigure, cite and refence it as seen in the exampleprovided.Note. See Section 3 for more instructions.McCurry (1985) captures . . .McCurry, S. (1985). Afghan girl [Photograph].National Geographic. https://www.nationalgeographic.com/news/2016/10/afghan-girl-sharbat-gula-arrested/TED talkWhen the TED talk comes from the TED website,identify the author is the speaker.There is a need to explore our moral andsocial interactions with nature (Safina,2015).Safina, C. (2015, October). What are animalsthinking and feeling? [Video]. TEDConferences.https://www.youtube.com/ watch?v=-wkdH_wluhw An Abridged Guide to the APA Referencing Style P a g e | 72Academic Learning Centre SAE Edition T2, 2020 In-text citation examplesModel to follow in the reference listTelevision advertisementFor YouTube videos, the person or organisationwho uploaded the video is credited even if they didnot create the workWhen the author is different form the site name,include the site name before the URL.. . . (Them Advertising, 2015).Them Advertising. (2015, November 30). Popeproducts: The better way to water[Video]. YouTube.https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dvlV8x05EZ4Television episode or webisodeIn-text tip: Place the name of the episode in doublequotation marks but the TV series name in italicswhen referring to them in the body of the text.If a broadcast transcript is available, referencesources as a television transcript. Transcripts fromprograms such as Australian Story are availableonline. See “television transcript” for referencingguidance.The Mystery Road episode “The Truth”explores themes of . . . (McGregor &Perkins, 2018).McGregor, S. (Writer), & Perkins, R.(Director). (2018, July 1). The truth(Season 1, Episode 6) [TV seriesepisode]. In J. Sen, I (Executiveproducer), Mystery Road. BunyaProductions & Golden RoadProductions.Television transcriptThe Australian Story Out of the Woodsreveals how Gregory Smith . . . (Gorman& Clark, 2019).Gorman, V., & Clark, M. (Producers). (2019,December 12). Australian story: Out ofthe woods [Program transcript]. ABC.https://www.abc.net.au/austory/out-ofthe-woods/11790238 An Abridged Guide to the APA Referencing Style P a g e | 73Academic Learning Centre SAE Edition T2, 2020 In-text citation examplesModel to follow in the reference listTraditional Knowledge or Oral Traditions ofIndigenous PeoplesThe way Oral Traditions or Oral Histories arecited and referenced depends on how theinformation has been recorded. If the informationhas been recorded through retrievable means(video, audio, transcripts, book etc.), cite theinformation as per source. “Work with IndigenousPeoples to ensure the material is appropriate topublish” (APA, 2020, p. 260).In-text citationFor non-retrievable information, cite as personalcommunication. Provide enough detail in-text todescribe the content and context of the information.Reference listFor non-retrievable information, no reference listentry is required.RHD Students: See pp. 259-261 of the APA (7th ed.)Publication Manual for guidance on quoting researchparticipants.We spoke with Jade Gould (TheButchulla people, lives on K’gari,Queensland, Australia, personalcommunication, January 2020) abouttraditional plant knowledge passed downto her by her mother. Jade described . . .No reference list entry required. An Abridged Guide to the APA Referencing Style P a g e | 74Academic Learning Centre SAE Edition T2, 2020 In-text citation examplesModel to follow in the reference listTwitterGive the Tweeter’s name, if known, followed bytheir screen name in square brackets.If the Tweeter’s name is not known, use their screenname instead. In this case, it should not go insquare brackets e.g., CQUniversity. (2020, January1).Gillard (2019) acknowledges the . . .Gillard, J. [@JuliaGillard]. (2019, December9). To everyone caught up in theterrible events on Whakaari Island –victims, family, friends, colleagues, andrescuers – my thoughts are with you[Tweet]. Twitter.https://twitter.com/JuliaGillard?ref_src=twsrc%5Egoogle%7Ctwcamp%5Eserp%7Ctwgr%5EauthorUnpublished manuscript[Unpublished manuscript][Manuscript in preparation][Manuscript submitted for publication]Anderson et al. (2020) identify that e-bikeusage is strongly linked to decreasedlevels of depression and anxiety.Anderson, C., Vandelanotte, C., Howie, V., &Clarkson D. (2020). Mental healthbenefits of e-bike usage for regionalAustralians [Manuscript inpreparation]. School of Nursing andMidwifery, CQUniversity.WikiUse the topic title as author when the author is notknown.Needs assessment can be defined as . . .(“Needs Assessment,” n.d.).Needs assessment. (2020, January 13). InWikipedia. https://psychology.wikia.org/wiki/Needs_assessment An Abridged Guide to the APA Referencing Style P a g e | 75Academic Learning Centre SAE Edition T2, 2020 In-text citation examplesModel to follow in the reference listYouTube or another streaming video platformWarning: Where possible, try to locate the videofile from a reputable host site. See video podcastexample.Note. Credit the poster as the author. Provide thereal name in the following format: Author, A. A.,followed by the user name inside parentheses (ifavailable e.g., Fogarty, M. (Grammar Girl). Onlyinclude the user name, without parentheses, if theperson’s real name is unavailable.Carl Safina highlights the need forhumans to explore their moral and socialrelationship to nature (TED, 2016).TED. (2016, July 13). What are animalsthinking and feeling, and why is why itshould matter: Carl Safina [Video].YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wkdH_wluhwNursing Media CQU. (2019, June 3). Nurse 2(grumpy nurse) [Video]. YouTube.https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Kfw63dx9XWM An Abridged Guide to the APA Referencing Style P a g e | 76Academic Learning Centre SAE Edition T2, 2020AppendicesAppendix A: What do the terms and abbreviations used in this guide mean? Key termsExplanationAppendixAn appendix (single) or appendices (multiple) is placed after the reference list. Each appendix is on a newpage. The word “Appendix” is in the centre and bold with an identifying capital letter e.g., Appendix A.Each appendix is placed in order that they appear in the text. When referring to information contained in anAppendix, write a sentence clearly stating where that information can be found. Example: The survey usedcan be found in Appendix A. You can also use referencing brackets (parentheses) to direct the reader to theinformation (see Appendix A). For guidance on how to refer to a table placed in an appendix, see Section 2:How to use tables and figures.AuthorThe person, group or organisation that created the source. There may be single or multiple authors; or singleor multiple editors; or organisations may be credited as authors rather than specific individuals. If the sourcehas no designated author, you may use the title in place of the author.BibliographyA complete list of all sources consulted when preparing a piece of work, whether cited in-text or not. Itrecords the full publication details of each source in the same way as for a reference list. Use a bibliographyonly if specifically requested to do so.Copy or reproduceInserting an image, figure or table from a source into your own work without modifying it in any way. If youreproduce a table or figure within your work, you should label appropriately. See section on tables andfigures and Appendix K.Ebook (ebook)An ebook is an electronic version of a hard copy book that can be downloaded. However, printed copies maynot exist, and the ebook may be the only version of the text. You may find a complete book or chapters of theebook. Some of these are free, but others must be bought from publishers or suppliers.In-text citation or in-textreferencingThis is an acknowledgement of any paraphrased or quoted information used within an assignment. It is arecord of the author, date of publication and sometimes page number of any sources used. Use surnames forin-text citations (no initials). The position of the in-text citation varies depending on whether you use author An Abridged Guide to the APA Referencing Style P a g e | 77Academic Learning Centre SAE Edition T2, 2020 Key termsExplanationprominent or information prominent citations. An essay with few or no citations will be a cause of concern,and it may indicate plagiarism or limited research. See Section 2.Journal articleJournals are collections of articles that are published on a regular basis to report current research within adiscipline. Journals are sometimes referred to as magazines, periodicals or serials.ParaphraseParaphrasing is putting someone else’s ideas into your own words. When you paraphrase, you must providean in-text citation to show that the material comes from another source. “Although it is not required toprovide a page or paragraph number in the citation for a paraphrase, you may include one …[to] helpinterested readers locate the relevant passage within a long or complex work” (APA, 2020, p. 269). Checkwith your lecturer for their preference around the inclusion of page numbers when paraphrasing andsummarising.QuotationA direct quotation is the exact reproduction of someone’s words. A quote is marked with double quotationmarks or other special formatting. It requires a citation. See Section 2: How to use direct quotes.Reference listThe complete list of all sources paraphrased or quoted used in your work. The reference list appears at theend of your work. It records the full publication details of each source, and it is arranged in alphabeticalorder. Every in-text citation should appear in the reference list, and every item in the reference list should bementioned at least once in the assignment. Additionally, the citations that appear in the text must have thesame spellings and dates as the ones in the reference list. See Appendix H for a checklist.SourceThe place where the information was found. Source type refers to whether the source is a book, article,webpage etc. and whether it is a hard copy or electronic. Referencing rules differ for each source type.SummaryA brief account of another person’s ideas or research in your own words. A summary of a work or section ofa work, or a general reference to someone’s work or ideas, requires a citation.URLThis is the abbreviation for Uniform Resource Locator (URL). It also known as the web address. The URLshould link directly to the text were possible. URLs are hyperlinked (blue, active and underlined). A verylong URL can be shortened using a URL shortening service. Ensure that it links directly to the correctlocation. An Abridged Guide to the APA Referencing Style P a g e | 78Academic Learning Centre SAE Edition T2, 2020Appendix B: Symbols and their use SymbolUse in citations and references& (Ampersand)The ampersand is used to abbreviate “and” betweenauthors’ names in information prominent citations and inthe reference list. However, use the word “and” whenproviding an author prominent in-text citation with two ormore authorsNote. See Appendix I for citing multiple authors andAppendix J for referencing multiple authors.Citations. . . (Smith & Jones, 2018).Smith and Jones (2018) . . .ReferenceSmith, N., & Jones, B. (2018). Title: Subtitle. Publisher.( ) (Round brackets: parentheses)Round brackets, known as parentheses, come in pairs andcontain material that help clarify a point, but oftenindicate the information within is less important thansurrounding information.Parentheses are used to enclose a citation. The use of parentheses (a word or phraseinserted) for other purposes should be avoided in academic writing. Use wording toshow the value of a piece of text rather than using parentheses. If something is notimportant enough to include in the main text, consider leaving it out completely.[ ] (Square brackets in a citation)Example 1The impact of this program has been dramatic (World Health Organization [WHO],2011).Example 2In fact, Rumelhart (1981) asserts that schemata “are the fundamental elements uponwhich all information processing depends . . . [and play a key role] in guiding theflow of processing in the system” (pp. 33–34).Example 3In his report, “the building inspector estimated that there [sic] house was a firehazard” (Wilson, 2013, p. 32).Example 1: For information prominent citations, usesquare brackets within parentheses when adding anacronym or initialisms to your writing for the first time.Example 2: Use square brackets when adding extrawords to quotations that help the reader to understandthe meaning. This is useful when you need to fit aquotation into your own sentence correctly. When editingquotations, avoid changing the quotation’s meaning.Example 3: Square brackets are also used with sic toindicate that a spelling error was present in the originaltext. An Abridged Guide to the APA Referencing Style P a g e | 79Academic Learning Centre SAE Edition T2, 2020 SymbolUse in citations and references[ ] (Square brackets in a reference list)Square brackets are sometimes placed after a title toindicate the type of resource it is when it sits outside thetypical academic peer-reviewed literature (e.g., Evidencesummary, Audio podcast, Tweet etc.) See Section 5 forindividual resources.Reference exampleKruszelnicki, K. (Host). (2017, November 21). Mitochondria: Fiery powerhouses[Audio podcast episode]. In Great Moment in Science. ABC Radio National.https://www.abc.net.au/radionational/programs/greatmomentsinscience/mitochondria-fiery-powerhouses/9158506Examples includeAudiobookAudio podcase episodeBlogBrochureca.Computer softwareConference sessionDoctoral dissertation, Name ofInstitution Awarding the DegreeEvidence summaryFacebook pageFact sheetFilmInterview transcriptLegal case number of proceedingsLecture notesManuscript in preparationManuscript submitted forpublicationMaster’s thesis, Name ofInstitution Awarding theDegreeMobile appOnline forum postPaintingPamphletPaper presentation.PhotographPodcast transcriptPoster presentationPowerPoint slidesPress releaseRecommended practiceSculptureSpeech transcriptStatus updateSymposiumTV Series episodeTweetUnpublished doctoraldissertationUnpublished manuscriptUnpublished master’s thesisVideoVideo fileVideo podcaseVocal score/ Orchestral score An Abridged Guide to the APA Referencing Style P a g e | 80Academic Learning Centre SAE Edition T2, 2020Appendix C: Acronyms formed from the initial letters of words, and their use AcronymsExamplesAcronyms are words formed from the first letter of eachword in a long name. These can then be said as a word.You must not create an acronym of your own. Use theexisting ones that are recognised, for example, Technicaland Further Education (TAFE) or Queensland andNorthern Territory Aerial Services Ltd (QANTAS).The first time an acronym is used, you must write the fullname first followed by the acronym in parentheses. Afterthat, the acronym may replace the full name or phrase.Always use the full name or phrase in the abstract sectionof your document.An author prominent in-text citationThe first time you use a name that you want to shorten to an acronym or initialism,type the name in full and then type the acronym or initialism in parentheses after it:According to the World Health Organization (WHO, 2011), this program hashad a dramatic impact. This is demonstrated by the data emerging from thisstudy (WHO, 2011).An information prominent in-text citationThe first time you use a name that you want to shorten to an acronym or initialismuse the name in full and then type the acronym or initialism in square brackets afterit. For subsequent citations, use the acronym or initialism.The impact of this program has been dramatic (World Health Organization[WHO], 2011). This is demonstrated by the data emerging from this study(WHO, 2011).Reference exampleWorld Health Organization. (2011). Health impact assessment: Glossary of termsused. http://www.who.int/hia/about/glos/en/index1.html An Abridged Guide to the APA Referencing Style P a g e | 81Academic Learning Centre SAE Edition T2, 2020Appendix D: Initialisms and their use InitialismsExamplesInitialisms are a series of capital letters made up of theinitial letters of a series of words. Initialisms cannot besaid as a word; for example: USA (initialism for UnitedStates of America) or NLA (initialism for NationalLibrary of Australia)The first time an initialism is used, give the full name orphrase followed by the initialism in parentheses. Afterthat, the initialism may be used in place of the full nameor phrase. Always use the full name or phrase in theabstract in your assignment.In academic writing, initialisms are introduced in the same way as acronyms.An author prominent in-text citationA draft study of course choices by Department of Education, Employment andWorkplace Relations (DEEWR, 2008) revealed that “there were no significantgender differences in the reasons respondents chose to study engineering” (p. 2).An information prominent in-text citation. . . (Australian Bureau of Statistics [ABS], 2013).Reference exampleAustralian Bureau of Statistics. (2016, November 18). Disability, ageing and carers,Australia: Summary of findings, 2015 (cat. no. 4430.0).https://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/[email protected]/mf/4430.0DOI (Digital Object Identifier)Many journal articles and online documents are assigneda DOI. It is a unique string of letters and numbers thatidentifies a document. All DOIs begin with the number 10and can often be found on the first page of a journalarticle, or in the database information. If a DOI isprovided, it should be included at the end of thereference. DOIs should be in the https://doi.org/10.xxxx/xformat even if it is presented as doi:10.xxxx/xxxx. DOIsare hyperlinked (active, blue font and underlined).Shariff, J. F. (2011). Navigating assisted death and end-of-life care. CanadianMedical Association Journal, 183(6), 634–644.https://doi.org/10.1503/cmaj.091845 An Abridged Guide to the APA Referencing Style P a g e | 82Academic Learning Centre SAE Edition T2, 2020 InitialismsExamplesn.d. (no date)Used when no publication year is found. Look carefullyfor publication dates as they can be hard to find on websites. You may find the date by checking for a copyrightlink.CitationLansdown (n.d.) found that “. . .” (p. 13).ReferenceLansdown, M. (n.d.). Bridging courses. CQUniversity.p. (single page)Quotation: Page numbers are required when directlyquoting. If the page number is not available, use aparagraph number. When there are no paragraphnumbers, provide the closest heading as well as thenumber of paragraphs following it. For examples, seesection below on the use of paragraph numbers.Paraphrasing: “Although it is not required to provide apage or paragraph number in the citation for a paraphrase,you may include one …[to] help interested readers locatethe relevant passage within a long or complex work”(APA, 2020, p. 269).Citation: QuotationPriest (2018) states that “20% of . . .” (p. 4).Research suggests that “. . .” (Priest, 2018, p. 4).Citation: ParaphrasePriest (2018) states that . . .. . . (Priest, 2018).pp. (multiple pages)In-text citationUse pp. when referring to a quote or data from multiplepages. Use a comma between numbers for pages that arenot in sequence.Citation: Quotation“. . .” (Llias, 2017, pp. 511–512).“. . .” (Owen, 2018, pp. 1, 4 & 6).Reference examplesJournal An Abridged Guide to the APA Referencing Style P a g e | 83Academic Learning Centre SAE Edition T2, 2020 InitialismsExamplesReference listThe use of p. and pp. is not required when referring towhole books, journal articles or webpages. However, pp.may be used when referring to a chapter in a book. See“Chapter in an edited book”.Llias, B. (2017). Interstate arbitration in international tax disputes. Journal ofInternational Dispute Settlement, 8(3), 507–534.https://doi.org/10.1093/jnlids /idx003Chapter in an edited bookUsher, K., & Holmes, C. (2017). Reflective practice. In J. Daly, S. Speedy, & D.Jackson (Eds.), Contexts of nursing: An introduction (5th ed., pp. 111–127).Elsevier.reg or regs (regulation or regulations) To aid yourreader to locate the specific information that you cited,you should give the unit or division.In the text of your work, you should write:The Copyright Regulations (2017, regs 18–19) indicate . . .If it is at the beginning of the sentence, you should write:Regulation 18 of the Copyright Regulations (2017) . . .§ or §§ (section or sections in legal documents)To help your reader locate the specific section orsubsection that your information comes from, you shouldgive a pinpoint reference to the relevant section orsubsection.In the text of your work, you should write:The Civil Proceedings Act (2011, § 7) outlines . . .Unless it is at the beginning of the sentence, for example:Section 7 of the Civil Proceedings Act (2011) outlines . . . An Abridged Guide to the APA Referencing Style P a g e | 84Academic Learning Centre SAE Edition T2, 2020Appendix E: Abbreviations and their useAn abbreviation is a shortened form of a word. Words can be shortened in a number of ways, including omitting parts of the interior of the word, orcutting off the end of a word. If the end of the word is removed to create an abbreviation, then a full stop is added. If the interior of the word is removed,leaving the last letter; no full stop is needed. Here are examples. Abbreviations and explanations of their use inreferencesExamplescat. no. (catalogue number)A catalogue number is used to identify an item in a record.It is used for tracking purposes.Australian Bureau of Statistics. (2016, November 18). Disability, ageing andcarers, Australia: Summary of findings, 2015 (cat. no. 4430.0).https://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/[email protected]/mf/4430.0ca. (circa)From Latin meaning ‘around’ or ‘about’. Used when wecan only approximate the publishing date. Square bracketsare placed around the approximate date instead ofparentheses. This approximation may be made by lookingat the latest entry in the reference list of the source.Citation… (Aristotle, ca. 350 B.C.E./1994).Aristotle (ca. 350 B.C.E./1994) . . .Reference exampleAristotle. (1994). Politics. (B. Jowett, Trans.). The Internet Classics Archive.http://classics.mit.edu/Aristotle/politics.html (Original work published ca.3500 B.C.E.)Comp. (compiler)The person who assembles a training or educationalpackage is called a compiler.Use the same format as for an edited book but use (comp.) instead of (Ed.). An Abridged Guide to the APA Referencing Style P a g e | 85Academic Learning Centre SAE Edition T2, 2020 Abbreviations and explanations of their use inreferencesExamplese (eLocator or article number)Journal article with an article number or an eLocatorNote. If a journal article does not provide a page range,use an eLocator or article number.Sands, M., & Aunger, R., (2020). Determinants of hand hygiene complianceamong nurses in US hospitals: A formative research study. PLOS ONE,15(4), Article e0230573. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0230573Ed. or Eds. (editor or editors)One editor: (Ed.) More than one editor (Eds.)Note. If each chapter authored separately, cite andreference the chapter as a “Chapter in an edited book”.Note. You do not use Ed. for in-text citations.CitationCrisp et al. (2016) outline . . .Reference exampleCrisp, J., Taylor, C., Rebeiro, G., & Walters, D. (Eds.). (2016). Potter and Perry’sfundamentals of nursing (Australian version 5th ed.). Elsevier.ed. (edition)When books are revised and issued a second or third time(or more), publishers show the difference between versionsby indicating the edition. This is necessary as the editionsdiffer from one another as each version has differentinformation.Wilson, J. (2019). Infection control in clinical practice (3rd ed.). Elsevier HealthSciences.Journal titlesThese may be abbreviated in catalogues when they arevery long and sometimes an initialism is used. It isrecommended that you locate and use the full name of thejournal in your reference list. See also information aboutinitialisms above.BMJ or Br Med JBritish Medical Journal An Abridged Guide to the APA Referencing Style P a g e | 86Academic Learning Centre SAE Edition T2, 2020 Abbreviations and explanations of their use inreferencesExamplespara. (paragraph number)If the page number is not available, use a paragraphnumber.When there is no paragraph number, provide the closestheading as well as the number of paragraphs following it.• Short headings remain the same + paragraph number• Long headings are shortened and placed in doublequotation marks + paragraph numberQuotation of information without page numbers.Paragraph number“State and federal approaches to disaster management are failing, as thereare inadequate laws and policies to fund government agencies andcompensate victims” (Sydney Environment Institute, 2020, para. 1.).Short headings remain the same + paragraph numberData indicates that “one in four people in Australia (26%) were born overseas”(Australian Bureau of Statistics [ABS], 2016, The population of Australia is 24.4million, para. 4).Long headings are shortened + paragraph numberThe 2016 census revealed that “more than one in five Australians (21%) spoke alanguage besides English at home” (ABS, 2016, “More than one in five,” para. 1).(Original heading: “More than one in five of us speak a language other thanEnglish at home”) An Abridged Guide to the APA Referencing Style P a g e | 87Academic Learning Centre SAE Edition T2, 2020 Abbreviations and explanations of their use inreferencesExamplesVol. or Vols. (volume or volumes)Sometimes books are one part of a set or series. Each bookin the set or series is labelled a volume.Journals publish a set number of volumes each year, sovolume numbers are used to identify in which volume anarticle appears. However, do not include the words “Vol.”or “Vols.” when referencing journals. Place the journalvolume number in italics after the journal title. If thejournal does not use volume numbers but gives the seasonor the month, include the season or the month after thepublication year.BookCorsini, R. J., (Ed.). (1994). Encyclopaedia of psychology (Vol. 4). John Wiley &Sons.JournalsBeemster, M. (2008, Spring). Saving the Southern Bell Frog. Australian Landcare,27–29.Shariff, J. F. (2011). Navigating assisted death and end-of-life care. CanadianMedical Association Journal, 183(6), 634–644.https://doi.org/10.1503/cmaj.091845 An Abridged Guide to the APA Referencing Style P a g e | 88Academic Learning Centre SAE Edition T2, 2020Appendix F: Latin words and their use as abbreviationsLatin words and their abbreviations. Are used in academic writing at times but they should be kept to a minimum and used inside parentheses. Beloware examples of Latin words (or their abbreviations), used inside parentheses when citing in text or in the reference list. Latin wordsExample in citation or reference listet al. abbreviation for “et alia” meaning “and others”When a work has three or more authors, only use the surnameof the first author, followed by et al.There should always be a full stop after “et al.” as the end ofthe word has been removed to create an abbreviation.Do not italicise et al.In-text citation. . . (Robbins et al., 2001).Reference exampleRobbins, S. P., Millett, B., Cacioppe, R., & Waters-Marsh, T. (2001).Organisational behaviour (3rd ed.). Prentice Hall Australia.Sic means ‘thus’ or ‘so’Used in a quotation, in italics and in square brackets. Itindicates that the word directly before it is an error thatappeared in the original text. This is to preserve theauthenticity of the quotation. This error may be incorrectspelling, punctuation or grammar.Note. The square brackets are not italicised.In his report, “the building inspector estimated that there [sic] house was afire hazard” (Wilson, 2013, p. 32).Circa means ‘around’ or ‘about’ It is abbreviated to ca.Used when an approximate publishing dates is available.Place square brackets around the approximate date instead ofparentheses. This approximation may be made by looking atthe latest entry in the reference list of the source you areusing.Aristotle. (1994). Politics. (B. Jowett, Trans.). The Internet Classics Archive.http://classics.mit.edu/Aristotle/politics.html (Original workpublished ca. 3500 B.C.E.) An Abridged Guide to the APA Referencing Style P a g e | 89Academic Learning Centre SAE Edition T2, 2020Appendix G: Referencing a journal article with or without a DOIWhen referencing a journal article, it can be difficult to know what information to include toform a complete reference. Use the Figure 4 flow chart below to clarify whether to include aDOI, no URL or a URL at the end of the reference.Note 1. If a journal article does not have a DOI number, no URL is needed if it is found in anacademic database. Examples of academic databases: APA PsycNET, PsycINFO, AcademicSearch Complete, CINAHL, Ebook Central, EBSCOhost, Google Scholar, JSTOR (excludingprimary source collections), MEDLINE, Nexis Uni, Ovid, ProQuest), PubMed,ScienceDirect, Scopus and Web of Science etc.Note 2. Most journal articles do not require a retrieval date; however, on rare occasions,articles may need a retrieval date if they are retrieved from databases where articles areperiodically updated. These articles/journals often have editors. See UpToDate example inSection 5.Figure 4DOI Flow Chart for Journal ArticlesNote. A flow chart to help students reference a journal article.An Abridged Guide to the APA Referencing Style P a g e | 90Academic Learning Centre SAE Edition T2, 2020Appendix H: Check your reference list CheckKey pointThe reference list begins on a new page. It should be the last page of your assignment;however, the appendices go after the reference list.Margins are set at least 2.54 cm top and bottom and left and right.Font style and size is same as for the rest of the assignment: Times New Roman 12 pt.Line spacing in the reference list is double line.The title is References and it is in bold, centred, and has the same font style and size asthe document.The reference list is aligned with the left margin.All lines after the first line of each entry should be indented half an inch (1.27cm) fromthe left margin. This is called a hanging indentation.A blank line space is not used after each reference.Numbers, letters and bullet points are not used to indicate new references.The reference list is arranged in alphabetical order according to the first author’ssurname (family name). The surname must be written in full and initials used torepresent given names.References by the same author in different years should be ordered by year. Place theoldest work first.References which have the same author and same year of publication are listedalphabetically according to the title of the book/article, and a lower-case letter is addedto the date: Example – Education Queensland. (2007a). Education Queensland.(2007b). Add a letter to both the reference and the in-text citation.If there is no author or authoring body (institution, corporation or other organisation),the reference is listed alphabetically according to the title of the article. If a source isauthored by an organisation rather than an individual, it is listed alphabeticallyaccording to the organisation’s name. For example: Education Queensland.URLs are hyperlinked (active, blue font and underlined).Cut and paste URLs to avoid transcript errors. Do not change the URL. If the URL isvery long, it is acceptable to shorten a URL using URL shortening services. Ensure thatit links directly to the correct location.Any reference that starts with a number precedes the alphabetical listing and is listednumerically; for example, 3D Networks. (2007). Delivering on . . . will appear beforeAnderson, J. (2013) . . .Every in-text citation appears in the reference list, and every item in the reference list isto be mentioned at least once in the assignment. Additionally, the citations that appearin the assignment itself must have the same spelling and dates as the ones in thereference list. Exception: Personal communication may be included in-text; however,it does not need to be included in the reference list. An Abridged Guide to the APA Referencing Style P a g e | 91Academic Learning Centre SAE Edition T2, 2020Appendix I: Quick guide for citing multiple authors Type ofCitationAuthor prominent citationInformation prominent citationOne work byone authorLuna (2020)(Luna, 2020)One work bytwo authorsWalker and Allen (2019)(Walker & Allen, 2019)One work bythree or moreauthorsWiskunde et al. (2020)(Wiskunde et al., 2020)Authoringbody withidentifiableabbreviationFirst citationNational Institute of MentalHealth (NIMH, 2020) . . .Subsequent citationsNIMH (2020) . . .First citation(National Institute of Mental Health[NIMH], 2020)Subsequent citations(NIMH, 2020)• Write the whole group author’s name only once in the text. Includean abbreviation directly after the group name. For subsequentcitations only use the abbreviation. See examples above.• Do not create your own abbreviations for group names. Only userecognised abbreviations.Group asauthor (noabbreviation)CQUniversity (2020)(CQUniversity, 2020) Note. How to cite multiple authors in-text. Adapted from Publication Manual of theAmerican Psychological Association (7th ed., p. 266), by American PsychologicalAssociation, 2020, Author.An Abridged Guide to the APA Referencing Style P a g e | 92Academic Learning Centre SAE Edition T2, 2020Appendix J: Quick guide for referencing multiple authors Number ofauthorsReference ListOne authorWalk, B. (2019).For 2 to 20authors, includeall surnames andinitials. Use acomma and anampersand symbol(&) before the lastauthor.Walker, J. E., & Allen, S. (2019).When there are 21or more authors,provide the first19 authorsfollowed byellipsis and thefinal author. Noampersand isrequired.Wiskunde, B., Arslan, M., Fischer, P., Nowak, L., Van den Berg, O., Coetzee,L., Juárez, U., Riyaziyyat, E., Wang, C., Zhang, I., Li, P., Yang, R.,Kumar, B., Xu, A., Martinez, R., McIntosh, V., Ibáñez, L. M.,Mäkinen, G., Virtanen, E., . . . Kovács, A. (2019).Authoring body(no acronym orinitialisation isrequired for thereference list).Correct: National Institute of Mental Health. (2020).Incorrect: National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH). (2020).Use an ampersandto separate twocorporate authors.American Psychological Association & National Institute of Health. (2020). An Abridged Guide to the APA Referencing Style P a g e | 93Academic Learning Centre SAE Edition T2, 2020Appendix K: Citing and referencing figures and tablesWhen including a figure (image or graph) or a table into an assignment, provide sourcedetails below the figure or table. Use the templates below to assist you. The source detailsshould also be included in the reference list. For more details on how to label your tables andfigures see Section 2: How to use tables, figures and images.Caption templates and examples for tables and figures• Identify which type of source you took your figure or table from• Choose the correct template (journal article, book, book chapter and webpage). Note.If the table or figure has not been adapted, use the word from. If the table or figure hasbeen adapted, use the phrase adapted from.• The examples below simply demonstrate how to use the template.• The reference list example indicates how to reference the figure or table in areference list. Source typeTemplates and examplesJournal article, magazine, newspaper or blogTemplateFrom [or Adapted from] “Title of Article,” by A. N. Author and C. O.Author, year, Title of Journal, Volume(issue), p. xx(https://doi.org/10.xxxx/xxxx).ExampleFrom “Social Media: A Contextual Framework to Guide Research andPractice,” by L. A. McFarland and R. E. Ployhart, 2015, Journal of AppliedPsychology, 100(6), p. 1656 (https://doi.org/10.1037/a0039244).Reference listexampleMcFarland, L. A., & Ployhart, R. E. (2015). Social media: A contextualframework to guide research and practice. Journal of Applied Psychology,100(6), 1653–1677. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0039244Authored book or reportTemplateFrom [or Adapted from] Title of Book (any edition or volume information,p. xxx), by A. N. Author and C. O. Author, year, Publisher(https://doi.org/10.xxxx/xxxx).ExampleAdapted from Managing Therapy-Interfering Behavior: Strategies FromDialectical Behavior Therapy (p. 172), by A. L. Chapman and M. Z.Rosenthal, 2016, American Psychological Association(http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/14752-001).Reference listexampleChapman, A. L., & Rosenthal, M. Z. (2016). Managing therapy-interferingbehavior: Strategies from dialectical behavior therapy. AmericanPsychological Association. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/14752-001 An Abridged Guide to the APA Referencing Style P a g e | 94Academic Learning Centre SAE Edition T2, 2020 Source typeTemplates and examplesEdited book chapterTemplateFrom [or Adapted from] “Title of Chapter,” by A. N. Author and C. O.Author, in A. N. Editor (Ed.), Title of Book (any edition or volumeinformation, p. xxx), year, Publisher.Note. Provide a DOI in parentheses if available as per example above.ExampleFrom “The Cortex: Regulation of Sensory and Emotional Experience,” byD. Christian, in N. Hass-Cohen and R. Carr (Eds.), Art Therapy andClinical Neuroscience (p. 63), 2008, Jessica Kingsley.Reference listexampleChristian, D. (2008). The cortex: Regulation of sensory and emotionalexperience. In N. Hass-Cohen & R. Carr (Eds.), Art therapy and clinicalneuroscience (pp. 62–75). Jessica Kingsley.WebpageTemplateFrom [or Adapted from/Data in column 1 are from] Title of Web Document,by A. N. Author and C. O. Author, year (https://xxxxxxxx).ExampleFrom Nutrition, Physical Activity and Obesity: Data, Trends and Maps, byCenters for Disease Control and Prevention, 2015 (https://www.cdc.gov/nccdphp/dnpao/data-trends-maps/).Reference listexampleCenters for Disease Control and Prevention. (2015). Nutrition, physicalactivity and obesity: Data, trends and maps. https://www.cdc.gov/nccdphp/dnpao/data-trends-maps/ Note. Table with templates, copyright examples and reference entries for figures and tablesreproduced from journal articles, books, book chapters and webpage. Adapted fromPublication manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed., p. 391), byAmerican Psychological Association, 2020 (https://doi.org/10.1037/0000165-000).Note to academics and RHD Students. Please be aware that an extended copyright captionfor tables and figures will be required for academic publishing (APA, 2020, p. 391).An Abridged Guide to the APA Referencing Style P a g e | 95Academic Learning Centre SAE Edition T2, 2020IndexAbbreviations………………………………….84Paragraph number…………………………….. 86Academic Integrity ………………………….30Avoiding plagiarism…………………………… 31Have I plagiarised?……………………………. 30Acronyms ……………………………………….80Appendices ……………………………………..76Books (Hard copy)……………………..20, 32Chapter in an edited book……………… 21, 37Edited book……………………………………….. 37Editions ……………………………………………. 36Multiple works same author, publishedin different years…………………………….. 33Multiple works same author, same year… 34No author but an authoring body…………. 35No date can be established………………….. 36One author ……………………………………….. 32One issue or volume in an edited series… 37One volume of multi-volume work ……….. 37Several sources………………………………….. 36Source within a sourceSecondary source …………………………………. 35Two authors………………………………………. 32Two primary sources within the onesecondary source ……………………………. 36Works by different authors with the samefamily name and same year ……………… 34Conference papers…………………………..48Conference sessions and presentations…. 48Diagnostic and Statistical Manual ofMental Disorders ………………………..39Dissertation or master’s thesis …………49Unpublished thesis …………………………….. 49Ebooks ………………………………………20, 21Ebook available on the web ………………… 38Ebook available via ACQUIRE……………. 39Ebook chapter available on the web …….. 38Government documents found online 52Australian Bureau of Statistics ……………. 53Fact sheet…………………………………………. 53Press releases……………………………………. 53Same author, same year……………………… 54Standalone document …………………………. 52Initialisms………………………………………. 81Journals and magazines………………….. 40eLocator or article number…………………. 85Hard copy journal without a DOI………… 42Hard copy with no volume or issuenumber………………………………………….. 42Journal article with a DOI…………….. 22, 40Journal article without a DOI………… 23, 41Online magazine ……………………………….. 43Key terms ………………………………………. 76Latin words ……………………………………. 88Legal documents…………………………….. 55Coroner’s report ……………………………….. 58Hansard……………………………………………. 58Legal case …………………………………… 24, 56Legislation (Act, Bill, Regulation) ……….. 55Standards …………………………………………. 57Multiple authors …………………………….. 92Citing……………………………………………….. 91Referencing ………………………………………. 92News articles ………………………………….. 44Hard copy…………………………………………. 44Online news website…………………………… 44Online newspaper ……………………………… 44Paraphrasing……………………………………. 6Rules………………………………………………….. 7Steps………………………………………………….. 6Quick GuideCheck your reference list ……………………. 90An Abridged Guide to the APA Referencing Style P a g e | 96Academic Learning Centre SAE Edition T2, 2020Citing and referencing figures and tables 93Citing multiple authors ………………………. 91Referencing multiple authors ………………. 92Quotations ………………………………………10Long ………………………………………………… 12Page numbers……………………………………. 82Paragraph numbers …………………………… 82Short………………………………………………… 11Steps ………………………………………………… 10Reference list……………………………..19, 90Authors’ names………………………………….. 27Books……………………………………………….. 20Captialisation and italics ……………………. 27Document on the web…………………………. 25Journal article without a DOI……………… 23Journal articles with a DOI ………………… 22Legal case ………………………………………… 24Long URL…………………………………………. 26Publication details …………………………….. 26Webpage…………………………………………… 25Reports …………………………………………..46Government, with individual authors……. 47Hard copy…………………………………………. 46Online Government, with corporateauthor …………………………………………… 47Online with individual authors…………….. 46Specialised sources ………………………….62Artistic work……………………………………… 62Audio podcast episode………………………… 63Audiobook ………………………………………… 63Blog …………………………………………………. 64Book review………………………………………. 46Brochure…………………………………………… 69Dictionary (Hard copy)………………………. 64Dictionary (online)…………………………….. 64Encyclopaedia (Hard copy –author/editor)…………………………………. 64Encyclopaedia (Online) ……………………… 65Facebook post or page……………………….. 65Film or movie ……………………………………. 66Forum post (not Moodle) ……………………. 66Historical source on the web ………………. 66Images……………………………………………… 62JBI Evidence summary……………………….. 67JBI Recommended practice…………………. 67Map …………………………………………………. 68MIMS……………………………………………….. 68Mobile App……………………………………….. 69Musical score……………………………………. 69Painting……………………………………………. 62Pamphlet ………………………………………….. 69Photographs……………………………………… 62PowerPoint (not in Moodle) ……………….. 70Radio transcript from a webpage…………. 70Shakespeare ……………………………………… 70Software packages …………………………….. 70Song…………………………………………………. 71Tables and figures……………………………… 71TED talk…………………………………………… 71Television advertisement…………………….. 72Television episode or webisode……………. 72Television transcript ………………………….. 72Traditional Knowledge or OralTraditions of Indigenous Peoples……… 73Twitter……………………………………………… 74Unpublished manuscript …………………….. 74Wiki …………………………………………………. 74YouTube—with creator’s name……………. 75Styles of citation in-text…………………….. 7Author prominent ………………………………… 7Information prominent …………………………. 7Summarising……………………………………. 8Rules………………………………………………….. 9Steps………………………………………………….. 8Symbols …………………………………………. 78Symposium contribution ………………….. 48Systematic review…………………………….. 42Cochrane Database of SystematicReviews…………………………………………. 42JBI Database of Systematic Reviews andImplementation Reports…………………… 43JBI Library of Systematic Reviews……….. 43An Abridged Guide to the APA Referencing Style P a g e | 97Academic Learning Centre SAE Edition T2, 2020Tables and figures …………………………..15Citing and referencing ……………………….. 93Figures ……………………………………….. 17, 18Photograph……………………………………….. 62Tables…………………………………………. 15, 16Turnitin ………………………………………….30University-provided electronic andmultimedia study materials …………59Discussion board message posted toMoodle………………………………………….. 60Echo360 presentation or video onMoodle………………………………………….. 60Lecture notes available on CQUniversitye-Units (Moodle) ……………………………. 59Personal communication……………….. 61, 69PowerPoint presentation on Moodle ……. 60Source in study guideSecondary source…………………………………..61Unit notes on Moodle…………………………. 59Webpage or standalone document 25, 50Document on the web…………………………. 50No date…………………………………………….. 51Page numbers……………………………………. 51Paragraph numbers …………………………… 51

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