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CRM 4607/CRM 4500DRUGS and CRIMEOVERVIEWDelivery Mode: Distance EducationSchool of LawMiddlesex University2020-2021Module Leader: Professor Karen Duke2IntroductionThis document provides an overview of the module CRM 4607/CRM 4500 Drugs andCrime, which was prepared and written by Professor Karen Duke, the module leader.This module critically examines the key criminological theories and concepts relating todrugs and drug use, the relationship between drugs and crime, and the criminal justiceinstitutions (ie. police, probation and prisons), policies and legislation relating to drugs,drug use and offending.Module LeaderModule Leader: Professor Karen DukeAddress: Room WG20, Williams BuildingMiddlesex UniversityThe BurroughsHendonLondon NW4 4BTTelephone: 020 8411 6424E-mail: [email protected]: karen.duke5Twitter: @KarenLDukeContentsThe information contained in this module overview includes the following topics:1. Module outline – aims and learning outcomes2. Module contents3. Teaching and learning strategies4. Support5. Assignments/Assessment6. Submission of coursework7. Procedures for deferring module8. Module evaluation9. Reading lists10.Useful websites3Module Outline –Aims and Learning OutcomesAims of the CourseThis module aims to develop advanced skills in the application of criminologicaltheories and concepts in relation to drugs, drug use, and drugs control and incritically analysing the relationship between drugs and crime. Students will criticallyevaluate the laws, policies and institutions of drugs control within their social, politicaland economic contexts and compare and contrast the role of the criminal justicesystem in responding to drugs in various countries. The module also aims to foster acritical interest in the reform of drugs control policy and institutions at both nationaland international levels.Learning Outcomes:KnowledgeOn completion of this module, the successful student will be able to:1. Critically assess the relationship between drugs, crime and social structuralfactors by evaluating the research and evidence base;2. Critically analyse the diversity and similarities between different systems of drugscontrol with particular reference to the criminal justice system;3. Critically evaluate the role of the criminal justice system as a response to drugs incontemporary society through the application of criminological theories andconceptsSkillsThis module will call for the successful student to demonstrate the ability to:4. Formulate, present and critique structured arguments and key debates in relationto drugs control and justify conclusions drawn based on research evidence;5. Compare and contrast policy documentation relating to drugs control in differentcountries;6. Manage their own time and resources in undertaking a distance education module4Syllabus• Key criminological concepts, theories and perspectives relating to drugs and druguse• The relationship between drugs and crime• Comparison of drugs policy systems globally and the role of the criminal justicesystem• Policing drugs, markets and trafficking• Alternatives to punishment, diversion from the criminal justice system and quasicompulsory treatment• Drugs and prisons• Possibilities for drug policy reform: prohibition, legalisation and decriminalisationModule ContentsOutline of Module Units and Workshops1. Sociological and Criminological Perspectives: This unit will provide a criticaloverview of key criminological concepts, theories and perspectives relating to drugsand drug use. This will include a critique of positivist approaches, an examinationof traditional sociological approaches such as anomie, subculture and labellingtheories, and an exploration of contemporary approaches including feministperspectives, the market approach as developed by Ruggiero and South (1995)and the normalisation thesis as developed by Parker and his colleagues (1998;2011).2. Drugs and crime: This unit will critically examine the relationship between drugsand crime and the different models of the drug-crime link by exploring key piecesof research conducted in Britain and internationally. The policy initiatives designedto tackle drugs and crime will be assessed.3. Workshop: Comparison of drugs policy systems globally and the role of thecriminal justice system. This face-to-face workshop will examine drugs policyand law from the 1990s to the present. Using the UK as a case study, this unitwill focus on the increasing interface between drugs and criminal justice policy byanalysing national drugs strategies and legal frameworks. The currentgovernment’s drug strategy (HM Government, 2017) which focuses on ‘recovery’will be examined. Comparisons with other countries will be included.4. Drugs markets and enforcement: This unit will explore the basic structures andorganisation of drugs markets (traditional and online) and drug law enforcement(international, regional, and local). The goals of drug enforcement will be examinedas well as the various policing strategies developed to tackle the drugs ‘problem’.The importance of street-level drug law enforcement will be examined by drawing5on key pieces of research. The zero tolerance approach to policing and the waysin which drugs enforcement can exacerbate harm and risk to drug users and theircommunities will be critically analysed.5. Alternatives to punishment: This unit will critically explore attempts at diverting drugusers out of criminal justice system into treatment. ‘Treatment/enforcement’bifurcation. Drug courts.6. Drugs and the penal system: This unit will explore the control, punishment and useof drugs within the prison environment. It will examine recent policies and initiativesaround drug treatment, harm reduction, supply reduction, and drug testing.7. Workshop: Assessing drug interventions in the criminal justice system. This faceto-face workshop will focus on the final assessment for the course where you areasked to evaluate and critique a particular drug initiative within the criminal justicesystem with reference to the relevant research literature and evidence.8. Possibilities for drug policy reform: This unit will synthesise the key themes, debatesand arguments emerging from the attempts to control drugs through the criminaljustice system. Drawing on theoretical perspectives and current policy andpractice, students will be asked to consider the possible futures for drugs policyreform.6Teaching and Learning StrategiesThe module will be delivered via distance learning materials. This will include an onlinemodule workbook to guide reading, exercises and activities. For each unit, theworkbook will provide:• A brief introduction to the topic;• Specific learning outcomes for the unit;• A list of essential reading and recommended further reading;• Exercises and activities to help you understand the issues, test understanding,consolidate reading and knowledge and interact with other students and the tutor;• Students will be directed to the online discussion board on My Learning to debateand comment on key issues;• Tutorial support via email, phone, Skype and peer support;• There will be two face-to-face workshops during the module where you will have achance to meet the other students and your tutor.This module is worth 20 credits (CRM 4607)/15 credits (CRM 4500) and the total studyhours required to complete the module is 200 hours (CRM 4607) or 150 hours (CRM4500). This includes the time needed to read, carry out the exercises andassignments. The units are not all of equal length. Some require more reading thanothers and some have more activities and exercises than others. Also, because peopleread and work in different ways and at different speeds, some units may take more orless time depending on the nature of the set tasks and on your own individual learningpreferences and approaches. As in any course of study, some students will work fasteron some aspects of the course than on others and may want to spend longer on someissues than on others. No advice is given on the specific time you should spend onreading, exercises, or on one unit compared to another. This allows you to manageyour own time in relation to your own working methods and needs and to be flexible intackling the different aspects of the module.Exercises and ActivitiesExercises and activities are an important part of the module and many are based onthe essential readings with the aim of helping you to work through the knowledge,issues, and debates they present. The exercises and activities aim to be interactiveand to encourage you to discuss or become involved with other students, and/or workcolleagues and friends in completing tasks. While you may choose to spend more time7on some activities and exercises than others, it is recommended that students shouldtry to complete as many as possible.E-learningAll course materials will be located on My Learning for students to download. You willbe directed to the discussion board on MY LEARNING to debate and comment on keyissues. You will also be directed to appropriate external websites for particular learningmaterials throughout the units.SupportTutorial SupportAll students will have support from the module leader via e-mail, Skype, MY LEARNINGand the telephone to answer enquiries and questions relating to developing theirknowledge and understanding of the topics covered on the course. Student knowledgeand understanding is further supported through one-to-one and/or group tutorials withteaching staff on the module.WorkshopsThere will be 2 scheduled online Zoom workshops during the academic year. Studentsare required to attend in order to meet the other students enrolled on the course andto discuss any questions/issues arising from the learning materials and/orassignments.Workshop: Thursday, 28 January 12:00-14:00 via ZoomJoin Zoom Meetinghttps://mdx-acuk.zoom.us/j/95451434149?pwd=Y3k5cGJCSlJ0MUhydWtubmk3VG1PUT09Meeting ID: 954 5143 4149Passcode: 503454Workshop: Thursday, 18 March 12:00-14:00 via ZoomJoin Zoom Meetinghttps://mdx-acuk.zoom.us/j/94723083323?pwd=SGNvWTY3aWNjUTFvSWdQUlJmNkg3QT09Meeting ID: 947 2308 3323Passcode: 5508678Peer SupportExercises and tasks will aim to be interactive and will encourage you to discuss orbecome involved with other students and/or work colleagues and friends in order tocomplete the activities. Many of the units ask you to post your thoughts on particularissues to the discussion board on MY LEARNING.9CRM 4607 Assessment (20 credits) (For students studyingthe MA/MSc Criminology programmes)The module will be assessed by two essays each worth 45% of the marks andcontribution to online discussion boards (10%).1. 2,000 word comparative essay: Students will be required to submit a comparisonof the national drugs policies of two countries of their choice which compares andcontrasts the involvement of the criminal justice system in drugs control in the twocountries (Summative) 45% of the total marks. (Learning outcomes 2, 5, and 6)2. 2,000 word evaluative essay: Applying criminological theories and concepts,students will be required to provide a critique and assessment of a specific drugsinitiative within the criminal justice system (e.g. arrest referral, street level enforcement,policing drug markets, quasi-compulsory drug treatment, drug courts, drug testing ortreatment in prison etc) with reference to the relevant research literature and evidence.(Summative) 45% of the total marks. (Learning outcomes 1, 3, 4, and 6)3. Contribution of 150-200 words to at least 5 separate online discussion boards(5 x 2%) (Summative) 10% of the total marks (Learning outcomes (1, 3, 4 and 6).Students will receive 2% for each contribution, up to a maximum total of 10%. Thesecontributions need to be made to the online discussion boards at the end of each unit.They will be assessed at the end of the teaching period (end of Week 24)NB: Students must pass the two essay components of the assessment in order to passthe module.10CRM 4500 Assessment (15 credits) (For students studyingthe MSc Mental Health and Substance Use (Dual Diagnosis)Programme)The module will be assessed by one essay worth 90% of the marks and contributionto online discussion boards (10%).1. 2,500 word evaluative essay: Applying criminological theories and concepts,students will be required to provide a critique and assessment of a specific drugsinitiative within the criminal justice system (e.g. arrest referral, street level enforcement,policing drug markets, quasi-compulsory drug treatment, drug courts, drug testing ortreatment in prison etc) with reference to the relevant research literature and evidence.(Summative) 90% of the total marks. (Learning outcomes 1-3)2. Contribution of 150-200 words to at least 5 separate online discussion boards(5 x 2%) (Summative) 10% of the total marks (Learning outcomes (1, 3, 4 and 6).Students will receive 2% for each contribution, up to a maximum total of 10%. Thesecontributions need to be made to the online discussion boards at the end of each unit.They will be assessed at the end of the teaching period (end of Week 24)11CRM 4607: Compulsory Assignments for MA/MScCriminology programmes: DetailsAssessment 12000 WORD COMPARISON OF APPROACHES TO DRUGS CONTROL (45% OFTHE TOTAL MARK)Deadline: Thursday, 11 March 2021 by 9:00pmFeedback will be posted by 1 April 2021Drawing on your work on contemporary drugs policy in Britain and criminal justiceinitiatives and your analysis of the current drug strategy (HM Government, 2010; 2017),choose another country you are interested in and obtain their current national drugstrategy or policy. Some countries have their own drugs policy websites which will behelpful in locating the policy document. See for example:* United States https://www.whitehouse.gov/ondcp/national-drug-controlstrategy* For policies of European countries, try contacting the European MonitoringCentre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (www.emcdda.europa.eu) Address: Caisdo Sodre, 1249-289 Lisboa, Portugal. Tel: (351) 211 21 02 00.Part A: You will use the current UK drug strategy document(https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/628148/Drug_strategy_2017.PDF and the current drug strategy/policy document of yourchosen country to write a comparison of the two countries. Make a list of the keysimilarities and differences between the UK and your chosen country in terms of theirapproach to tackling the drugs ‘problem’, particularly around the involvement of thecriminal justice system in drugs control.Part B: Then answer the following question:Which country do you think has the better approach to drugs control? Why do youthink this? Explain your reasons.Assessment 22000 WORD EVALUATIVE ESSAY (45% OF THE TOTAL MARK)Deadline for essay: Thursday, 29 April 2021 by 9:00pmFeedback sheet will be posted after exam boards.Applying criminological theories and concepts, students will be required to provide acritique and assessment (2,000 words) of a specific drugs policy initiative in the criminal12justice system (eg. arrest referral schemes, street level drugs enforcement, policingdrug markets, drug rehabilitation requirements, drug courts, drug testing in the prisonsystem, drug treatment in prisons, drug recovery wings in prisons, coerced treatment,drug testing on arrest, drug testing on licence etc) with reference to the relevantresearch literature and evidence.CRM 4500: Compulsory Assignments for MSc Mental Healthand Substance Use (Dual Diagnosis) programme: DetailsAssessment2500 WORD EVALUATIVE ESSAY (90% OF THE TOTAL MARK)Deadline for essay: Thursday, 29 April 2021 by 9:00pmFeedback sheet will be posted after exam boards.Applying criminological theories and concepts, students will be required to provide acritique and assessment (2,500 words) of a specific drugs policy initiative in the criminaljustice system (eg. arrest referral schemes, street level drugs enforcement, policingdrug markets, drug rehabilitation requirements, drug courts, drug testing in the prisonsystem, drug treatment in prisons, drug recovery wings in prisons, coerced treatment,drug testing on arrest, drug testing on licence etc) with reference to the relevantresearch literature and evidence.Assessment Feedback Prior to MarkingThe following policy regarding feedback on assignments prior to submission formarking is designed to ensure equity in provision for all students.Completed assignments will not be pre-marked. The module leader will not look atand comment on full drafts of assignments. Advice will be given on assignment plansor outlines, specific questions relating to content or structure of the assignment,identification and use of appropriate resources, referencing etc. Feedback will beadvisory, not prescriptive.Submission of Coursework1. Coursework must be submitted by the deadlines indicated above for eachassignment. Failure to submit work by the particular deadlines will result in failurein the component or the module concerned (grade 20), unless permission has been13granted by the Campus Assessment Manager/Officer or Director of Resources andStudents or Deputy to defer assessment.2. One copy will be submitted electronically on MY LEARNING via Turnitin (seeguidelines on Turnitin on MYLearning space)3. A copy of the essay should always be retained by the student.4. All essays should be typed, double spaced and your essays should be written usingthe Harvard style of referencing. See the referencing guidelines issued by the library:http://libguides.mdx.ac.uk/plagiarismreferencing_ga=1.97777119.1159016760.1386894559 and Cite them Right Online:http://www.citethemrightonline.com/5. The front page of the essay should carry the title, the date of submission, the modulenumber and the module’s leader name.6. Please note that you must not submit work for this module that has been, or will be,submitted for any other module. This is ‘self-plagiarism’ and will be dealt withaccording to the University Regulations.Module EvaluationIt is particularly important to receive evaluation of modules from distance educationstudents. This is the only way programme and module tutors can assess students’satisfaction with the programme and the modules and try to address any generalproblems or issues arising relating to content and delivery of the programme.You can provide feedback informally via email at any time and if you wish, this can besent anonymously by post to Professor Karen Duke, the module tutor.Formal evaluation is also expected. This takes the form of a standardisedquestionnaire, which has been designed, for use throughout the School of Law. Wewould urge everyone to complete the questionnaire and especially to add commentsfreely in as much detail as necessary.14Reading ListsThe readings include:• Essential readings from textbooks, journals, reports or policy documents (these arereadings which are essential to your understanding of key topics on the module)• Further reading (these are recommended reading if you want to pursue atopic/issue in more detail)• References (references are studies cited in the text of the unit but not necessarilyrecommended for further study)Background reading/General referencesKORTEXT: This text is available for FREE to all students registered on the module:Coomber, R. et al (2013) Key Concepts in Drugs and Society. London. Sage. (Section1)The following references will be useful background reading prior to beginning thecourse and also for general reference throughout the course:Stevens (2017) ‘Principles, pragmatism and prohibition: explaining continuity andchange in British drug policy’, in: Liebling, A., Maruna, A. and McAra, L. (eds) OxfordHandbook of Criminology. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Seddon, T. (2017) ‘Drugs: consumption, addiction, and treatment’, in: Liebling, A.,Maruna, A. and McAra, L. (eds) Oxford Handbook of Criminology. Oxford: OxfordUniversity Press.ONS (2020) Drug Misuse in England and Wales, year ending March 2020.https://www.ons.gov.uk/peoplepopulationandcommunity/crimeandjustice/articles/drugmisuseinenglandandwales/yearendingmarch2020United Nations Office for Drug and Crime. (2020) The World Drug Report 2020. NewYork: United Nations Office for Drugs and Crime.https://wdr.unodc.org/wdr2020/index.htmlEMCDDA (2019) Drug Related Deaths and Mortality in Europe. Lisbon: EMCDDA.http://www.emcdda.europa.eu/system/files/publications/11485/20193286_TD0319444ENN_PDF.pdfEMCDDA (2020) European Drug Report: trends and developments. Lisbon:EMCDDA.https://www.emcdda.europa.eu/edr2020_enEMCDDA (2019) Country Overview: United Kingdom. Lisbon: EMCDDA.http://www.emcdda.europa.eu/publications/country-overviews/uk15KortextThis is the free text which is available to all students at no cost.Coomber, R. et al (2013) Key Concepts in Drugs and Society. London. Sage.Essential textbooksBowser, B., Word, C. and Seddon, T. (2014) Understanding Drug Use and Abuse: aglobal perspective. London: Palgrave MacMillan.Bean, P. (2014) Drugs and crime. Cullompton: Willan Publishing.Hucklesby, A. and Wincup, E. (eds) (2010) Drug Interventions in Criminal Justice.Open University Press.Kolind, T., Thom, B. and Hunt, G. (eds) (2016) Sage Handbook of Drug and AlcoholStudies – social science perspectives, Volume 1, London: Sage.Tiger, R. (2013) Judging Addicts: drug courts and coercion in the justice system. NewYork University Press.EMCDDA (2015) Alternatives to punishment for drug-using offenders. Lisbon:EMCDDA.http://www.emcdda.europa.eu/attachements.cfm/att_240836_EN_TDAU14007ENN.pdfEMCDDA (2012) Prisons and Drugs in Europe: the problem and responses. Lisbon:EMCDDA.MacGregor, S. (2017) The Politics of Drugs: perceptions, power and policies. London:Palgrave MacMillanHellman, M., Berridge, V., Duke, K. and Mold, A. (eds) (2016) Concepts of AddictiveSubstances and Behaviours across Time and Place. Oxford: Oxford University Press.16Key journalsPlease see list of English and non-English language journals published by theInternational Society of Addiction Journal Editors (ISAJE) in Babor et al. (eds.) (2008)Publishing Addiction Science: A guide for the perplexed. 2nd. Edition. Chapter 2,pp15-20 http://www.parint.org/isajewebsite/isajebook/isajewebbook.htmKey journalsDrugs: Education, Prevention and PolicyInternational Journal of Drug PolicyAddictionJournal of Drug IssuesContemporary Drug ProblemsAddiction Research and TheorySubstance Use and MisuseDrugs and Alcohol TodayJournal of Substance UseBritish Journal of CriminologyCriminal JusticeHoward Journal of Criminal JusticeUSEFUL WEBSITESDrugWise (www.drugwise.org.uk)UKDPC (United Kingdom Drug Policy Commission) (www.ukdpc.org.uk)Drug Reform Coordination Network Online Library of Drug Policy(www.druglibrary.org)National Institute on Drug Abuse (USA) (www.nida.nih.gov/NIDAHome2.html)Office of National Drug Control Policy (USA) (www.whitehousedrugpolicy.gov)United Nations International Drug Control Programme (UNDCP) (www.undcp.org)17The Centre for Addiction and Mental Health (CAMH) Canada (www.camh.ca)EMCDDA (Europe) (www.emcdda.europa.eu)UK Harm Reduction Alliance www.ukhra.orgCEDRO (Centrum Voor Drugsonderzoek- The Centre for Drug Research, Universityof Amsterdam). The Centre for Drug Research ceased to exist from 2004, but theirwebsite has many online research reports and articles. www.cedro-uva.orgEDPI (European Drug Policy Initiative) http://eudrugpolicy.orgISSDP (International Society for the Study of Drug Policy) www.issdp.orgUNODC (United Nations Office on Drug and Crime) www.unodc.orgNb. Each website has links to other sites.Cochrane Library (Drug and Alcohol Group): http://cdag.cochrane.org/our-reviewsIDPC (International Drugs Policy Consortium). www.idpc.netUnit One: Sociological and Criminological PerspectivesEssential reading:Beccaria, F. and Prina, F. (2017) Sociological Perspectives in: Kolind, T., Thom, B.and Hunt, G. (eds). The Sage Handbook of Drug and Alcohol Studies. London: Sage(pp. 30-48).Bowser, B.P., Word, C. O., and Seddon, T. (2014) Understanding Drug Use andAbuse: A Global Perspective. London: Palgrave MacMillan. (Chapter 6 CriminologicalPerspectives pp. 70-83).Coomber, R. et al. (2013) Key Concepts in Drugs and Society. London: Sage. (seeChapter 14 on Normalisation, pp. 72-76)18Further Reading:Aldridge, J., Measham, F. and Williams, L. (2011) Illegal Leisure Revisited: changingpatterns of alcohol and drug use in adolescents and young adults. London: Routledge(Chapters 1 and 7)Becker, H. (1963) Outsiders: studies in the sociology of deviance. London: The FreePress. (Labelling theory)Currie, E. (1993) Reckoning: drugs, the cities and the American future. New York: Hilland Wang (in particular, pp. 103-123 – models of drug use and Chapter 2: Roots ofthe Drug Crisis – explores subcultures and Cloward and Ohlin’s work)Downes, D. and Rock, P. (2007) Understanding Deviance: a guide to the sociology ofcrime and rule breaking. Oxford: Oxford University Press. (Chapter 5: Anomie,Chapter 6: Culture and Subculture, Chapter 7: Symbolic Interactionism, Chapter 9:Control Theories)Ettorre, B. (1989) ‘Women and substance use/abuse: towards a feminist perspectiveor how to make dust fly’, Women’s Studies International Forum, 12: 593-602.Ettorre, B. (1992) Women and Substance Use. London: Palgrave MacmillanFaupel, C., Horowitz, A. and Weaver, G. (2009) The Sociology of American Drug Use.Oxford: Oxford University Press. (Chapter 5: Theoretical explanations for drug useand addiction)Measham, F., Williams, L. and Aldridge, J. (2011) ‘Marriage, mortgage, motherhood:what longitudinal studies can tell us about gender, drug ‘careers’ and the normalisationof adult ‘recreational’ drug use’, International Journal of Drug Policy, p. 1-8.Measham, F. and Shiner, M. (2009) ‘The legacy of ‘normalisation’: the role of classicaland contemporary criminological theory in understanding young people’s drug use’,International Journal of Drug Policy, 20: 502-508.Measham, F. (2002) ‘Doing gender’ – ‘doing drugs’: conceptualising the gendering ofdrugs cultures’, Contemporary Drug Problems, 29 (2): 335-73.Rock, P. (2007) ‘Sociological Theories of Crime’, in: M. Maguire, R. Morgan, R. Reiner(eds) The Oxford Handbook of Criminology. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 3-42.Ruggiero, V. and South, N. (1995) Eurodrugs: drug use, markets and trafficking inEurope. London: UCL Press. (Chapters 1 and 6)Shiner, M and Newburn, T. (1999) ‘Taking Tea with Noel: the place and meaning ofdrug use in everyday life’, in: South, N. (ed). Drugs: cultures, controls and everydaylife. London: Sage.Young, J. (1971) The Drugtakers: the social meaning of drug use. London: Paladin.(Labelling theory and the deviancy amplification thesis)19See Special Issue of the journal, Drugs: education, prevention and policy, SpecialIssue: The Normalisation Thesis 20 years later, Volume 23 (6), August 2016. ISSN0968-7637.Unit Two: Drugs and CrimeEssential readingCoomber, R. et al (2013) Key Concepts in Drugs and Society. London: Sage. (Chapter21: Drugs and crime)Seddon, T. (2000) ‘Explaining the drug-crime link: theoretical, policy and researchissues’, Journal of Social Policy, 29, 1, 95-107.Rolando, S., Asmussen Frank, V., Duke, K., Kahlert, R., Pisarska, A., Graf, N. andBeccaria, F. (2020) ‘I like money, I like many things’. The relationship between drugsand crime from the perspective of young people in contact with criminal justicesystems, Drugs: Education, Prevention and Policy,DOI: 10.1080/09687637.2020.1754339Further readingBean, P. (2014) Drugs and Crime. London: Routledge. (Chapters 1, 2 and 4)Bennett, T. and Holloway, K (2004) Drug use and offending: summary results of thefirst two years of the NEW-ADAM programme. Research Findings 179. London: HomeOffice.Bennett, T. and Holloway, K. (2005) Understanding drugs, alcohol and crime. MiltonKeynes: Open University Press.Best, D., Sidwell, C., Gossop, M., Harris, J. and Strang, J. (2001) ‘Crime andexpenditure amongst polydrug misusers seeking treatment: the connection betweenprescribed methadone and crack use, and criminal involvement’, British Journal ofCriminology, 41, pp. 119-126.Burr, A. (1987) ‘Chasing the dragon: heroin misuse, delinquency, and crime in thecontext of south London culture’, British Journal of Criminology, 27 (4): 333-57.EMCDDA (2007) Drugs and crime – a complex relationship. Drugs in Focus 16.Lisbon: EMCDDAHolloway, K. and Bennett, T. (2004) The results of the first two years of the NEWADAM Programme. Home Office Online report 19/04. London: Home Office(www.homeoffice.gov.uk/rds/pdfs04/rdsolr1904.pdf).20Hucklesby, A. and Wincup, E. (eds) (2010) Drug Interventions in the Criminal JusticeSystem. Open University Press. (Chapter 2)McSweeney, T., Hughes, C.E. and Ritter, A. (2016) Tackling ‘drug-related’ crime: Arethere merits in diverting drug-misusing defendants to treatment? Findings from anAustralian case study. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Criminology, 49 (2): 198– 220.National Treatment Agency (2012) Estimating the crime reduction benefits of drugtreatment and recovery. London: NTA.Seddon, T. (2006) ‘Drugs, Crime and Social Exclusion: social context and social theoryin British drugs-crime research’, British Journal of Criminology, 46:680-703.Stevens, A. (2008) Drugs, Crime and Public Health. London: Routledge.Stevens, A. (2007) ‘When two dark figures collide: evidence and discourse on drugrelated crime’, Critical Social Policy, 27(1): 77-99.Stevens, A., Trace, M., and Bewley-Taylor, D. (2005) Reducing drug-related crime: anoverview of the global evidence (Report 5). London: The Beckley Foundation.Unit Three: WORKSHOP: Comparison of national drugs policiesand the role of the criminal justice systemEssential readingHM Government (2017) 2017 Drug Strategy. London: HM Government.https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/628148/Drug_strategy_2017.PDFHM Government (2010) Drug Strategy 2010: reducing demand, restricting supply,building recovery: supporting people to live a drug free life. London: HMGovernment. http://www.homeoffice.gov.uk/publications/alcohol-drugs/drugs/drugstrategy/drug-strategy-2010?view=BinaryChatwin, C. (2018) Towards More Effective Global Drug Policies. Palgrave MacMillan.Royal Society for Public Health (2016) Taking a new line on drugs. London: RoyalSociety for Public Health.https://www.rsph.org.uk/our-work/policy/protecting-the-public-s-health/taking-a-newline-on-drugs.htmlStevens, A. (2017) ‘Principles, pragmatism and prohibition: explaining continuity andchange in British drug policy’, in: Liebling, A., Maruna, S. and McAra, L. (eds) OxfordHandbook of Criminology. 6th Edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press21MacGregor, S. (2017) The Politics of Drugs: perceptions, power and policies. London:Palgrave MacMillanKolind, T., Thom, B. and Hunt, G. (eds) (2016) Handbook of Drug and Alcohol Studies– social science perspectives, Volume 1, London: Sage. (Chapters 9 and 11)Duke, K. (2006) ‘Out of crime and into treatment? The criminalisation of contemporarydrug policy since Tackling Drugs Together’, Drugs: education, prevention and policy,13 (5): 409-15.Duke, K. (2013) ‘From crime to recovery: the reframing of British drugs policy’, Journalof Drug Issues, 43(1): 39-55http://jod.sagepub.com/content/43/1/39.full.pdf+htmlJournal articles dealing with the recovery debate:Drugs: Education, Prevention and Policy (Volume 19, Number 4, 2012)Special Issue: The ‘Recovery’ DebateFurther reading:Babor, T. et al (2010) Drug Policy and the Public Good. Oxford: Oxford UniversityPress.Boakhout van Solinge, T. (2005) Dealing with Drugs in Europe: an investigation ofEuropean drug control experiences. Willan Publishing.Chatwin, C. (2003). ‘Drug Policy Developments within the European Union: TheDestabilizing Effects of Dutch and Swedish Drug Policies’. The British Journal ofCriminology, 43, 567-582.Chatwin, C. (2011) Drug Policy Harmonization and the European Union. PalgraveMacMillanDuke, K., Herring, R., Thickett, A., and Thom, B. (2013) ‘Substitution treatment in anera of recovery: an analysis of stakeholder roles and policy windows’, Substance Useand Misuse, 48 (11): 966-976Duke, K. (2010) ‘Clashes in culture: the professionalization and criminalization of thedrugs workforce’, British Journal of Community Justice, 8(2): 31-43.Elvins, M. (2003) Anti-Drugs Policies of the European Union: transnational decisionmaking and the politics of expertise. London: Palgrave MacMillan.EMCDDA (2015) New psychoactive substances in Europe: Innovative legal responses.Lisbon: EMCDDAhttp://www.emcdda.europa.eu/publications/2015/innovative-laws22EMCDDA (2018) European Drug Report: trends and developments. Lisbon:EMCDDA. http://www.emcdda.europa.eu/edr2018EMCDDA (2018) Country Overview: United Kingdom. Lisbon: EMCDDA.http://www.emcdda.europa.eu/publications/country-overviews/ukGreenwald, G. (2009) Drug decriminalisation in Portugal: lessons for fair andsuccessful drug policies. Washington: Cato InstituteHughes, C. and Stevens, A. (2010) What can we learn from the Portuguesedecriminalisation of illicit drugs? British Journal of Criminology, 50: 999-1022.Kleiman, M et al (2011) Drugs and Drug Policy: What Everyone Needs to Know.Oxford: Oxford University Press.Lancaster, K., Duke, K. and Ritter, A. (2015) ‘Producing the ‘problem of drugs’: a crossnational-comparison of ‘recovery’ discourse of two Australian and British reports’,International Journal of Drug Policy, 26, 617-25.McKeganey, N. (2011) Controversies in Drug Policy and Practice. London: PalgraveMacMillan.Nutt, D. (2012) Drugs: Without the Hot Air: Minimising the Harms of Illegal and LegalDrugs. UIT Cambridge.Pryce, S. (2012) Fixing Drugs: The Politics of Drug Prohibition. London: PalgraveMacMillan.Release (2016) A Quiet Revolution: Drug Decriminalisation Policies in Practice Acrossthe Globe. London: Release.Seddon, T. (2010) A History of Drugs: Drugs and Freedom in the Liberal Age. London:Routledge.Stevens, A. (2010) Drugs, Crime and Public Health: the political economy of drugpolicy. London: Routledge.Thom, B., Duke, K., Asmussen Frank, V., and Bjerge, B. (2013) ‘Stakeholders in opioidsubstitution treatment policy: similarities and differences in six European countries’,Substance Use and Misuse, 48 (11): 933-942UKDPC (2012). A Fresh Approach to Drugs: the final report of the UKDPCLondon:UKDPC.http://www.ukdpc.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/a-fresh-approach-to-drugs-the-finalreport-of-the-uk-drug-policy-commission.pdfYsa, T. et al (2014) Governance of Addictions: European Public Policies. Oxford:Oxford University Press.23USEFUL WEBSITES:CEDRO (Centrum Voor Drugsonderzoek- The Centre for Drug Research, Universityof Amsterdam). The Centre for Drug Research ceased to exist from 2004, but theirwebsite has many online research reports and articles. www.cedro-uva.orgEDPI (European Drug Policy Initiative) http://eudrugpolicy.orgEMCDDA (European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction)www.emcdda.euICSDP (International Centre for Science in Drugs Policy) http://www.icsdp.org/ISSDP (The International Society for the Study of Drug Policy) http://www.issdp.org/IDPC (International Drugs Policy Consortium). The International Drug PolicyConsortium (IDPC) is a global network of NGOs and professional networks thatspecialise in issues related to the production and use of controlled drugs. TheConsortium aims to promote objective and open debate on the effectiveness,direction and content of drug policies at national and international level, and supportsevidence-based policies that are effective in reducing drug-related harm.www.idpc.netWHO (World Health Organisation) www.who.orgUnit Four: Drugs Markets and EnforcementEssential readingCoomber, R. et al (2013) Key Concepts in Drugs and Society. London: Sage. (Chapter34: Drug Markets: Difference and Diversity pp. 164-169)EMCDDA (2015) The internet and drug markets – summary of results from anEMCDDA Trendspotter study. Lisbon: EMCDDA.http://www.emcdda.europa.eu/publications/technical-reports/internet-drug-marketsKerr, T., Small, W. and Wood, E. (2005) ‘The public health and social impacts of drugmarket enforcement: a review of the evidence’, International Journal of Drug Policy,16: 210-220.Bowling, B. (1999) ‘The rise and fall of New York murder: zero tolerance or crack’sdecline?’, The British Journal of Criminology, 39 (4) Special Issue 1999, 531-554.24See Special Issue of International Journal of Drug Policy, Vol 35, September 2016 (pp.1-96) on Drug Cryptomarkets edited by Monica Barratt and Judith Aldridge.https://www.sciencedirect.com/journal/international-journal-of-drug-policy/vol/35Further readingBean, P. (2014) Drugs and Crime. Cullompton: Willan Publishing (Chapter 7:Policing drug markets)Beck, H. (2011) Drug enforcement in an age of austerity. London: UKDPC.http://www.ukdpc.org.uk/resources/Drug_related_enforcement.pdfCollison, M. (1995) Police, Drugs and Community. London: Free Association Books.Dorn, N. and Lee, M. (1999) ‘Drugs and Policing in Europe: from low streets to highplaces’, in: South, N. (ed) Drugs: Cultures, Controls and Everyday Life. London: Sage.Dorn, N., Murji, K. and South, N. (1992) Traffickers: drug markets and law enforcement.London: Routledge.Eastwood, N., Shiner, M., and Bear, D. (2013) The Numbers in Black and White: ethnicdisparities in the policing and prosecution of drug offences in England and Wales.London: Release.http://www.release.org.uk/publications/numbers-black-and-white-ethnic-disparitiespolicing-and-prosecution-drug-offencesEMCDDA (2017) Drug squads: units specialised in drug law enforcement in Europe,EMCDDA Papers, Publications Office of the European Union, Luxembourghttps://www.emcdda.europa.eu/publications/emcdda-papers/drug-squads-2015_enEMCDDA (2017) Drugs and the Darknet: perspectives for enforcement, research andpolicy. Lisbon: EMCDDA.https://www.emcdda.europa.eu/publications/joint-publications/drugs-and-the-darknetEMCDDA (2019) Highlights from the EU Drug Markets Report for Policy andPractice. Lisbon: EMCDDA.https://www.emcdda.europa.eu/publications/joint-publications/highlights-eu-drugmarkets-report_enEMCDDA (2020) Resources on COVID-19 and drug markets. Lisbon: EMCDDA.https://www.emcdda.europa.eu/publications/ad-hoc-publication/covid-19-and-drugmarkets-resources/html_enLalander, P. (2017) Illegal street economies and drugs: getting involved, skilled andtrying to quit. In Kolind, T., Thom, B, and Hunt, G. (eds) Sage Handbook of Drug andAlcohol Studies: social science approaches. London: Sage.25Hucklesby, A. and Wincup, E. (eds) (2010) Drug Interventions in the Criminal JusticeSystem. Open University Press. (Chapter 3 and 5)Kleiman, M. and Smith, K.D. (1990) ‘State and local drug enforcement: in search of astrategy’, in: Tonry, M. and Wilson, J.Q. (eds) Drugs and Crime. Chicago: University ofChicago Press (pp69-108)Lister, S., Wincup, E. and Seddon, T. (2007) Street policing of problem drug users.York: Joseph Rowntree Foundation.Lupton, R. et al (2002) A rock and a hard place: drug markets in deprivedneighbourhoods. Home Office Research Study No. 240. London: Home Office.Maher, L. and Dixon. D. (1999) ‘Policing and public health: law enforcement and harmminimization in a street level drug market’, British Journal of Criminology, 39 (4): 488-512.May, T. et al (2007) Policing cannabis as a Class C drug: an arresting charge. York:Joseph Rowntree Foundation. http://www.jrf.org.uk/bookshop/eBooks/1961-policingcannabis-classc.pdfMay, T. et al (2005) Understanding drug selling in communities: insider or outsidertrading. York: Joseph Rowntree Foundation.http://www.jrf.org.uk/bookshop/eBooks/1859354181.pdfMcSweeney, T. et al (2008) Tackling Drug Markets and Distribution Networks in theUK. London: UKDPC.http://www.ukdpc.org.uk/resources/Drug_Markets_Summary.pdfMurji, K. (1998) Policing Drugs. Aldershot: Ashgate. (Chapter 1: Drug EnforcementStrategies and Chapter 2: Under Pressure: Policing and Demand Management)Natarajan, M. and Hough, M. (eds) (2000) Illegal drug markets: from research toprevention policy. Willan Publishing.Pearson, G. and Hobbs, D. (2001) Middle market drug distribution. Home OfficeResearch Study 227. London: Home Office.Ruggiero,V. and South, N. (1995) Eurodrugs: drug use, markets and trafficking inEurope. London: UCL Press.UKDPC (2009) Moving towards Real Impact Drug Enforcement. London: UKDPC.http://www.ukdpc.org.uk/resources/HR_Enforce_Policy_Briefing.pdfUKDPC (2009) Refocusing Drug-related enforcement to address harms. London:UKDPC.http://www.ukdpc.org.uk/resources/Refocusing_Enforcement_Full.pdf26Ward, J. (2011) ‘Policing public drugs nuisance through the anti-social behaviorlegislation: questions and contradictions’, European Journal on Criminal Policy andResearch, 17 (4): 323-341.Unit Five: Alternatives to PunishmentEssential readingEMCDDA (2015) Alternatives to punishment for drug-using offenders. Lisbon:EMCDDA.http://www.emcdda.europa.eu/attachements.cfm/att_240836_EN_TDAU14007ENN.pdfCoomber, R. et al. (2013) Key concepts in Drugs and Society. London: Sage. (Chapter39 on Drug Courts)Cohen, S. (1979) ‘The punitive city: notes on the dispersal of social control’,Contemporary Crises, 3 (4): 341-63.Further Reading:Bean, P. (2014) Drugs and Crime. London: Routledge (Chapter 5: Drug courts anddrug testing)Bhati. A., Roman, J., and Chalfin, A. (2008) To treat or not to treat: evidence on theeffects of expanding treatment to drug-involved offenders. Washington DC: The UrbanInstitute.Bull, M. (2005) A comparative review of best practice guidelines for the diversion ofdrug related offenders. International Journal of Drug Policy. 16(4): 223–234.Cohen, S. (1985) Visions of Social Control. Cambridge: PolityDrug Policy Alliance (2011) Drug Courts are not the answer: toward a health-centeredapproach to drug use. Drug Policy Alliance.http://www.drugpolicy.org/sites/default/files/Drug%20Courts%20Are%20Not%20the%20Answer_Final2.pdfDuke, K. (2009) “The focus on crime and coercion in UK drug policy”, in MacGregor,S. (ed). Responding to Drugs Misuse: Research and Policy Priorities in Health andSocial Care. London: Routledge.Hucklesby, A. and Wincup, E. (eds) (2010) Drug Interventions in the Criminal JusticeSystem. Open University Press. (Chapter 4, 6, 7 and 8)27Hunter, G., McSweeney, T. and Turnbull, P.J. (2005) ‘The introduction of drug arrestreferral schemes in London: a partnership between drug services and the police’,International Journal of Drug Policy, 16(5): 343-52.Kerr, J. et al (2011) The Dedicated Drug Courts Pilot Evaluation Process Study.London: Ministry of JusticeMatrix Knowledge Group (2008) Dedicated Drug Court Pilots: a process report.London: Ministry of Justice.McIvor, G. et al (2006) The Operation and Effectiveness of the Scottish Drug CourtPilots. Edinburgh: Scottish Executive Social Research.McSweeney, T., Stevens, A., Hunt, N., and Turnbull, P. (2007) ‘Twisting arms or ahelping hand?: Assessing the impact of ‘coerced’ treatment and comparable ‘voluntary’drug treatment options’, British Journal of Criminology, 47(3): 470-90.National Treatment Agency (2012) Estimating the crime reduction benefits of drugtreatment and recovery. London: NTA.Nolan, J. L. (1998) The Therapeutic State: justifying government at century’s end. NewYork: New York University Press.Nolan, J. L. (2001) Reinventing Justice: the American Drug Court Movement.Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.National Audit Office (2004) The Drug Treatment and Testing Order: early lessons.Report by the Comptroller and Auditor General HC 366 Session 2003-2004: 26 March2004. London: National Audit Office.RAND Europe (2016) Study on alternatives to coercive sanctions as response to druglaw offences and drug-related crimes. Brussels: European Commission.http://www.rand.org/pubs/external_publications/EP66607.htmlRossman, S. et al (2011) The multi-site adult drug court evaluation: executivesummary. US Dept of Justice.https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/grants/237108.pdfSeddon, T. (2007) ‘Coerced drug treatment in the criminal justice system: conceptual,ethical and criminological issues’, Criminology and Criminal Justice, 7 (3): 1-16.Stevens, A., Hughes, C., Hulme, S. and Cassidy, R. (2019) Depenalization, diversionand decriminalization: A realist review and programme theory of alternatives tocriminalization for simple drug possession. European Journal of Criminology, earlyonlineTiger, R. (2013) Judging Addicts: drug courts and coercion in the justice system. NewYork University Press.28UNODC (2019) Treatment and care for people with drug use disorders in contact withthe criminal justice system.https://www.unodc.org/documents/UNODC_WHO_Alternatives_to_conviction_or_punishment_ENG.pdfUNODC (2010) From coercion to cohesion: treatment drug dependence through healthcare, not punishment. New York: UNWard, J. (2013) The Punishment of Drug Possession Cases in the Magistrates’ Courts:Time for a Rethink, European Journal on Criminal Policy and Research,19, 4, 289-307.Unit Six: Drugs and the Penal SystemEssential readingDuke, K. and Kolind, T. (2016) ‘The prison population and illegal drug use’, in Kolind,T. et al (eds) The Sage Handbook of Drug and Alcohol Studies – social scienceperspectives. Volume 1. London: Sage (Chapter 29: The Prison Population and IllegalDrug Use)Duke, K. (2011) ‘Reconceptualizing harm reduction in prisons’, in Fraser, S. andMoore, D. (eds) The Drug Effect: crime, health and society. Cambridge UniversityPress.EMCDDA (2012) Prisons and Drugs in Europe: the problem and responses. Lisbon:EMCDDA. http://www.emcdda.europa.eu/publications/selected-issues/prisonFurther readingSee Special Issue of the journal, Drugs: education, prevention and policy, SpecialIssue: Drugs and Prisons, Volume 23 (2), April 2016. ISSN 0968-7637.Borrill, J et al (2003) The substance misuse treatment needs of minority prisonergroups: women, young offenders and ethnic minorities. Home Office Development andPractice Report 8. London: Home Office.Boys, A et al (2002) ‘Drug use and initiation in prison: results from a national prisonsurvey in England and Wales’, Addiction, 97: 1551-60.Crewe, B. (2006). Prison drug dealing and the ethnographic lens. Howard Journal, 45,347-68.Duke, K. (2003) Drugs, Prisons and Policy-making. London: Palgrave Macmillan.29Duke, K. (2000) ‘Prison drugs policy since 1980: shifting agendas and policy networks’,Drugs: education, prevention and policy, 7 (4): 393-408.Duke, K. (2020) ‘Producing the ‘problem’ of new psychoactive substances (NPS) inEnglish prisons’, International Journal of Drug Policy,https://doi.org/10.1016/j.drugpo.2019.05.022Duke, K. and Kolind, T. (2020) Framing and reframing drug ‘problems’ in prison spacesand populations. In MacGregor, S. and Thom, B. (eds) Risk and Substance Use:framing dangerous people and dangerous places. London: Routledge.EMCDDA (2014) Drug Use in Prison: assessment report. Reviewing tools formonitoring illicit drug use in prison. Lisbon: EMCDDA.Hucklesby, A. and Wincup, E. (eds) (2010) Drug Interventions in the Criminal JusticeSystem. Open University Press. (Chapter 9)Jurgens, R. (2000) ‘HIV/AIDS and drug use in prisons: moral and legal responsibilitiesof prisons’, in: Shewan, D. and Davies, J.B. (eds) Drug Use and Prisons: aninternational perspective. London: Harwood Academic Publishers.Kolind, T. (2015) Drugs and discretionary power in prisons: The Officer’s Perspective.International Journal of Drug Policy, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.drugpo.2015.04.014Kolind, T., Frank, V. A., Lindberg, O. and Tourunen, J. (2013) Prison-based drugtreatment in Nordic political discourse: An elastic discursive construct. EuropeanJournal of Criminology, 10, 659-674.Kolind, T., Frank, V. A., Lindberg, O. and Tourunen, J. (2015) Officers and drugcounsellors: New occupational identities in Nordic Prisons. British Journal ofCriminology, 55, 303-320Kinner, S. A. and Rich, J. D. (eds) (2018) Drug Use In Prisoners: epidemiology,implicaitons and policy responses. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Malloch, M. (2000) Women, Drugs and Custody: the experiences of women drug usersin prison. Winchester: Waterside Press.Patel, K. (2010) The Patel Report: reducing drug-related crime and rehabilitatingoffenders – recovery and rehabilitation for drug users in prison and on release:recommendations for action.https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/the-patel-report-reducing-drug-relatedcrime-and-rehabilitating-offendersPenfold, C, Turnbull, P., Webster, R. (2005) Tackling prison drug markets: anexploratory qualitative study. Home Office Online Report 39/05. London: Home Office.30Ramsay, M., Bullock, T. and Niven, S. (2005) ‘The prison service drug strategy: theextent to which prisoners need and receive treatment’, The Howard Journal of CriminalJustice, 44 (3): 269-85.Singleton, N. et al (2003) Drug related mortality among newly released offenders.Research Findings 187. London: Home Office.Unit Seven: Possibilities for Drug Policy ReformEssential readingCoomber, R. et al. (2013) Key concepts in Drugs and Society. London: Sage. (Chapter40 on Decriminalisation, Legalisation and Legal Regulation and Chapter 41 onLiberalisation)EMCDDA (2016) Models for the legal supply of cannabis: recent developments.Lisbon: EMCDDA. http://www.emcdda.europa.eu/publications/pods/legal-supply-ofcannabisGlobal Commission on Drug Policy (2016) Advancing Drug Policy Reform: a newapproach to Decriminalization.http://www.globalcommissionondrugs.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/11/GCDPReport-2016-ENGLISH.pdfRelease (2016) A Quiet Revolution: Drug Decriminalisation Policies in PracticeAcross the Globe. 2nd edition London: Release.http://www.release.org.uk/sites/default/files/pdf/publications/A%20Quiet%20Revolution%20-%20Decriminalisation%20Across%20the%20Globe.pdfNadelmann, E. (1999) ‘Commonsense drug policy’, In: Inciardi, J. (ed) The DrugLegalisation Debate. 2nd Edition. London: Sage.Chatwin, C. (2018) Towards More Effective Global Drug Policies. Palgrave MacMillan.Further reading:Babor, T. et al (2009) Drug Policy and the Public Good. Oxford: Oxford UniversityPress.Barton, A. (2011) Illicit drugs: use and control. London: Routledge. (Chapter 9 and 10)Berridge, V. (2013) Demons: our changing attitudes to alcohol, tobacco and drugs.Oxford: Oxford University Press.Bewley-Taylor, D. (2012) International Drug Control: consensus fractured. Cambridge:Cambridge University Press.31Brownstein, H. (2016) The decriminalization of drugs. in Kolind, T., Thom, B. and Hunt,G. (eds) Handbook of Drug and Alcohol Studies – social science perspectives, Volume1, London: Sage. (Chapter 34)Chatwin, C. (2011) Drug Policy Harmonization and the European Union. PalgraveMacMillanCerda, M. & Kilmer, B. (2017). Uruguay’s middle-ground approach to cannabislegalization. International Journal of Drug Policy, 42, 118-120.Caulkins, J., Kilmer, B. & Kleiman, M. (2016). Marijuana legalization: What everyoneneeds to know (2nd edition). New York: Oxford University Press.Greenwald, G. (2009) Drug decriminalisation in Portugal: lessons for fair andsuccessful drug policies. Washington: Cato InstituteHome Office (2014) Drugs: International Comparators. London: Home Office.https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/368489/DrugsInternationalComparators.pdfHughes, C. and Stevens, A. (2010) What can we learn from the Portuguesedecriminalisation of illicit drugs? British Journal of Criminology, 50: 999-1022.Kleiman, M et al (2011) Drugs and Drug Policy: What Everyone Needs to Know.Oxford: Oxford University Press.Kilmer, B. & Pacula, P. (2017). Understanding and learning from the diversification ofcannabis supply laws. Addiction, 112, 1128-1135.McKeganey, N. (2011) Controversies in Drug Policy and Practice. London: PalgraveMacMillan.Nutt, D. (2012) Drugs: Without the Hot Air: Minimising the Harms of Illegal and LegalDrugs. UIT Cambridge.Pryce, S. (2012) Fixing Drugs: The Politics of Drug Prohibition. London: PalgraveMacMillan.Royal Society for Public Health (2016) Taking a new line on drugs. London: RoyalSociety for Public Health.https://www.rsph.org.uk/our-work/policy/protecting-the-public-s-health/taking-a-newline-on-drugs.htmlRuggierio, V. (1999) ‘Drugs as a password and the law as a drug: discussing thelegalisation of illicit substances’, in: South, N. (ed) Drugs: Cultures, Controls andEveryday Life. London: Sage.UKDPC (2012).A Fresh Approach to Drugs: the final report of the UKDPCLondon:UKDPC.32http://www.ukdpc.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/a-fresh-approach-to-drugs-the-finalreport-of-the-uk-drug-policy-commission.pdfYsa, T. et al (2014) Governance of Addictions: European Public Policies. Oxford:Oxford University Press.

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