CRICOS Provider Code: 02219C | BUSN20017ǀ Sentence Level Speaking Outline |School of Business and Law | | Page 1 |CQUniversity Australia ǀ BUSN20017 EffectiveBusiness CommunicationSentence-Level SpeakingOutline Example he following information is an example of a sentence-level speaking outline. The documentthat you and your group submit will look like this document in terms of structure andspecificity. Please note the level of specific detail included in this outline, and that thereferences and direct citations are included in this outline.PRESENTATION OUTLINE TITLE: Paragraph Matters—Developing Paragraph Writing Skills forEssaysName of group members:General Purpose: To inform my audienceSpecific Purpose: To inform my audience about the form and substance of an academic essayI. INTRODUCTION:A. Attention-getting statement: How you write matters: it especially matters as auniversity student.i. Within the context of your tertiary education, the written documents that youproduce enhance your learning and knowledge of a subject and demonstrateunderstanding of that subject.B. Statement of ethos: I have substantial knowledge about this topic having been both astudent and an instructor in tertiary education for the last 25 years.C. Statement of exigence: All professionally written academic documents begin withwell-written paragraphs.i. Essays without clearly written paragraphs are simply a rambling jumble ofjunk words. This means that how you write your paragraphs matters if youwant your essay to get a high distinction.D. Thesis: Effective academic essays are based upon clearly structured andappropriately articulated paragraphs.E. This presentation will cover the structure and content of introductory, body andconcluding essay paragraphs.(Transition: Let’s start at the beginning by looking at introductory paragraphs)II. THE BODY OF THE PRESENTATIONA. Main Point 1: The introductory paragraph is very important because sets the readersfirst impressions and expectations for the essay.i. The first part of an introductory paragraph is the opening statement or leadin statement.1. This sentence should entice the reader to continuing reading.2. After the opening statement, the writer then needs to narrow thetopic.a. This can be achieved by articulating the background orcontext for the essay, or an explanation of the main conceptsor terms.TCRICOS Provider Code: 02219C | BUSN20017ǀ Sentence Level Speaking Outline |School of Business and Law | | Page 2 |CQUniversity Australia ǀ BUSN20017 EffectiveBusiness CommunicationSentence-Level SpeakingOutline Example b. Additionally, if there is a problem or issue that is the focus ofthe essay, then it should be introduced here.ii. The second part of an introductory paragraph relates to importance orsignificance of the topic of the essay.1. Topic can be important in terms of the how the information canimprove or enhance a practice or activity2. The topic can also be important or significant in terms of developingor extending an existing body of knowledge.iii. The third part of an essay is the preview.1. The preview alerts the reader to the ‘schedule’ of information.a. Most previews are chronological in that it follows a logictemporal series or sequence of information.i. The first issue addressed is. . . . ii.The second issue addressed is . . . .iii. The third issue addressed is . . .iv. Fourth, you may wish to include a transitional sentence.1. A transitional sentence provides ‘sign-post’ of where the essay isheading next.(Transition: Now that you know how to write an introductory paragraph, let’s have a look at how towrite a well-structured body paragraph)B. Main Point 2: In between the introduction and the conclusion are the bodyparagraphs, and the body paragraphs are designed to advance or explain your thesisstatement.i. The first part of a body paragraph is the topic sentence.1. The topic sentence is a declarative sentence that identifies the subjectto be discussed within the paragraph.2. Sometimes it is tempting to use a question or interrogative statementas a topic statement. Do not do this, while questions have a rolewithin writing they should not be used as a topic sentence withinacademic essays.a. What you include in your body paragraphs is dependent uponthe topic sentence and how the individual paragraph functionin the logical flow of information within the larger frame ofthe essay.b. The problemc. The causes of the problemd. The implication of the problem todaye. The implications of the problem in the futureii. Most, if not all your body paragraphs, will contain evidentiary information.This is to say the information provided in the body paragraph serves asevidence that supports or explains your topic sentence.1. Evidence within academic essay may be definitions, quotations,examples, and/or statistics.CRICOS Provider Code: 02219C | BUSN20017ǀ Sentence Level Speaking Outline |School of Business and Law | | Page 3 |CQUniversity Australia ǀ BUSN20017 EffectiveBusiness CommunicationSentence-Level SpeakingOutline Example a. Definitions supply clarification about the meaning of terms orideas.i. Remember your definitions should come fromcredible sources.1. According to Cenere, Gill, Lawson, andLewis, M. (2015, pg. 38). “organisationalcommunication is the tool used withinorganisations to transmit information”.a. These authors are communication scholars, sothey should know what they are talking about inthis regard.b. Quotations are words or text repeated orrepresented in or by a source other than theoriginal author or speaker.i. “Conventionally, academic essays consist of anintroduction, a body, a conclusion and reference listor bibliography. The introduction section of anacademic essay has been described as troublesomebecause it must perform multiple functions orrhetorical moves (Swales 1990). For instance, a goodintroduction must clearly identify the substance orcontent of the essay (usually called a thesisstatement) so that the reader is guided or oriented tothe subsequent essay material. At the same time, theintroduction must achieve two additional purposes; itmust entice the reader to read on (Mounsey 2002;Xudong 2003), and, crucially, the introduction mustestablish authority for the content to come (Xudong2003). Indeed, Arrington and Rose (1987, 306) havesuggested that introductions ‘are both text about textand text about context’ [italics in original] andfunction meta-discursively to indicate what thereader is expected to already know, what the readerwill yet discover in the essay, and the context inwhich the material will be situated” ( Brown &Marshall, 2012, p. 654). is a quotation.c. Examples supply a written ‘picture’ of the topic of theparagraph. They illustrate or exemplify or describe topic ofparagraph.i. You may want to include examples from existingacademic research, theories, processes or practices.d. Statistics are numerical facts, which can be communicated aseither tables, charts, graphs or as words and numbers.(Transition: At the other end of an essay is the concluding paragraph, which is the next and last topicto which we now turn)CRICOS Provider Code: 02219C | BUSN20017ǀ Sentence Level Speaking Outline |School of Business and Law | | Page 4 |CQUniversity Australia ǀ BUSN20017 EffectiveBusiness CommunicationSentence-Level SpeakingOutline Example C. Main Point 3: The conclusion of the essay is important because it is the writer’s lastchance to prove or remind or reinforce the written message, which is carried out infour specific ways.i. First, the conclusion should open with a sentence or two reminding thereader of the importance or value of the overall essay.ii. Next, the conclusion provides a review of the main points discussed withinthe essay.iii. After the review of the main points, the conclusion should include arestatement of the thesisiv. Four and finally, the concluding paragraph should supply a statement thatsignals to the reader that the essay has ended.v. As a last point, there should be no new information in the conclusion of theessay.(Transition: So, as you can see writing well-formed paragraphs is not hard—let’s review what youhave just heard)III. THE CONCLUSIONA. Restate the thesis: Effective academic essays are based upon clearly structured andappropriately articulated paragraphs.B. Review the main points: This presentation has discussed introductory, body andconcluding essay paragraphs.C. Capstone Statement: Now you know what to do—go ahead write that high distinctionquality essay.CRICOS Provider Code: 02219C | BUSN20017ǀ Sentence Level Speaking Outline |School of Business and Law | | Page 5 |CQUniversity Australia ǀ BUSN20017 EffectiveBusiness CommunicationSentence-Level SpeakingOutline Example References (You must use the APA Reference Style—7th Edition)Brown, G., & Marshall, J. (2012). The impact of training students how to write introductions foracademic essays: An exploratory, longitudinal study. Assessment & Evaluation in HigherEducation, 37(6), 653-670.Cenere, P., Gill, R., Lawson, C., & Lewis, M. (2015). Communication skills for businessprofessionals. Cambridge: Port Melbourne, Vic.: Cambridge University Press.
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