EG7322 Lean Engineering | My Assignment Tutor

EG7322 Lean EngineeringSession 9: JIT Basics (standardised work, 5S)Marina MarinelliMEng MSc PhD [email protected]• The process tells the team member what to do, when to do it, and in what order.• Standardised work is:Standardised work• The most effective combination of workers, materials, and machines forthe sake of making high-quality products cheaply, quickly, and safely.• Safest, easiest and most effective way of doing the job that we currentlyknow.• A process is simply a set of steps or actions with a clearly defined goal.• A tool for developing, confirming, and improving our processesRequires establishing precise procedures, highly specified as to the content,the sequence, the timing and the outcome for each operator’s work in aproduction process.In the Lean system, standardised work is focused on human movement.• We seek to develop people-centered processes that flow smoothlyand safely.• Our measure of efficiency is labor density defined as follows:Labor density = Work/MotionCustomer demand determines the numerator.Toyota’s approach is to continually reduce the denominator.Sequence: defines the best way to do each job action including Proper posture How the hands and feet should move How to hold the tools Accumulated know-how on the jobStandardised workStandardised work guidelinesHand movements should be symmetrical and concurrent.Two-handed motions should be as compact as possible.Standardised work guidelinesStandardised work guidelinesStandardised work guidelinesStandardised work guidelinesStandardised work guidelinesWork should be done within a circle with a diameterof 1 yard and directly in front of the workerBuild flexibility into the layout to accommodate changes for taller or shorter operatorsStandardised work guidelinesIdentify home positions for tools and materialsPlace tools and materials convenientlyStandardised work guidelinesGuidelines for Economy of MotionHand movements should be symmetrical and concurrent.Two-handed motions should be as compact as possible.Light work should be done with the hands and forearms, rather than the upperarms and shoulders.Motion should flow freely.Work should be done in the “strong circle” a yard in diameter and directly infront of the worker. Maintain appropriate body posture.Keep hands free as much as possible.Guidelines for Layout and EquipmentIdentify home positions for tools and materials.Build flexibility into the layout to accommodate demand changes and taller or shorteroperators.Move parts horizontally. Avoid vertical part movement.Use gravity to move parts (e.g., with sloping parts racks).Place tools and materials conveniently.Ensure adequate lighting.Use colors.Use U-shaped layouts so that process start and end points are side by side.Standardised work guidelinesGuidelines for Tools and Jigs*Develop jigs to eliminate manual holding of materials.Use ergonomic tools (i.e., tools that are easy to grip, encourage goodhand/wrist posture, and minimize forces and vibration).Combine tools where possibleWhere possible, use balancers that automatically withdraw the tool frompoint of use.*A jig is a type of custom-made tool used to control thelocation and/or motion of parts or other tools.Standardised work guidelinesΚΑΙΖΕΝ – Standardised workStandardised work, once established and displayed at workstations, is theobject of continuous improvement through kaizen.The act of continuous , incremental change and improvementΚΑΙΖΕΝ – Standardised workBefore the improvement, there was no jigto hold the workpiece in place.Instead, the assembly worker had to holddown the workpiece with her left handwhile using her right hand to insert thepush buttons one by one.ΚΑΙΖΕΝ – Standardised workΚΑΙΖΕΝ – Standardised workAfter the improvement, the assemblyworker simply sets the workpiece into astabilizing jig and then can use bothhands to insert the push buttons.In addition, the arrangement of pushbuttons to be inserted was changed tomatch their arrangement after insertion.This helped to keep workers fromaccidentally inserting push buttons inthe wrong places.Standardised work!! Standard workBenefits Standard work supports stability andreduces variation because the work isperformed the same way each time.Stability means repeatability.We need to meet our productivity,quality, cost, lead time, safety, andenvironmental targets every time. Variations (defects, deviations,discrepancies) are easily recognised Clear start and stop points for eachprocess. Promotes audit and problem solving. We are able to ask important questions:• Are team members able to do the process smoothly or are they falling behind?• If they are falling behind, by how much and in what job elements?• How can we improve these elements? Easier training of new operators –preserves know-how /expertise Reduction on injuries and strain Standard work is essential for continuous improvement- moving from one standardto a better one without slipping back. Adds discipline to the cultureStandardised work!! Standard workBenefits Promotes employee involvement:In the Lean system team membersdevelop standardised work, supportedby supervisors and engineers.Moreover, team members identifyopportunities for simple, inexpensiveerror-proofing or poka-yoke devices.To sustainstandardisedoperations…They must be establishedfactory-wideand be well understood byeveryoneSignboards and othervisual tools should beused to remindworkers of their duty tomaintain themSigns containing graphics anddescriptions of the standardoperations should be at placeswhere the workers can see themeasily and compare them withtheir own operational proceduresReject the status quo, only thenwill the operators’ minds remainopen to the possibility of furtherimprovement – improvement isendless.Standardised workCheck if there are any missing numbers in the range 1-49 5S system is designed to create a visual workplace, that is, a workenvironment that is self-explaining, self-ordering, and self-improving“Only what is needed, in the amountsit is needed, when it is needed!”If in doubt throw it out!5STimeFloor/shelf spaceMore and more…Warehouses, equipment, people….Set in Order / Straighten“A place for everything and everything in its place.”“WHAT is needed should be WHERE it should be , WHEN needed.”5S5SSet in Order / Straighten controls• Keeping everything spotlesslycleanShineStorage areasEquipmentMachineryAislesWindowsMeeting roomsOfficesUnder Stairs• Check the condition of equipment• Ability to recognise minor changes in sound,smell, temperature, vibration• Inspection checksheets• Solve the root cause of cleanliness problemsInspect5SStandardiseExamples on standardisation• What is needed and not needed• Red-tag targets, frequency andresponsibilities• Disposal procedures• What signboards should look like and wherethey should be posted• What different colours mean• Where people can walk• Dangerous areas• What protective clothing is required• What equipment signage and footprintsshould look like• What to clean and inspect• How to clean and inspect• Who cleans and when• Who checksHow are we going to maintainour good condition?Create standards!Clear – Simple – VisualS1S2S35SSustain 5S FOREVER! Training Promotion and communication Central report board with 5S targets, Current status Before and After photos Recognise excellence in 5S 5S core group• Safer work place• More efficient / Shorter Process Lead Time• Reduces defects / errors• Defects / errors more easily identified• Builds a culture of waste identification• Builds moraleThe 5Ss are the foundation block upon which we can lay flow production, visualcontrol, standard operations, and various other JIT building blocks.There is no such thing as a factory that manufactures things wellwithout a strong 5S foundation.5S Designed to create a visualworkplace – a work environmentthat is self-explaining, selfordering and self-improving.Thank you


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