increasing football participation | My Assignment Tutor

Introduction to Sports Management – Week Seven Welcome Assessment Two Discussion Forum Start Module Four“The FIFA Women’s World Cup 2023 will be the biggestsporting event on Australian soil since the Sydney 2000Olympic Games, showcasing Australia and New Zealandto a global audience of over one billion people.” Discussion Forum – Why are countries spending millions of dollars in the bidding process tohost major sporting events? Post your response at the Discussion Forum. Australia plan to deliver immediate and long-term community benefits and economic impact fromAustralia’s co-hosting of the FIFA Women’s World Cup 2023™ with the game’s Legacy ‘23 plan presented toFederal Government in Canberra. The five (5) key pillars are focused on: PARTICIPATION: increasing football participation COMMUNITY FACILITIES: building and upgrading community facilities TOURISM AND INTERNATIONAL ENGAGEMENT: enhancing tourism and international engagement LEADERSHIP AND DEVELOPMENT: developing more female leaders, and HIGH PERFORMANCE: ensuring that Australia’s senior women’s national team, the Westfield Matildas,enter the tournament as prepared as possible to compete deep in the competitionStudent Activity – What sporting event would you like to be at in the next ten years?Assessment Summary AssessmentAssessment TypeLengthDueWeight1Reflective Journal –My Sport Experience1000 wordsEnd of Week 4 – Sun Mar 1420%2Project Proposal for anew sport (Report)1500 wordsEnd of Week 6 – Sun Mar 2840%3Final Report for a newsport1500 wordsEnd of Week 12 – Sun May 940% Assessment 2 and 3 are linked – you need to choose create a new sport, or modify an existingsport, to attract a new market.Assessment Three BriefDevelop the final form of the sport that you have invented including: Introduction to the sport – name, brief concept, season or time of year The target market – who will play this new sport? Mission and/or Vision Statement – what is the purpose of this new sport? Goals and SMART Objectives – how will you establish this sport in the next 3-5 years? Proposed Governance Structure – how would you structure the Board of Management? SWOT Analysis – table format with a minimum of five factors in each of the four segments Risk Matrix Table – potential risks and strategies to minimise them Final Rules including scoring and how to win Equipment and Uniforms required to play and to minimise risks Proposed Competition for the first year including – how many games (team sports) or events (individual sport) in the first year? Venues/Facilities – where will the sport be played and why? Proposed logo and colours (brand) of the new sport The sports position on ethics and social responsibility Proposed Funding Partners – commercial sponsors and government grants Proposed Launch – what event would you coordinate to launch this new sport? Conclusion – convince the reader that this sport has a futureSubject Overview Module 1Module 2Module 3Module 4Module 5Module 6The Sports IndustryGovernance and RiskSport Marketing and MediaSport Tourism and EventsSport Facilities and VenuesProfessionalism and Ethics Module Four Topics Sport Tourism defined Sport Tourist segments Event definitions and classificationsNext week: Event Impacts Event Planning and Conceptualisation Event ManualsModule Four Readings1. Module Four Lecture Slides2. Dunning, E. (1999). Ch. 2 Sport in the Western civilizing process.3. Frost, W., & Laing J. (2011). Strategic management of festivalsand events (2nd ed.)4. Getz, D., Svensson, B., Peterssen, R., & Gunnervall, A. (2012).Hallmark events: Definition, goals and planning process.5. Quinn, B. (2013). Key concepts in event management.6. Roberts, K (2016) Rio 2016: Study lifts the lid on the cost ofhosting the Olympic Games.7. Refer video: SPO101Module 4Sport Tourism and EventsThis Module Sport Tourism defined Sport Tourist segments Event definitions and classifications Event Impacts Event Planning and Conceptualisation Event ManualsSPORT TOURISMSport Tourism DefinedHinch and Higham (2011) defined Sport Tourism as:“Individuals and/or groups of people who actively or passivelyparticipate in competitive or recreational sport while travelling.Sport is the prime motivation to travel, although the touristelement may reinforce the overall experience”.Hinch and Higham (2011) identified two trends that led to theformalisation of sport tourism. The first was a heightenedinterest in health and fitness in Western societies in the 1970s.The second trend, from the 1980s, was an increasing demandfor active engagement in recreational pursuits while on holidays.Hinch, T., & Higham, J. (2011). Sport Tourism Development (2nd ed.). Channel View: Bristol.Sport Tourism RecognisedSport Tourism was formally recognised in the 1980s, and theJournal of Sport Tourism launched in 1993, but it was not new.The first ancient Olympic Games held in Olympia in 776 BC,attracted up to 40,000 people from all parts of the country.The 1896 Olympics in Athens attracted 241 athletes fromEurope and the United States, and an estimated 80,000spectators attended the opening night at Panathenaic Stadium.Attendance at the modern Olympic Games and other sportingevents increased significantly as modes of transport improved.Sport Tourism SegmentsHinch and Higham (2011) identified three market segmentsfor the sport tourism sector: Active Sport Tourism Event Sport Tourism Nostalgia Sport TourismHinch and Higham (2011) acknowledged that, within eachsegment, the commitment, competitiveness and engagementof the sport tourist can differ significantly. Each segment hassmaller target markets, and possibly sub-cultures.Active Sport TourismActive sport tourism: this segment includes people who seekphysical participation in competitive or non competitive sport.This segment wants to be active – as individuals, in groups orin sport teams – and it may be fun or serious competition.These people enjoy a particular sport, for example running,and enjoy training or competing at home. They then look foropportunities away from home.The amateur runner may seek an individual experience, likehigh-altitude training in Kenya, or a social experience, andregister for the next World Masters Games.Event Sport TourismEvent sport tourism: this segment includes all people lookingto experience sporting events, usually as spectators.This segment captures everyone who buys tickets to attenda sporting event outside their home city, and also thoseattending the event for business purposes (eg sponsors).This segment captures a group of friends who travel for theweekend to follow their favourite football team, or the familywho plan a holiday at the next host city of the Olympic Games.This segment has seen formal ‘supporter groups’ created likeEngland’s ‘Barmy Army’ or Australia’s ‘Fanatics’.Nostalgia Sport TourismNostalgia sport tourism: this segment is for people looking toreflect on the past or feel a strong connection with someone orsomething that was important to them or their culture.This segment incorporates sport museums, halls of fame,collections of artefacts and memorabilia, sport reunions andfantasy camps, often led by past players or coaches. Thissegment also captures visitors to sport facilities that have hada long association with a sport, sport team or athlete.The MCG in Melbourne hosts large sporting events includingthe AFL Grand Final and Boxing Day Test, but people alsotravel to the stadium for its daily tours and sport museum.Class ExampleIt is possible for a sport event tocapture all three market segments.The Boston Marathon is the world’soldest annual marathon and attracts30,000 elite and non-elite runners tocompete every year.An additional 500,000 spectators linethe streets to support the runners.The race starts in Hopkinton, andthis small town of 15,000 people willbuild the world’s first InternationalMarathon Centre including amuseum and hall of fame.Can you think of other examples?Understanding MotivationsSport Tourists are not homogenous in their motivations.People will choose to take part in sport in certain ways basedupon a number of factors including: personal experience with the sport eg currently participatingor reliving past glory; their level of skill or fitness level; the need for material success, or the appearance of success; the need for social interaction or isolation; the quest for excitement and entertainment; access to the sport via media (attendance v stay at home?).The Sport EventThose who own, control, manage and market sport eventscertainly understand the different motivations, and if not,they conduct their own market research as they look for newways to expand their markets and maximise their profits.Sport events have become global in their outlook and scope inan effort to tap into the global market place.In most countries everyday routines dictate our lives and oursocial life is highly controlled, organised and regulated.The sport event provides an opportunity to briefly break outof the ordinary and allow for emotional arousal, excitingbehaviour and controlled conflict.The Corporate Sport EventSport events are not just for athletes and spectators, they aremarketing and public relation tools.Sport events are vehicles for corporate expansion – sport isused to capture the attention and emotions of a global audience.Corporations need symbols of success, excellence, productivity,happiness, inclusion and belonging that they can use to identifytheir organisation or product with.Corporations will invest in sport events and in return expect thatpatrons have identified with one or more of these symbols.Sport as EntertainmentWhen a sport is converted into commercial entertainment,its success depends upon meeting patron appeal, whichusually relates to: Uncertainty of event outcome – the result remainsundecided until the end. Risk/Reward – there are heightened physical oremotional stresses or appearance of stresses. Display of excellence or curiosity – the performanceis considered excellent or unusual.Sport events which display all three are remembered.Sport as EntertainmentThe commercialisation of sport has an influence on the goalsand structure of sport events: Sport events are established to generate profit rather thanfor community and social purposes, for example changes torules or schedules to fit with corporate objectives; Sport events are social constructions and thereforechange in connection with social relationships and shifts insocial conditions and power relationships; Sport events are structured as total entertainmentpackages complete with sideshows, bands, food andbeverage, fan zones and fireworks.In November 2020 Cricket Australia were under pressure from broadcaster Channel 7to deliver an exciting summer of cricket, and decided to add three new rules to the BigBash League. Players and fans were not consulted and expressed their concerns.‘Ridiculous’ – Fans left unimpressed by new Big Bash League rules(, November 16, 2020)BBL 10: Shane Watson and Usman Khawaja criticize new rules inupcoming BBL season (, November 17, 2020)Event DefinitionsGetz (2005) offers two definitions, one from the perspective ofthe event organiser and one from the perspective of the guest:“A special event is a one time or infrequently occurring eventoutside of normal programs or activities of thesponsoring or organising body”.“To the customer or guest, a special event is an opportunity fora leisure, social or cultural experience outside of the normalrange of choices or beyond everyday experiences”.Getz, D. (2005) Event Management and Event Tourism: Second Edition, Cognizant Communication Corp: New YorkEvent DefinitionsAllen et al (2010) highlight in their definition that certain elements are combinedby the event organiser to create a unique event for the guest:“The specific rituals, presentations, performances or celebrations that areconsciously planned and created to mark special occasions or to achieveparticular social, cultural or corporate goals and objectives”.Allen, J., O’Toole, W., Harris, R. and McDonnell, I. (2010) Festival and Special Events Management: Fifth Edition, Wiley & Sons: Qld.Core phenomenon of events Events are universal – every culture and society has someform of special event; Events are things (phenomena) that can be experienced; Events have meaning and that meaning can be interpreteddifferently by people at the same event; Events have rituals that over time define the event andcontribute to the experience and its meaning.The Opening Ceremony of the Olympic Games is a ritual thatis expected as part of the event and allows the host city toshare its culture and define its position in the world.Understanding the experienceThe role of the sport/event manager is to understand theaudience and the experience they are seeking.Each event will evoke multiple experiences and meanings,not always in harmony with one another.The experience will flow and peak throughout the event.The experience is designed by a small team who have theresponsibility for the event from conception to conclusion.Event CategorisationEvents can be categorised on both type and size:Types of events: SportArt and CulturalFood and WineMusic/Film/ComedyMeetings, incentives, conferences, exhibitionsSize of events: Global (mega)HallmarkMajorMinor (local)Global (mega) Events Largest type of event, global audience International in scope – athletes, visitors, media, audienceExamples in Sport: Olympic and Paralympic Games World Cups – FIFA, Rugby, Cricket Commonwealth Games Formula One Grand Prix NFL Superbowl Do you agree? Any others?Hallmark Events Recurring events linked to a specific region or destination; The event may attract a global television audience but itmay depend on who is playing; People travel to the event because of the uniquerelationship between the sport, its tradition and destination.Examples in Sport: Wimbledon Melbourne Cup Tour De France FA Cup Final at WembleyMajor Events Significant national and local attendance Will attract a few thousand international touristsExamples in Sport: Golf grand slams x 4 Tennis grand slams including Australian Open UEFA Champions League NBA Finals Test Cricket Series (eg Ashes) NRL State of Origin AFL and NRL Grand FinalsMinor (local) Events Town, city or regional events Most events are of this size May attract some tourists but not manyExamples in Sport: Sport Carnivals State or National Championships Final Series and Grand Finals Sport Conferences and Exhibitions Award CeremoniesImportance v ImpactThe size of the event does not dictate its importance. A juniorswimming carnival (minor event) is still very important to thechildren and coaches involved, and the people managing it.A similar planning process is required for the swimmingcarnival as would be adopted for the Olympic Games, yousimply have fewer resources and require less time.The size of the event is an indicator of its impact – the impactthat the event will have on the host community. The OlympicGames has a far greater impact on the host city – its citizensand government – and is therefore given ‘mega’ status.Impact of EventsThe impact of events can be both positive and negative:Positive: Economic – job creation and income (direct and indirect) Infrastructure – facilities, hotels, roads, rail, airports Building civic and national pride Tourism – during and post eventNegative: Inflation due to demand Environmental – pollution, waste, noise Anti-social behaviour – Alcohol and drug abuse, gambling Jingoism (extreme patriotism) and insular behaviour Reputation – event failureImpact of EventsGovernments have realised that, if managed correctly, sport eventscan be used as a tool for:Economic benefit – since the 1984 Olympics global sporting events dogenerate income, but not always.Social and cultural benefit – increased exposure to different cultures andsocieties.Infrastructure investment – construction of sport facilities and supportinginfrastructure to accommodate the rise in visitation.Foreign policy – showing off the nation’s sporting prowess and successin other industries which can contribute to foreign trade.Nation building – Bringing the local population together in celebrationand solidarity.Government AgenciesAll state governments have agencies dedicated to securingand managing events – event corporations and QANGOs(Quasi Autonomous Non-Government Organisation).The agencies are usually aligned to the Minister for Tourismand have responsibility for all event types (sport, art etc). Destination NSW Events SA Visit Victoria Events ACT Tourism WA Events Tasmania Events Management Qld NT Major Events CompanyEvents, venues and attractionsThe alignment of events to a larger tourism department allowseach government to promote and package other venues andattractions in each region.Attractions are features that attract a visitor to a particularlocation – not particularly sport oriented but can be used toattract sport events and the fans and media that follow.Natural attractions: beaches, national parks, flora & faunaCultural attractions: festivals, cuisine, Indigenous artBuilt attractions: iconic buildings, precincts, theme parksEVENT PLANNING


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