practitioners of quantity food production | My Assignment Tutor

A food timeline History of food production• Religious orders and royal households were among the earliestpractitioners of quantity food production, and although thesefoodservices were far different from those we know today, each hasmade a contribution to the way in which present- day foodservice ispracticed.• Abbeys that dotted the countryside, particularly in England, not onlyserved the numerous members of the order, but also thousands ofpilgrims who flocked there to worship. The space provided for foodpreparation indicates the scope of their foodservice operations.• At Canterbury Abbey, a favorited site of innumerable pilgrimages, thekitchen measures 45 feet wideRoyal households• The cost record most often cited is the Northumberland Household Book.• For this household of more than 140 persons, ten different daily breakfasts wererecorded, the best for the earl and his lady, the poorest for the lowest worker.• There were often two kitchens. The cuisine de bouche provided food for the monarch,the principal courtiers, officials and their immediate servants; the cuisine de communpre-pared food for everyone else.• Unless an important banquet was being prepared, the two kitchens probably producedsimilar food. In the castle kitchen, the cook and his staff turned the meat (pork, beef,mutton, poultry, or game) on a spit and prepared stews and soups in great iron cauldronshung over the fire on a hook and chain that could be raised and lowered to regulate thetemperature• The diet of the royal household was very largely dependent on meat and, during Lent, onfish. Many castles had their own gardens that provided fresh vegetables, herbs, and fruit.The gardener often received no pay unless he was able to produce sufficient fruits andvegetables.The history of food service• Historically, the evolution of public eating places was stimulated bypeople’s desire to travel, for both spiritual enrichment and commercialgain. Religious pilgrimages played an important role in establishing the innsin France and England• These early inns and taverns were perhaps the forerunners of our presentrestaurants. Many of them, however, were primitive and poorly organizedand administered.• The literature of the time describes unsanitary conditions under whichfood was prepared and served, monotonous menus, and poor serviceFrench Cook Shops• The origin of the restaurant concept, however, has been traced to the cook shopsof France. They were licensed to prepare ragoûts, or stews, to be eaten on thepremises or taken to inns or homes for consumption.• The shops had menus, posted on the wall or by the door to whet the interest ofthe passer-by. The story goes that one Boulanger, a bouillon maker, added a meatdish with a sauce to his menu, contending that this was not a ragoût and,therefore, did not violate the rights of the traiteurs, or restaurant-keepers. In thelegal battle that followed, the French lawmakers sustained his point, and his newbusiness was legalized as a restaurant.• The word restaurant comes from the French verb restaurer, which means “torestore” or “to refresh.” It is said that the earliest restaurants had this Latininscription over their doorway:• Venite ad me qui stomacho laoratis et ego restaurabo vos“Come to me all whose stomachs cry out in anguish, and I shall restore you”Cafeteria• Cafeterias Born During the 1849 Gold Rush.• The cafeteria was a further step in the simplification of restaurantfoodservices. This style of self-service came into being during theGold Rush days of 1849.• Regarded as an American innovation, its popularity extendedthroughout• the United States. Today, commercial cafeterias still represent animportant part of the foodservice industry.Automat• Another innovative foodservice was the automat, first opened inPhiladelphia in 1902 by Horn and Hardart.• Patterned after a “waiterless” restaurant in Berlin, it combinedfeatures of a cafeteria with those of vending. Individual food itemswere displayed in coin-operated window cases from which customersmade their selections. This“nickel-in-a-slot” eatery provided goodfood and high standards of sanitation for nearly 50 years, drawingcustomers from every walk of life. For many people, it became ahaven, especially during the Great Depression years, beginning withthe stock market crash in 1929, the years of the automat’s greatestsuccess.Hamburgers• Hamburgers are believed to have been served first at the St. LouisWorld Fair in 1904.• This “innovative” sandwich later became the main menu staple of thefast food industry. In 1919, the first A & W root beer stand wasopened by Roy Allen and Frank Wright, pioneers of the franchiseconcept in the foodservice industry. At one time, they had more than2,500 units; most were franchised.The Prohibition• The passage of the Volstead Act in 1920, the Eighteenth Amendmentto the Constitution, which prohibited the manufacture, sale, anddistribution of alcoholic beverages in the United States, had a majorand lasting impact on commercial foodservice.• With the loss of alcohol in the menu mix, everyone began to getserious about the food served. Concerned restaurateurs gathered inKansas City, Missouri, and founded the National RestaurantAssociation (NRA)Speakeasy• Many landmark establishments went bankrupt while, at the sametime, a new breed of operation was spawned—the speakeasy. Two ofthe most famous “speaks,” the Coconut Grove in Los Angeles andNew York’s “21” club, became known not only for the bootleg liquorserved, but for the quality of food as well.• The legendary Musso-Franks Grill was founded during this time and isshown in a 1928 picture and, since it is still in operation, as it appearstodayThe impact of automobiles• As mass quantities of automobiles hit the roads, what is considered to beone of America’s first drive-in restaurants, the Pig Stand, was opened onthe Dallas–Fort Worth Highway in 1921 by J. G. Kirby, a candy and tobaccowholesaler.• Service at the barbecue-themed Pig Stand was provided by waitresses whojumped up on the protruding running boards of the automobiles—hencethey became known as carhops.• The same year, Billy Ingram and Walter Anderson started their White Castleoperation with a $700 investment. They sold bitesize hamburgers for 5¢each. Ingram was a pioneer of many fast-food concepts still in use today,such as strict product consistency, unit cleanliness, coupons, etcCarhopsJ W Marriott• A 26-year-old from Utah was watching pedestrian traffic inWashington, D.C., on a hot July day 1920.• J. Willard Marriott saw that the thirsty masses had no place to go fora cold drink. With a $3,000 investment he and his future wife, Alice,opened a nine-seat A & W root beer stand that grossed $16,000 thefirst year. This was the beginning of the Marriott Corporation,currently a multi-billion dollar foodservice and lodging empireFirst fast food• Meanwhile at the other end of the dining spectrum, in July 1941 a formerbakery delivery man in Los Angeles secured a hot-dog cart with $15 cashand a $311 loan against his Plymouth automobile.• Carl N. Karcher made $14.75 on his first day in business. The hot-dog cartevolved into a drive-in barbecue joint and then a quick-service operationfeaturing hamburgers and chicken• Some 50 years later, the Carl’s Jr. chain would ring up $640 million in salesand number 640 units. Carl Karcher contributed air conditioning, carpeting,piped-in music, salad bars, nutritional guides, and all-you-can-drinkbeverage bars to the fast-food conceptThe arrival of McDonald• 50 miles east of Los Angeles in the then-sleepy little town of San Bernardino,brothers Mo and Dick McDonald had opened a 600-square-foot facility thatviolated a basic rule of restaurant design by exposing the entire kitchen to thepublic• The 25-item menu generated $200,000 in annual sales.• Twenty carhops were needed to service the 125-car parking lot. But, faced withincreasing competition and the constant turnover of carhops, the brothers madethe dramatic decision to eliminate the carhops, close the restaurant, convert towalk-up windows, and lower the hamburger price from 30¢ to 15¢.• After a few months of adjustment, annual sales jumped to $300,000. By 1961, theMcDonalds had sold 500 million hamburgers, and they sold the company to RayKroc for $2.7 million. Today, McDonald’s is the largest fast food chainThe 1950 coffee shops• In the 1950s, coffee shops began to proliferate, particularly in SouthernCalifornia.• Tiny Nayler’s, Ships, Denny’s, and the International House of Pancakes• (now IHOP) had their beginnings during this time.• The Good Humor Man was a favorite in every neighbourhood starting in1949. Ice cream was peddled from bicycles and then vans playing a wellrecognized tune• In New England in 1950, an industrial caterer named William Rosenburgopened a doughnut shop featuring 52 varieties of doughnuts and Dunkin’Donuts was born. In the late 1950s pizza moved from being served in momand-pop, family-run eateries to the fast- food arena. Pizza Hut opened in1958.The scale and size of the UK industry• The food and drink industry is the UK’s largest manufacturing sector,contributing £28.2bn to the economy annually and employing400,000 people. We are a key part of the nation’s £110 billion ‘farmto fork’ food chain.


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