Business expansion in the global markets | My Assignment Tutor

Impact of workplace discrimination on motivation level of the workforce: a study on M&S Executive Summary Business expansion in the global markets helps to gain sustainability and business profit through attracting more buyers. However, expansion increases the operations and business activities requiring more staffs with potential. Furthermore, conducting business on the global platform requires the firms to employ people from different nations with diverse culture and background. Therefore, diversity management has become widely popular as a part of talent management. Promoting diversity in international firms is significant to mitigate the issues related to workplace discrimination. This research would provide a discussion on employee motivation and plan research to explore the discriminating activities affecting employee motivation at Marks & Spencer. Table of Contents Introduction……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 5 Literature Review……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 7 Methodology………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 8 References……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 12 Appendix- Ethics Form………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 14 Appendix……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 22 Introduction Research Background Employee motivation refers to their level of interest towards completing the workplace responsibilities and contributes to the organisational performance. However, it has been observed that employees tend to lose their interest, depicting low motivation towards their job role due to dissatisfaction with the company policies. Several factors hamper employee motivation, which drives their performance and skill development tendency downward. However, it is found that discriminating behaviour is one of the most common factors affecting their motivation and affecting their performance and increasing turnover rate at the multi-national firms. This research would hence, evaluate the impacts of discrimination at Marks & Spencer upon employee motivation.  Company Background M&S opened its first store in the UK in 1884 and currently runs 1400 international retail stores across 57 nations (corporate.marksandspencer.com, 2021). the leading retailer offers a wide range of products including clothing, food items, appliances and others. The company also sells the products and services through 50 global websites.  M&S has an employee base comprising more than 75,000 staffs with mostly females (statista.com, 2021). Research Aim            The aim of this research is to evaluate the impacts of workplace discrimination on productivity and motivation among the employees at Marks & Spencer (M&S). Objectives Questions Research Rationale International organisations like M&S requires maintaining diversity as the employee base in different nation comprises of people with different cultural background. Workplace discrimination based on the differentiating background of the workers can hamper work. Although M&S follows effective policies and HRM strategies for managing diversity, it is found that breach of the Equality Law occurred in context of discriminating against a disabled employee at the firm (palmerslaw.co.uk, 2018).  Moreover, it is also found that female employees are higher in number than the number of male staffs, and hence, gender discrimination can be assumed. On the contrary, 57% of managers are male, which again depicts inequality. This further led to gender pay gap of 12.3%, which shows presence of discrimination (independent.co.uk, 2018). Hence, this research would help to identify the factors that increase the workplace discrimination in the company. This research would also help to provide effective strategies for overcoming the issues and negative impacts of discrimination over employees.   Literature Review Elucidating the meaning of ‘Workplace Discrimination’ The development in the emerging markets has been enhancing the scope for globalisation for small organisations worldwide. As per Marshburn et al. (2017), workplace discrimination takes place in organisations due to unfair treatment and biasness based on differentiating aspects like race, sexuality, religion, gender or disability. It is often observed that employees face biasness and discriminating attitude from co-workers and managers due to difference in background. Besides, discrimination affects the psychology of the employees, influencing their relations with the management. Gender discrimination occurs when opportunities, pay scale and treatment varies among employees based on their gender. This highly drives employee dissatisfaction. Moreover, racial discrimination is also a common factor that occurs when someone discriminates and harasses an individual based on their race and culture. These forms of discriminations hamper the workplace environment, promoting unethical behaviour and culture in the organisation. Impacts of Discriminating behaviour on employee performance and motivation According to Kerdpitak and Jermsittiparsert (2020), discriminating behaviour of the people in an organisation highly impacts the interest, satisfaction and performance level. Discrimination from the managers results in affecting employee relations as they tend to lose motivation. Moreover, retention can deteriorate rapidly if employees feel being humiliated due to discrimination. Organisations are likely to encounter the issue of high turnover as an impact of workplace discrimination. It is also found that discrimination of people based on gender often results in dissatisfaction with the payroll. They tend to reduce their effort towards improving performance, which impacts adversely to the overall organisational productivity. Components of workplace discrimination ` There are several factors and elements that drive the issue of discrimination in companies. Multinational companies hire people from a different location with varying backgrounds to form a diverse group and high workforce. As demonstrated by Berrey et al. (2017), inequality in the workplace due to biasness in recruitment process often drives discrimination. Inequality may develop a feeling of dissatisfaction among the gender present in lower number. In addition to that unfair opportunity based on difference in gender, religion, race and age also drives discrimination. Inefficiency of the managers and leaders present in the workplace can also drive discriminatory activities. The managers may overlook and fail to monitor the employee attitude, which would enhance workplace discrimination affecting employee performance and their skill development. Favouritism and biasness equally contribute to discrimination from the management’s side. Adoptable measures for preventing discrimination at the diverse workplaces As per Osborne and Hammoud (2017), employee engagement can improve employee relations, driving coordination and favourable bonding between employees and managers. Working together in teams would help to increase interaction among the employees with differentiating background and help them to reduce prejudice and mitigate discrimination. Employee education can also be an effective measure for informing the staffs regarding different culture. Employee education can also enhance knowledge base of the people regarding diversity and develop their tolerance towards different cast, religion and culture. Also, the companies can modify employee policies and offer equal rights and fair chances to everyone irrespective of their differences (Olori and Dan-Jumbo, 2017). Moreover, implementing equality regulations and anti-discriminating policies would help to enhance equality and reduce discrimination. Methodology Research philosophy Research philosophy indicates the researcher’s belief based on which the research activities are being planned. Pragmatism would be selected for application in this assignment. This philosophy would support executing mixed research with different tools and derive reliable conclusion (research-methodology.net, 2021). Research approach Research approach involves the methods and techniques applicable for conducting the overall research activities. Deductive is the approach applicable for this assignment. Logical explanations along with justified reasons would be possible through application of deductive approach (research-methodology.net, 2021). Research Design The design for the research is the framework that helps to execute the activities in a planned way. The researcher would be pertaining to descriptive design for this assignment. This design is considered suitable as it enables elucidating a wide range of non-quantifiable data.  Data collection and Analysis The research has to be conducted including primary and secondary data. Mixed method would be used by the researcher. Hence, qualitative and quantitative data would be gathered from reliable primary resource, along with secondary data. A survey questionnaire would be formed to obtain quantitative data, while interview on Zoom Call would help to accumulate qualitative data. Participants would be currently working employees from M&S, UK. Online articles and digital journals from authentic websites would be used for secondary data. The survey statistics and interview transcripts would be analysed for primary data with thematic analysis of the selected journals as secondary data. The findings would be presented using tables, graphs and charts. Sampling The researcher would consider applying the probability technique for the sampling activity. This technique involves random choices from the population. The population would be the employee base of M&S and the researcher would randomly choose 15 employees. Besides, 2 managers from the HR department of M&S would be interviewed. For secondary data, thematic analysis would be performed on 3 themes on the research topic. Ethical consideration As per ethical guidelines, age bar would be maintained ensuring all the participants are above 18 years. Furthermore, the regulations of ‘Equality Act 2010’ would be applicable and discriminations would not be entertained at any cost. Safeguarding the data shared by the participants is also improtant for maintaining ethics. Therefore, GDPR instructions would be followed for maintaining securty and high high dta protection (gdpr-info.eu, 2021). Research limitation The structure of the assignment has been divided into different sections for overcoming the limitation of time. However, low funds can be considered as a significant limitation for secondary research. The thematic analysis would be conducted via accessing and collecting authentic articles and journals. However, access to authentic websites for downloading journals requires paid subscriptions. Hence, the researcher may face the limitation of financial resource, which can affect the quality and reliability of the secondary research. Timeline ActivityStart DateDurationEnd DateTopic Selection10-03-2021515-03-2021Framing Aim , Objectives and Rationale15-03-2021318-03-2021Timeline formation18-03-2021220-03-2021Literature review20-03-20211030-03-2021Methodology Selection30-03-2021605-04-2021Conduction of Primary Research Activities05-04-20212025-04-2021Execution of Thematic Analysis25-04-2021803-05-2021Forming Recommendations and Concluding the research03-05-2021508-05-2021 Submission08-05-2021210-05-2021 Table 1: WBS Figure 1: Gantt chart References Berrey, E., Nelson, R.L. and Nielsen, L.B., 2017. Rights on trial: How workplace discrimination law perpetuates inequality. University of Chicago Press. corporate.marksandspencer.com 2021. About Us [Online] Available at: https://corporate.marksandspencer.com/aboutus [Accessed: 1 April 2021] gdpr-info.eu 2021. General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) – Official Legal Text [Online] Available at: https://gdpr-info.eu/ [Accessed: 1 April 2021] independent.co.uk 2018. Marks & Spencer admits to paying female staff 12.3% less than male workers [Online] Available at: https://www.independent.co.uk/news/business/news/marks-and-spencer-gender-pay-gap-staff-reporting-women-less-men-a8230751.html [Accessed: 1 April 2021] Kerdpitak, C. and Jermsittiparsert, K., 2020. Impact of gender-based, age-based, and race-based discrimination on satisfaction and performance of employees. Systematic Reviews in Pharmacy, 11(2), pp.612-620. Marshburn, C.K., Harrington, N.T. and Ruggs, E.N., 2017. Taking the ambiguity out of subtle and interpersonal workplace discrimination. Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 10(1), pp.87-93. Olori, W.O. and Dan-Jumbo, C.T., 2017. Workplace Discrimination and Employee Commitment in Rivers State Civil Service, Nigeria. European Journal of Business and Management, 9(8), pp.51-57. Osborne, S. and Hammoud, M.S., 2017. Effective employee engagement in the workplace. International Journal of Applied Management and Technology, 16(1), p.4. palmerslaw.co.uk 2018. M&S fined for discriminating against disabled employee | Palmers Solicitors [Online] Available at: https://www.palmerslaw.co.uk/articles/news/ms-fined-discriminating-disabled-employee/ [Accessed: 1 April 2021] research-methodology.net 2021. Deductive Approach (Deductive Reasoning) – Research-Methodology [Online] Available at: https://research-methodology.net/research-methodology/research-approach/deductive-approach-2/ [Accessed: 1 April 2021] research-methodology.net 2021. Pragmatism Research Philosophy – Research-Methodology [Online] Available at: https://research-methodology.net/research-philosophy/pragmatism-research-philosophy/ [Accessed: 1 April 2021] statista.com 2021. Topic: Marks and Spencer [Online] Available at: https://www.statista.com/topics/3707/marks-and-spencer/ [Accessed: 1 April 2021] Appendix- Ethics Form Name of Student  RupalBen MochiEmail address  [email protected] Number   Degree Programme (eg, BABS; MAHRM, LLB/LLM)MBAPostgraduate Taught or Undergraduate status (Postgraduate research students should not complete this form)   Name of student supervisor  Hugo Gaggiotti Project Title  Impact of workplace discrimination on motivation level of the workforce: a study on M&S  Proposed project start date  01-04-2021Proposed project end date    1. Does the research project involve any of the following risk factors:Research involving health sector organisationsIf YES, tick here:Research involving children or other vulnerable groupsIf YES, tick here: NOResearch involving sensitive topicsIf YES, tick here: NOResearch involving aerospace/defence organisationsIf YES, tick here: NOResearch involving nuclear production organisationsIf YES, tick here: NO 2. Provide a brief outline of the aims and objectives of the proposed research project.   Research Aim            The aim of this research is to evaluate the impacts of workplace discrimination on productivity and motivation among the employees at Marks & Spencer (M&S). Objectives To develop a good understanding regarding ‘Workplace Discrimination’To identify the different impacts of Discrimination over interest and motivation of staffsTo detect the factors driving the issue of Workplace discriminationTo develop techniques for preventing the factors increasing discrimination at M&S               3. Describe the proposed research design and include details of the types of data to be collected from human participants (for example: observation of people; number and type of people to be interviewed, such as their job role or occupation; use of survey questionnaires and the type of people to be included in the survey). Please include your proposed research questions.     Questions What does the term ‘Workplace Discrimination’ mean?How does ‘Workplace Discrimination’ affect motivation of workers in multinational organisations?What are the factors that influence the discrimination to occur and prevail at workplaces? Which techniques would be beneficial for M&S to prevent and reduce workplace discrimination and enhance employee motivation? Research philosophy Research philosophy indicates the researcher’s belief based on which the research activities are being planned. Pragmatism would be selected for application in this assignment. This philosophy would support executing mixed research with different tools and derive reliable conclusion (research-methodology.net, 2021). Research approach Research approach involves the methods and techniques applicable for conducting the overall research activities. Deductive is the approach applicable for this assignment. Logical explanations along with justified reasons would be possible through application of deductive approach (research-methodology.net, 2021). Research Design The design for the research is the framework that helps to execute the activities in a planned way. The researcher would be pertaining to descriptive design for this assignment. This design is considered suitable as it enables elucidating a wide range of non-quantifiable data.  Data collection and Analysis The research has to be conducted including primary and secondary data. Mixed method would be used by the researcher. Hence, qualitative and quantitative data would be gathered from reliable primary resource, along with secondary data. A survey questionnaire would be formed to obtain quantitative data, while interview on Zoom Call would help to accumulate qualitative data. Participants would be currently working employees from M&S, UK. Online articles and digital journals from authentic websites would be used for secondary data. The survey statistics and interview transcripts would be analysed for primary data with thematic analysis of the selected journals as secondary data. The findings would be presented using tables, graphs and charts. Sampling The researcher would consider applying the probability technique for the sampling activity. This technique involves random choices from the population. The population would be the employee base of M&S and the researcher would randomly choose 15 employees. Besides, 2 managers from the HR department of M&S would be interviewed. For secondary data, thematic analysis would be performed on 3 themes on the research topic. Ethical consideration As per ethical guidelines, age bar would be maintained ensuring all the participants are above 18 years. Furthermore, the regulations of ‘Equality Act 2010’ would be applicable and discriminations would not be entertained at any cost. Safeguarding the data shared by the participants is also improtant for maintaining ethics. Therefore, GDPR instructions would be followed for maintaining securty and high high dta protection (gdpr-info.eu, 2021). Research limitation The structure of the assignment has been divided into different sections for overcoming the limitation of time. However, low funds can be considered as a significant limitation for secondary research. The thematic analysis would be conducted via accessing and collecting authentic articles and journals. However, access to authentic websites for downloading journals requires paid subscriptions. Hence, the researcher may face the limitation of financial resource, which can affect the quality and reliability of the secondary research.                             4. Does the proposed research contain any potentially contentious issues that might affect the physical, psychological or emotional wellbeing of the research participants? If so, provide full details.     No             5. Describe how you or your host organisation will gain the informed consent of individuals who will participate in the research.  If appropriate, please attach a copy of your draft consent form.     Consent would be granted through written communication. Emails and phone calls would be used for communicating with the participants. The guidelines for participation and withdrawal would also be sent via email in written form.           6. Describe how you will maintain the confidentiality of the research data collected. Also, describe how you will ensure that research participants are anonymised in your data analysis.     Only the response related statistics of the survey would be shared with the overall analysis, while individual responses of the participants would be kept confidential. The data would be stored with high security and password maintaining the regulations of GDPR.       7. Describe how you will store your data, who will have access to it, and what happens to the data at the end of the project.       The data would be stored for lifetime on an online database. Only the management team of M&S would be given permission to access the data. Besides, the research team would also have the accessibility.       Student’s SignatureDate       For the Attention of UG and PGT SUPERVISORSIf you feel that this research ethics application can be approved then sign in the box below and retain the form for the duration of the student research project. The form may need to be accessed for ethics auditing purposes during this period. If there are any ethical issues of a potentially problematic nature that, in your opinion, require clarification or further scrutiny by the Faculty Research Ethics Committee then forward this form to [email protected]  .Supervisor’s SignatureDate        If you feel unable to sign this application please briefly list your reasons below:                    

QUALITY: 100% ORIGINAL PAPER – NO PLAGIARISM – CUSTOM PAPER

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *