GLOBAL ECONOMIES AND INTERNATIONAL MARKETS | My Assignment Tutor

Session 7Business and ManagementResearch, ReflectiveDiariesMondays 9.30amonline synchronous classDr Alex [email protected] GLOBAL ECONOMIES AND INTERNATIONALMARKETSLast week we covered:• Introduced CSR• Presented the main principles of CSR• Explained the importance of sustainabledevelopment in international markets• Defined ethics and morality• Explained the relationship betweenethics, morality and CSR• Presented examplesSession OutlineSession Objectives:• Introduce research and researching inbusiness and management• Introduce and detail the researchprocess• Introduced the main issues faced byresearchers when researching ininternational environments• Introduce reflection, the reflectivecycle and the importance of reflectionin business• Present examples• Work on your ideasSession Outcomes:• Understand importance of research forbusiness• Understand the research process• Understand the importance of reflection inbusiness and management, respectivelyMain textbooksSaunders, M., Lewis, P. and Thornhill, A. (2019). Research Methods for Business Students,(8th ed). Pearson Education LtdRecommended textbooks1. Formulate and clarify the research topic2. Critical literature review3. Choose the research strategy (methodology)4. Access and ethical issues5. Data collection through:secondary data / sampling / observation / interviews / questionnaires6. Data analysis (qualitative and quantitative)7. Writing up / conclusions / recommendationsI. Formulate and clarify the research topicYou must be CLEAR about:• WHAT you are researching• WHY you are researching it• WHAT the implications areClear objectives prove:clear purpose, clear likely outcomes, precision, depthI. Formulate and clarify the research topicWHAT MAKES A ‘GOOD’ RESEARCH TOPIC?meets the examining board’s requirementsYOU ARE CAPABLE of researching and that stimulatesyour imagination:• you have the required skills• have genuine interest in the topic• financially affordable• won’t take too long to researchdeals with issues which can be linked with the theoryis likely to provide ‘fresh insights’ to the topicI. Formulate and clarify the research topic= involves:TIME!THINKINGREADINGDISCUSSIONSI. Formulate and clarify the research topicMethods used:Rational thinking Creative thinkingI. Formulate and clarify the research topicRational thinking:examine your own strengths and interestssearch the literaturepast and present projectsdiscussions(Source: Saunders, Thornhill and LewisI. Formulate and clarify the research topicSTRENGHTSINTERESTSJOB PROSPECTSDefinitely NOT good at /don’t want to researchI. Formulate and clarify the research topicSTRENGTHS INTERESTSstats skillsmaths skillsfast learneressay skills fitnesssportspsychologytheatre shopping marketing knowledge communicatorsports-personEuropegood listeneranalytical /critical skillsdesign architectureeconomistpeople skillsreading skillsPEST/SWOTaccountsbonds work experience SCI-FIcookingdesignradiophotographytravel to the Arcticdisastersadvertising socialismmusicpaintingglobalisationcollectingleisure activitieswebMiddle Eastern historyDJ-ingcharityresorts I. Formulate and clarify the research topicstart mixing and matching• sports marketing• arts marketing• resort promotion• architecture and MacD• psychology of buyerSTRENGTHS • promoting murder and mysteries• internet radio• marketing ports / insurance serv.• event marketing• gang culture & music• Madonna & product adaptationINTERESTSI. Formulate and clarify the research topicCreative thinking:keep a notebook of ideasexploring personal preferences using past researchprojectsrelevance treesbrainstorming(Source: Saunders, Thornhill and Lewis)Research Qvs HypothesisHow to focus your topicWhat exactly am I looking to formulate?1. research question2. hypothesis / set of hypothesesWhat exactly am I looking to formulate?1. research question (ex)• what motivates tourists to go to theme parks?a comparative study of EuroDisney and Blackpool Pleasure Beach• why do people buy Gucci watches?A comparative study of British and French buyers• how market orientated are football clubs? A case study ofDerby County Football Club• what are the key factors to success for Smirnoff?What exactly am I looking to formulate?2. Hypothesis/es= def. = testable proposition about the relationship betweentwo or more events or concepts (Saunders et al, 2003)Ex.Likeable adverts are likely to be rememberedIf you like the advert you are more likely to like the brandHealth conscious consumers will have stronger preferencesfor seeking product content informationConsumers who seek product information are primarilywomen aged 25-40II. Conceptual frameworksCONCEPT(S)):def: ‘an invented name for a property of an object, person,state or event’ (Tull and Hawkins, 1984, p. 228)e.g. sales, market share, attitude, brand loyaltydef: ‘words which label ideas which are of key importance to us’(Blaxter, Hughes and Tight, 1996 p. 37)e.g. truth, beauty, evil, hunger, destiny, love, work, quality, classare working definitions used to shape analysisare building blocks of models / theoriesframe and structure researchare chosen for their usefulnessWHY ARE THEORIES IMPORTANT?Definition:‘a formulation regarding the cause and effect relationshipsbetween one or more variables, which may or may nothave been tested’• suppositions which explain or seek to explain something• ideas about issues, events, themes, processes, actions, individualsrelate to each other and are shaped or enacted• means through which we generate descriptions and expectationsof the world derived from previous experience and which shapefuture interactions(Source: Gill and Johnson, 1991 ,Research Methods for Managers, London: Paul Chapman)II. Conceptual frameworksDeveloping a conceptual framework:analytical scheme to simplify reality and make iteasier to discuss, analyse, researchsimplifies reality by selecting phenomena andsuggesting relationshipsjudged in terms of utility, not correctnessgood theory is a practical theoryI. Formulate and clarify the research questionWRITING YOUR RESEARCH QUESTION:General ideaSTART BROAD1- 3 monthsFOCUS(ex. relationship marketing andfinance)Precise idea(ex. how successful was the implementation ofdatabase marketing at Norwich Union?)(ex. how successful was the implementation of database marketing at NorwichUnion?)I. Conceptual framework – example -start!relationship marketing (RM)What isfinanceDefinition? History?What is it made of?Who uses it?Brands? Brand loyalty?Consumer attitudes/theory?British customers –theories?Norwich Unioncorporate finance?Annual figures? Sales?Market share?Profit? Analysis?Comparative analysis?Forecast?Different in the UK?Insurance?What business? Industry?Country? Size? Market share?Approach? Mission? Objectives?I. Formulate and clarify the research topicWRITING YOUR RESEARCH QUESTION:General ideaSTART BROAD1- max 3 monthsFOCUS(ex. Marketing and Germany)Precise idea(ex. Is the Heineken brand perceived in the same wayby customers in different countries? A comparativestudy of English and German consumers)Is the Heineken brand perceived in the same way by customers in differentcountries? A comparative study of English and German consumersI. Conceptual framework – example -start!theory on brands/alcoholDefinition? History?What is it made of?How important brands are?Brands? Loyalty?Industry?Consumption patterns UK,Germanyperceptional theoryHow are perceptionsre: brand formed?Comparative analysis?British customersGerman customersForecast? theories?Psychology/buyer behaviourDefine business? Size? Market share?Heineken Approach? Mission? Objectives?Understanding of branding!I. Formulate and clarify the research objectives:The research question:Is the Heineken brand perceived in the same way by customers in differentcountries? A comparative study of English and German consumersObjectives of the project:• to explore the role of branding in the beverage industry• to investigate the use of branding at Heineken• to explore and understand the perceptions of Heineken by British buyers• to explore and understand the perceptions of Heineken by German buyers• to identify potential similarities and discrepancies between the perceptionsof Heineken by buyers from different cultures• to offer future strategic solutions to the branding of Heineken= means generating/identifying theories that you can test invarious environmentsI. Formulate and clarify the research topicWRITING YOUR RESEARCH QUESTION:General ideaSTART BROAD1- max 3 monthsFOCUS(ex. Marketing and Ghana)Precise idea(ex. Marketing Ghana as a holiday destination forBritish tourists- an investigation into governmentalstrategies)(ex. Marketing Ghana as a holiday destination forBritish tourists – an investigation into governmental strategies) I.Conceptual framework – example -start!British touristsWho travels/How important are they?Marketing strategies for tourism Definition? History?Role of governmentsstrategies 7Ps? Benefits?Branded destinations?What strategies?What messages?GhanaWhere do they travel?How are they targeted?World figures?Future trends?What product? Offer?Why? Tourism statistics?Governmental Mission? Objectives?Why UK tourists?I. Formulate and clarify the research questionThe research question:ex. Marketing Ghana as a holiday destination forBritish tourists – an investigation into governmental strategiesObjectives of the project:• to define the shape and role of government strategies in attractingforeign tourists• investigate UK tourists present and future travel behaviour and patterns• to define and test Ghana’s marketing strategy on UK tourismconsumers• to offer strategic recommendations to the government of Ghana withregards to targeting UK consumersSOME EXCITING FACTS ABOUT RESEARCH:research is:• very time-consuming• subjective• is done by spies and reporters too!• is often boring• can also be fun• can take over your life• can lead you in unexpected directions…• can be much more interesting than its results• can be undertaken by you too!•is about being nosy• can be done in many ways• uses everyday skills• has no definitive answers• gets into your dreams• can turn theory into action

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