Systematic Review | My Assignment Tutor

CASP Checklist: 10 questions to help you make sense of a Systematic ReviewHow to use this appraisal tool: Three broad issues need to be considered when appraising asystematic review study:Are the results of the study valid? (Section A)What are the results? (Section B)Will the results help locally? (Section C)The 10 questions on the following pages are designed to help you think about these issuessystematically. The first two questions are screening questions and can be answered quickly.If the answer to both is “yes”, it is worth proceeding with the remaining questions. There issome degree of overlap between the questions, you are asked to record a “yes”, “no” or“can’t tell” to most of the questions. A number of italicised prompts are given after eachquestion. These are designed to remind you why the question is important. Record yourreasons for your answers in the spaces provided.About: These checklists were designed to be used as educational pedagogic tools, as part of aworkshop setting, therefore we do not suggest a scoring system. The core CASP checklists(randomised controlled trial & systematic review) were based on JAMA ‘Users’ guides to themedical literature 1994 (adapted from Guyatt GH, Sackett DL, and Cook DJ), and piloted withhealth care practitioners.For each new checklist, a group of experts were assembled to develop and pilot the checklistand the workshop format with which it would be used. Over the years overall adjustmentshave been made to the format, but a recent survey of checklist users reiterated that the basicformat continues to be useful and appropriate.Referencing: we recommend using the Harvard style citation, i.e.: Critical Appraisal SkillsProgramme (2018). CASP (insert name of checklist i.e. Systematic Review) Checklist. [online]Available at: URL. Accessed: Date Accessed.©CASP this work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution – Non-CommercialShare A like. To view a copy of this license, visit www.casp-uk.netCritical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP) part of Oxford Centre for Triple Value Healthcare Ltd www.casp-uk.net2Section A: Are the results of the review valid?1. Did the review address aclearly focused question?Yes HINT: An issue can be ‘focused’ In terms of• the population studied• the intervention given• the outcome consideredCan’t TellNoComments:2. Did the authors look for theright type of papers?Yes HINT: ‘The best sort of studies’ would• address the review’s question• have an appropriate study design(usually RCTs for papers evaluatinginterventions)Can’t TellNoComments:Is it worth continuing?3. Do you think all theimportant, relevant studieswere included?Yes HINT: Look for• which bibliographic databases wereused• follow up from reference lists• personal contact with experts• unpublished as well as published studies• non-English language studiesCan’t TellNoComments:Paper for appraisal and reference:34. Did the review’s authors doenough to assess quality ofthe included studies?Yes HINT: The authors need to consider therigour of the studies they have identified.Lack of rigour may affect the studies’results (“All that glisters is not gold”Merchant of Venice – Act II Scene 7)Can’t TellNoComments:5. If the results of the reviewhave been combined, was itreasonable to do so?Yes HINT: Consider whether• results were similar from study to study• results of all the included studies areclearly displayed• results of different studies are similar• reasons for any variations in results arediscussedCan’t TellNoComments:Section B: What are the results?6. What are the overall results of the review? HINT: Consider• If you are clear about the review’s‘bottom line’ results• what these are (numerically ifappropriate)• how were the results expressed (NNT,odds ratio etc.)Comments:47. How precise are the results? HINT: Look at the confidence intervals, ifgivenComments:Section C: Will the results help locally?8. Can the results be applied tothe local population?Yes HINT: Consider whether• the patients covered by the reviewcould be sufficiently different to yourpopulation to cause concern• your local setting is likely to differ muchfrom that of the reviewCan’t TellNoComments: 9.Wereall importantoutcomesconsidered?YesCan’t TellNoHINT:Considerwhether• thereisotherinformationyouwouldliketohaveseen Comments:10. Are the benefits worth theharms and costs?Yes HINT: Consider• even if this is not addressed by theCan’t Tell review, what do you think?NoComments:


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