Business and Management Research | My Assignment Tutor

1Sessions 7 and 8: Business and Management Research,Reflective DiariesICTM Module Delivery TeamBy the end of the session, the student will be able to: Understand the importance of business and managementresearch Understand the research process Understand the importance of keeping a reflective journalICTM Module Delivery Team1 22ICTM Module Delivery Team ICON College of Technology and ManagementGlobal Economies and International Markets Week 7 Activities PlannerWk7StepsDescriptionExample Activity TypesTool that will suport this activity1Introduction(Informinglearners oftheobjective)Introduction of Business and management research and reflectivediariesObjectives: Students will be ableTo understand the nature of business and management researchTo valuate the research processTo value a reflective diary or notebookStudents write and bring noteson the importance of researchICON VLE: Theodore Levitt (1983), TheGlobalisation of Markets. Published byHarvard Business Review. Also available at:https://hbr.org/1983/05/the-globalization-ofmarkets2LecturesanddeliverymethodSession 7 and 8: Business and management research, reflectivediaries: Instructor-led with Q&A for students engagementPresentation, video onManagement Research:Delivering Business ResultsKaltura – My Media url to video.Lecture material on ICON VLE3ActivityStudents watch a video on the importance of business andmanagement research. In Breakout Rooms: Students discuss thechallenges in business and management research; Group reports;Concluding remarks by the lecturerGroup reports of thechallenges in carrying outbusiness and managementresearchBreakout Rooms in Kaltura4ReflectionandFeedbackIndividuals summarise the challenges in carrying out business andmanagement researchFeedback; Reflective journal –students keep a record of theresults of the analyses for theportfolio developmentICON VLE and Kaltura5Consolidation andIntegrationStudents share their summaries of the challenges of carrying outbusiness and management research. These summaries are uploadedonto the ICON VLEStudents are divided intogroups in breakout room toshare their summaries of thechallenges of carrying outbusiness and managementresearchKaltura and ICON VLE ICTM Module Delivery Team ICON College of Technology and ManagementGlobal Economies and International Markets Week 8 Activities PlannerWk 8StepsDescriptionExample Activity TypesTool that will suport this activity1Introduction(Informinglearners of theobjective)Introduction of Business and management research and reflective diaries.Objetives: Students will be able to understand the nature of business and management research; Tovaluate the research process; To value a reflective diary or notebookStudents discuss a case study in the ForumICON VLE: Theodore Levitt (1983), The Globalisation of Markets.Published by Harvard Business Review. Also available at:https://hbr.org/1983/05/the-globalization-of-markets2Lectures anddelivery methodSession 7 and 8: Business and management research, reflective diaries: Instructor-led with Q&A forstudents engagementPresentation, video on the importance ofmanagement peoplehttps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=f60dheI4ARg (Steve Jobs (Link) and how Apple isorganised).Kaltura – My Media url to video.Lecture material on ICON VLE3ActivityIn Breakout Rooms: Students identify areas of research in business and management research; Discussthe challenges faced in identifying research areas in business and research and the importance ofreflective diaries; Group reports; Concluding remarks by the lecturerGroup reports of the challenges in businessand management researchBreakout Rooms in Kaltura4Reflection andFeedbackIndividuals summarise the challenges faced in identifying research areas in business and managementresearch importance of reflective diariesFeedback; Reflective journal – students keepa record of the results of the analyses for theportfolio developmentICON VLE and Kaltura5Consolidationand IntegrationStudents share their summaries of the challenges of identifying research topics business andmanagement research. These summaries are uploaded onto the ICON VLEStudents are divided into groups in breakoutroom to share their summaries of thechallenges faced in identifying research areasin business and management and theimportance of reflective diariesKaltura and ICON VLE 3 43Introduction Student bring homework notes on the importance ofresearch The notes are shared and discussed in class Tutor summarises the discussion.ICTM Module Delivery TeamImportance of Business and Management Research Business and management research is undertakingsystematic research to find out things aboutbusiness and managementICTM Module Delivery Team5 64Importance of Business and Management (B&M) ResearchEasterby-Smith et al. (2008) four things combine to make businessand management a distinctive focus for research: the way in which managers (and researchers) draw on knowledgedeveloped by other disciplines the fact that managers tend to be powerful and busy people.Therefore, they are unlikely to allow research access unless theycan see personal or commercial advantages  Thefactthatmanagersareeducated.Manynowhaveundergraduate and postgraduate degrees and, as such, tend oftento be as well educated as those conducting research about them Therequirementfortheresearchtohavesomepractical consequence. This means it either needs to contain the potential fortaking some form of action or needs to take account of the practicalconsequences of the findingsICTM Module Delivery TeamImportance of Business and Management ResearchOther features of Business and Management Research:➢ Using knowledge from a range of disciplines enablesmanagement research to gain new insights that cannot beobtained through all of these disciplines separately➢ It should be able to develop ideas and to relate them topractice➢ Research should complete a virtuous circle of theory andpractice (Tranfield and Starkey 1998) through which researchon managerial practice informs practically derived theory –managerial practice thereby increasing the stock of relevantand practical management knowledge➢ B&M research needs to engage with both the world of theoryand the world of practice..ICTM Module Delivery Team7 85Importance of Business and Management ResearchThe double hurdle of Management research for knowledge creationCan it be both theoretically and methodologically rigorous (Mode 1), whileat the same time embracing the world of practice and being of practicalrelevance (Hodgkinson et al. 2001) (Mode 2)?➢ Mode 1: Knowledge creation emphasises research in which thequestions are set and solved by academic interests, emphasising afundamental rather than applied nature, where there is little if any focuson utilisation of the research by practitioners. It should be able todevelop ideas and to relate them to practice➢ Mode 2: Emphasises a context for research governed by the world ofpractice, highlighting the importance of collaboration both with andbetween practitioners (Starkey and Madan 2001) and the need for theproduction of practical relevant knowledge.ICTM Module Delivery TeamImportance of Business and Management ResearchThe double hurdle of Management research➢ Mode 2: Emphasises a context for research governed by the worldof practice, highlighting the importance of collaboration both withand between practitioners (Starkey and Madan 2001) and the needfor the production of practical relevant knowledge➢ Research within the Mode 2 approach offers a way of bringing thesupply side of knowledge (producers) represented by universitiestogether with the demand side represented by businesses (users)and overcoming the double hurdle (Starkey and Madan, 2001).ICTM Module Delivery Team9106Group DebateThere be a separation of knowledge producersfrom knowledge users (Mode 2)Divide yourself into two teams and one teamshould support the motion that there should be aseparation of knowledge producers fromknowledge users. The other should oppose themotionICTM Module Delivery TeamImportance of Business and Management ResearchThe double hurdle of Management research➢ Weaknesses of Modes 1 and 2➢ Based on these two modes, B&M research not only needs toprovide findings that advance knowledge and understanding, it alsoneeds to address business issues and practical managerialproblems – this would negate the observation that Mode 2 practicesdevelop from Mode 1➢ It might also result in B&M research that did not have obviouscommercial benefit not being pursued – which could jeopardisefuture knowledge creation as research that is currently not valuedcommercially might have value in the future (Huff and Huff, 2001).ICTM Module Delivery Team11127Importance of Business and Management ResearchMode 3: Knowledge Production➢ Focuses on an appreciation of the human condition as it is and as itmight become, its purpose being to ‘assure survival and promotethe common good at various levels of social aggregation’ (Huff andHuff 2001:53)➢ Emphasises the importance of broader issues of human relevanceof research:➢Which might results in satisfies your intellectual curiosity for itsown sake, the findings of business and management researchmight also contain practical implications➢Whose findings may have societal consequences far broader andcomplex than perhaps envisaged by Mode 2ICTM Module Delivery TeamImportance of Business and Management ResearchEffect of the separation of knowledge producers from knowledgeusers➢ This creates a “relevance gap” (Tranfield and Denyer, 2004).➢ Organisations and managers have failed to base practices on bestavailable evidence (Rousseau, 2006)➢There should be ‘evidence-based management’, which derivesprinciples from research evidence and translates them intopractices that solve organisational problems.➢Research findings do not appear to have transferred well to theworkplace➢ Instead of a scientific understanding of human behaviour andorganisations, managers, including those with MBAs, continue torely largely on personal experience, to the exclusion of moresystematic knowledgeICTM Module Delivery Team13148ICTM Module Delivery TeamDimensions of theoretical and methodological rigour and ofpractical relevance (Hodgkinson et al.,2001) Pedantic science – focuses on increasing methodological rigour atthe expense of results that are relevant and can sometimes befound in refereed academic journals Popularist science – focuses on relevance and usefulness whilstneglecting theoretical and methodological rigour, examples beingfound in some books targeted at practising managers. Whilstfindings might be useful to managers, the research upon which theyare based is unlikely to be valid or reliable. Puerile science – both lacks methodological rigour and is of limitedpractical relevance and, although unlikely to be found in refereedacademic journals, can be found in other media. Pragmatic science – is both theoretically and methodologicallyrigorous and relevant Theoretical andmethodological rigourPracticalrelevanceQuadrantHigherLowerPedantic science.LowerHigherPopularist scienceLowerLowerPuerile scienceHigherHigherPragmatic science ICTM Module Delivery TeamThe relevance gap and managerial knowledge: developed from Hodgkinson et al. (2001)15169ICTM Module Delivery TeamThe relevance gap and managerial knowledge: developed from Hodgkinson et al. (2001) All B&M research projects can be placed on a continuum (Figure1.1) according to their purpose and contextBasic, Fundamental or Pure Research Research that is undertaken purely to understand the processes ofbusiness and management and their outcomes Such research is undertaken largely in universities and largely asthe result of an academic agenda Its key consumer is the academic community, with relatively littleattention being given to its practical applications (Cannot be fulfilledby Modes 2 and 3)Applied Research Research that is of direct and immediate relevance to managers,addresses issues that they see as important, and is presented inways that they understand and can act on Very similar to consultancy in many casesICTM Module Delivery TeamThe relevance gap and managerial knowledge: developed from Hodgkinson et al. (2001)171810 When managers and academics do perceive a problem with a gapbetween basic, fundamental or pure research and applied research◦ If managers and academics believe that there is problem in whichmanagement research is ‘lost in translation’, then the proposedsolutions might focus on changes in the way research findings aredisseminated◦ If the belief is that there is a knowledge production problem, sothat any chance for impact on practice is ‘lost before translation’(Shapiro et al. 2007:250), then proposed solutions might focus onways to foster more researcher practitioner collaboration asresearch programs are developed and carried out NB – Wherever your research project lies on this basic–appliedcontinuum, it is important to undertake the research with rigour –pay careful attention to the entire research processICTM Module Delivery Team The Research Process Is multi-stage process followed in order to undertake and completea research project The precise number of stages varies, but they usually include formulating and clarifying a topic reviewing the literature designing the research collecting data, analysing data and writing upICTM Module Delivery Team192011The Research Process Research is described as a series of stages through which you mustpass Research is often depicted as moving through each of the stagesoutlined above, one after the other, this is unlikely to be the case In reality each stage will probably be revisited more than once Each time a stage is revisited there should be a reflection on theassociated issues and refine the ideas There will a need to consider ethical and access issues during theprocess Spend time formulating and clarifying the research topic – expressedas one or more research questions that the research must answer,accompanied by a set of objectives that the research must addressICTM Module Delivery TeamGroup ActivityAgree with a friend to each read a different quality newspaper. Make anote of at least 10 articles in your newspaper that mention the word‘research’. Now examine the articles one at a time.As you examine each article, does the reference to research:• refer to the collection of facts or information with no clear purpose?• refer to the reassembling and reordering of facts or informationwithout interpretation?• provide a means of getting the reader to respect what is beingwritten?• refer to the systematic collection and interpretation of data with aclear purpose?Discuss your answers with your teamICTM Module Delivery Team212212Session 8ICTM Module Delivery TeamWhat is a reflective diary? Is a common requirement in UK university assessments It is essential for students to be able to effectively analyse their ownprogress and apply theoretical knowledge to practical situations This will enable them to become strong, independent practitioners Contains regular entries by the student, detailing their experiencesand emotions with regard to their learning process Should also include references to relevant theories to connect thestudent’s academic knowledge with their practical work Can be used to verify a student’s intellectual engagement with thecourse material or practical assignments, as well as theirindependent work outside of lectures and seminars Diary entries should be made at regular intervals Diary entries can be submitted periodically throughout the course, orat the end of semesterICTM Module Delivery Team232413What is a reflective diary? Is a common requirement in UK university assessments It is essential for students to be able to effectively analyse their ownprogress and apply theoretical knowledge to practical situations This will enable them to become strong, independent practitioners Contains regular entries by the student, detailing their experiencesand emotions with regard to their learning process Should also include references to relevant theories to connect thestudent’s academic knowledge with their practical work Can be used to verify a student’s intellectual engagement with thecourse material or practical assignments, as well as theirindependent work outside of lectures and seminars Diary entries should be made at regular intervals Diary entries can be submitted periodically throughout the course, orat the end of semesterICTM Module Delivery TeamICTM Module Delivery Team252614DescriptionFeelingsEvaluationAnalysisConclusionAction planDescriptionDescribe the situation in detail. The main points to include hereconcern what happened. Feelings and conclusions will come later.Helpful questions: What happened? When and where did it happen? Who was present? What did you and the other people do? What was the outcome of the situation? Why were you there? What did you want to happen?ICTM Module Delivery Team272815FeelingsExplore any feelings or thoughts that you had during the experienceand how they may have impacted the experienceHelpful questions: What were you feeling during the situation? What were you feeling before and after the situation? What do you think other people were feeling about the situation? What do you think other people feel about the situation now? What were you thinking during the situation? What do you think about the situation now?ICTM Module Delivery TeamEvaluationEvaluate what worked and what did not work in the situation. Be asobjective and honest as possible. Focus on both the positive and thenegative aspects of the situationHelpful questions: What was good and bad about the experience? What went well? What didn’t go so well? What did you and other people contribute to the situation (positivelyor negatively)?ICTM Module Delivery Team293016AnalysisYou have a chance to make sense of what happened. Previous stepsfocused on details around what happened in the situation. Here youshould extract meaning from it. Target the different aspects that wentwell or poorly and ask yourself why. If you are looking to includeacademic literature, this is the natural place to include it.Helpful questions: Why did things go well? Why didn’t it go well? What sense can I make of the situation? What knowledge – my own or others (for example academicliterature) can help me understand the situation?ICTM Module Delivery TeamConclusionsMake conclusions about what happened. Summarise your learningand highlight what changes to your actions could improve the outcomein the future. It should be a natural response to the previous sections.Helpful questions: What did I learn from this situation? How could this have been a more positive situation for everyoneinvolved? What skills do I need to develop for me to handle a situation like thisbetter? What else could I have done?ICTM Module Delivery Team313217Action planPlan for what you would do differently in a similar or related situation inthe future. Think about how you will help yourself to act differently –such that you do not only plan what you will do differently, but alsohow you will make sure it happens. Sometimes just the realisation isenough, but other times reminders might be helpful.Helpful questions: If I had to do the same thing again, what would I do differently? How will I develop the required skills I need? How can I make sure that I can act differently next time?ICTM Module Delivery TeamIn groups, rearrange the following paragraphs according to the Gibbs’reflective model: Describe, Feelings, Evaluation, Analysis,Conclusion, Action planI thought our plan would work and felt good about it. When we had torewrite it, I felt frustrated.The process of dividing sections went well. However, it didn’t work nothaving foreseen/planned rewritingI will use Belbin’s team roles to divide group work in the future.Moreover, I will suggest writing one section together before we do ourown work, so we can mirror that in our own writing. Finally, I will speakmy mind when I have concerns, by remembering it can benefit theoutcome.ICTM Module Delivery Team333418Describe, Feelings, Evaluation, Analysis, Conclusion, Action planI learned that using people’s strengths is efficient. Moreover, planninghow we want the work to look, before we go off on our own is helpful.Lastly, I will remember the dangers of groupthink, and what the theorysuggests to look out for.In a group work assignment, we divided sections according to people’sstrengths. When we tried to piece the assignment together it waswritten in different styles and therefore we had to spend time rewritingit.Dividing work according to individual strengths is useful. Belbin’s teamroles (2010) would suggest something similar. I have done it beforeand it seems to work well. The reason piecing work together didn’twork was we had no plan for what it needed to look like. We were sofocused on finishing quickly that no one would raise a concern. Thelast part can be explained by ‘groupthink’ (e.g. Jarvis, 1991), wheremembers of a group make a suboptimal decision because individualsare afraid of challenging the consensus.ICTM Module Delivery TeamICTM Module Delivery TeamThings to ConsiderInsight and analysis➢ Critical awareness and insightful understanding of the issues to beaddressed➢ Aware of the problems to be analysed or task to be executed➢ Demonstrates informed reflection into practiceOriginality➢ Evidence of independence of mind➢ Originality in the application of knowledge➢ Imaginative use of evidence and concepts➢ Examples of challenging and changing practiceEvidence➢ Appropriate wide-ranging evidence is discussed➢ Used accurately, critically and effectively353619ICTM Module Delivery TeamPossible problems➢ Lack of confidence in your own observations, approaches andvalues➢ Feel uncomfortable challenging and evaluating your own practice➢ Difficulties with self-directed learning➢ Keeping records can be intrusive and time consuming➢ Lack of depth – only seeing the surface➢ Weaving in other evidence➢ Unsure as to which situations/experiences to reflect upon➢ Offer descriptions with little critical reasoning➢ Use only one point of view➢ Privacy and confidentiality issues➢ In observations – you need an atmosphere of trust➢ Not sure if you are writing what you think the assessor wantsICTM Module Delivery TeamPossible solutions➢ Blend reflective writing with conventional report writing➢ Remove confidential or sensitive information beforesubmitting the report➢ Research other supporting ideas, approached andsources – databases/journal articles/reports➢ Write up as soon as you can – so as not to forget➢ Only select the experiences you think are significant➢ Have confidence in your personal interpretations373820ICTM Module Delivery TeamWhat do we bring to reflection?➢ Ourselves/your own experiences➢ Gender/age perspective➢ Previous experience➢ Cultural factors➢ Instincts and emotions and expectations➢ How connected are we to the task?➢ Both personal – as objective➢ An enquiring mind/observational skillsICTM Module Delivery TeamPossible benefits➢ Problem solving➢ Inform case studies➢ Fixing it in long term memory➢ Improving organisational skills➢ Improving management skills➢ Turn experiences into learning opportunities394021ICTM Module Delivery TeamProblem solving➢ Have you come across situations before?➢ Draw on your experiences, or examples you have readabout➢ Is the situation or tasks the same or different?➢ It may require a different approachICTM Module Delivery Team414222Now LaterAt the time Write a descriptionas you see thingsnow Include your feelings Note down anythingyou might want torefer to as ‘evidence’ Note questions orthings you mightwant to explore ifthey occur to youLater reflection Look back objectively atwhat you wrote Compare you now withthen: changes? Ask & answer criticalquestions◦ Relate to wider context◦ Justify what you say Learning & moving forwardICTM Module Delivery TeamICTM Module Delivery TeamNotebook…….things to consider➢ Not just random thoughts➢ Write down the most significant or influential points➢ Your experiences – what are the underlying componentsof a situation or process?➢ Anchored to what you wish to understand better➢ How subjective are your thoughts?➢ Could things be done in a different way?434423ICTM Module Delivery TeamWrite up➢ When it is still “fresh”➢ In report form rather than an essay (more detail ratherthan development of an argument)➢ Extensive use of subheadings – obvious and manageablesectionsICTM Module Delivery TeamWrite up – Language➢ 1st person = “I found this significant because….”➢ 3rd person = “This approach can be important because…”➢ Mixture = “We often see this approach in real situations..”➢ Hint: Avoid a real mix – If you strat with 3rd personcontinue to the end of the paragraph in the 3rd person.Then you can change to 1st person in the next paragraph,adding your real examples.➢ Try not to overly repeat words or phrases➢ Do not start too many sentences with phrases such as “Ithink that….”➢ Use written language – not spoken language454624ICTM Module Delivery TeamWrite up – Language➢ Try not to be vague – clarity is crucial in reports➢ Try not to be overly elaborate or complicated➢ Use technical terms – but not jargon➢ e.g., blue-sky thinking➢ Do not use dialect or shorten words – “I reckon” or “isn’t”ICTM Module Delivery TeamWrite up – You may wish to includeIntroduction/Description➢ What are you going to reflect on?➢ Incidents, events, theoretical ideasFeelings➢ Confusion, surprise, uncertainty, confidence, enjoyment,pleasure, motivation….Analysis➢ What can you make of the situation?➢ Add your own experiences and observations474825ICTM Module Delivery TeamWrite up – You may wish to includeConclusions➢ General or theoretical/and specific using your ownunique, personal situation and experiencesPersonal Action Plan➢ What steps/changes can you take on the basis of whatyou have learnt?➢ Make value judgements of what gets priority and whyICTM Module Delivery TeamDescription➢ What are you going to reflect on? Incidents, events, theoretical ideasFeelings➢ Confusion, surprise, anger, unsure, confident, enjoyment, pleasure,motivatedAnalysis➢ What can you make of the situation? Add your experiences andobservationsConclusions➢ General or theoretical/and specific using your own unique, personalsituation and experiencesPersonal Action Plan➢ What steps/changes can you take on the basis of what you havelearnt?495026ICTM Module Delivery TeamIntroduction/Executive summary➢ Very short – 1 or 2 paragraphs➢ Identify your topic or focus➢ Why you feel it is important➢ State the key areas or themes you will cover➢ It is reflective/subjective – but also formalMain partTheme or Topic 1➢ Describe the topic and place in a context➢ Introduce real examples of situations and experiences – describeyour experiences and interpret/evaluate your goals➢ Provide different perspectives/evidence from other people’sstudiesTheme or Topic 2➢ RepeatICTM Module Delivery TeamReferencing➢ Provide different perspectives/evidence from other people’s studies➢ Harvard citation and references➢ Cite Them Right➢ RefMe – citing and referencingConclusion➢ Remind the reader of the topic and the context➢ Were there any difficulties or any primary concerns?➢ What works well?➢ How did you overcome/could they be overcome?➢ Are there other methods which you might try next time?515227ICTM Module Delivery TeamAction plan – part of self assessment➢ What were you confident in?➢ What do you feel you may need more practice in, or experience of?➢ Was all the information or experiences you collected useful?➢ Did it contribute to your understanding?➢ Are complex ideas becoming more understandable?ICTM Module Delivery TeamOnline Resources & appsEAP Tool Kit Learning logs and reflective journalshttps://www.elanguages.ac.uk/eap_toolkit.php/Google Docshttps://www.google.co.uk/docs/about/Evernotehttps://evernote.com/Books on reflective writingBassot, B. (2020). Reflective Journal, Red Globe Press.Bolton, G. and Delderfield, R. (2018). Reflective Practice: Writing andProfessional Development, 5th Ed. SAGE Publications Ltd.Thompson, S. and Thompson, N. (2018). The Critically ReflectivePractitioner, Macmillan Education UK535428In groups, rearrange the following paragraphs according to the Gibbs’ reflective model:Describe, Feelings, Evaluation, Analysis, Conclusion, Action planI thought our plan would work and felt good about it. When we had to rewrite it, I feltfrustrated (F)The process of dividing sections went well. However, it didn’t work not havingforeseen/planned rewriting (E)I will use Belbin’s team roles to divide group work in the future. Moreover, I will suggestwriting one section together before we do our own work, so we can mirror that in ourown writing. Finally, I will speak my mind when I have concerns, by remembering it canbenefit the outcome (AP)I learned that using people’s strengths is efficient. Moreover, planning how we want thework to look, before we go off on our own is helpful. Lastly, I will remember the dangersof groupthink, and what the theory suggests to look out for (C)In a group work assignment, we divided sections according to people’s strengths. Whenwe tried to piece the assignment together it was written in different styles and thereforewe had to spend time rewriting it (D)Dividing work according to individual strengths is useful. Belbin’s team roles (2010)would suggest something similar. I have done it before and it seems to work well.The reason piecing work together didn’t work was we had no plan for what it needed tolook like. We were so focused on finishing quickly that no one would raise a concern.The last part can be explained by ‘groupthink’ (e.g. Jarvis, 1991), where members of agroup make a suboptimal decision because individuals are afraid of challenging theconsensus (A)ICTM Module Delivery TeamSaunders, M., Lewis, P. and Thornhill, A. (2019). ResearchMethods for Business Students, (8th ed), Harlow, PearsonEducation Ltd.ICTM Module Delivery Team555629ICTM Module Delivery Team57

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