Internal Marketing across Cultures | My Assignment Tutor

www.derby.ac.uk/businessSensitivity: InternalMarketing across CulturesWeek 3: Global Culture, ConsumerBehaviour and Cross-Cultural Analysiswww.derby.ac.uk/businessSensitivity: InternalExamine the social and cultural issues ininternational marketing and their implicationson buyer behavioursLearning Objectivewww.derby.ac.uk/businessSensitivity: InternalConsumer Behaviour Dynamics(Bennett 1989)Cognition(ThoughtProcesses)Affect(Emotion)Conation(IntendedBehaviours)Personal andEnvironmentalFactors+ = Consumer Behaviourwww.derby.ac.uk/businessSensitivity: Internal• The world’s largest retailer- an agent forConsumer?• Marketer are able to influence this processat several points.• Influence thought process by provingrelevant information at the right time• Influence emotion by using appealingcommunication and imagery• Marketer can provide suitableenvironmental stimuli (present shops oruser friendly websites) to stimulatepurchase.www.derby.ac.uk/businessSensitivity: InternalMotivations:• What needs are fulfilled by the product inthe consumers’ mind?• How are these needs currently met?• Do members of the culture recognisethese needs?• Do they want it?Cognition(ThoughtProcesses)www.derby.ac.uk/businessSensitivity: Internal• How will it make me feel if I have it?• How long will I feel like this for?• How will I feel if I don’t have it?EmotionsAffect(Emotion)www.derby.ac.uk/businessSensitivity: InternalIntended Behaviours• I will buy it now…• I will it buy later…• I might buy it…• I will ask someone else if I should buy it…• I won’t buy it…Conation(IntendedBehaviours)www.derby.ac.uk/businessSensitivity: Internal• Who has the spending power in the family?• How frequently are the products purchased?• Are their conflicts of values with the product?• How much disposable income is available?• How does local climate impact upon it?• How is it perceived in Society?Personal andEnvironmentalFactorswww.derby.ac.uk/businessSensitivity: InternalMaslow (1943)Hierarchy ofNeedswww.derby.ac.uk/businessSensitivity: Internal▪ Is Maslow’s Hierarchy is universal?– the consumer in the LDC – putting self-esteem beforephysiological need, starving to buy a fridge– the Hindu need for self-realisation involving abandonmentrather than gathering of possessions▪The buying process is individualistic?– complex family structures, e.g. Asian and Arabian cultures willchallenge thisAssumptions to be Questioned byInternational Marketing Managerswww.derby.ac.uk/businessSensitivity: Internal“methods by which international marketers cancompare and contrast consumer, market andbuyer behaviour across cultures and countries”Doole and Lowe (2012)The Cross-Cultural Analysiswww.derby.ac.uk/businessSensitivity: Internal• Hall and Hall (1987)• Hofstede (1984,1994)• Wills et al (1991)• Trompenaars (1997)• Lewis (1992)Methods of Cross Cultural Analysiswww.derby.ac.uk/businessSensitivity: Internal“Culture is not made up but something that evolveswhich is human” Edward T Hall (1987)• The principle that one culture will differ fromanother if it understands and communicates indifferent ways• the greater the difference, the more difficult itis to communicate accurately.Hall and Hall’s high/low context approachwww.derby.ac.uk/businessSensitivity: InternalLow context cultures• rely entirely on spoken andwritten language.• decoding/understanding themessage will depend on theWORDS contained in themessage.http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/8677026.stmHellopleased tomeet youHi…www.derby.ac.uk/businessSensitivity: InternalHigh context cultures:• use and interpret more of the elements surrounding themessage to develop their understanding• factors such as social status, age, gender, relevant socialpositioning of the sender/receiver etc.Pleasedto meetyouMr….I’m a female,and younger,and a juniorposition I bowlower !I’m a male,older, andseniorposition,she bowslowerAndyouMiss….www.derby.ac.uk/businessSensitivity: InternalComparison of Low and High Context CulturesLow Context High Contextwww.derby.ac.uk/businessSensitivity: InternalThe principle of work-relateddifferences and their effect onbehaviours produced five dimensionsHofstede’s Cultural DimensionsHofstede (1984)www.derby.ac.uk/businessSensitivity: Internal• Relationship between an individual andothers• Loose/tight ties (or size of) family orstate, i.e. individualistic or collectivist.Individualism – Collectivism:(West) (East)www.derby.ac.uk/businessSensitivity: InternalPower-Distance:The structure of nations reflecting their approach tohuman equality in physical and educational terms.Sweden Japanwww.derby.ac.uk/businessSensitivity: InternalThe degree to which people in acountry prefer formal rules as a meansto enhancing securityUncertainty avoidance:www.derby.ac.uk/businessSensitivity: InternalThe degree to which “masculine” values such asachievement, success, money and competition featureFeminine -Masculine:Japan Hollandwww.derby.ac.uk/businessSensitivity: InternalTime OrientationThe degree to which a culture is eitheruniversalistic (long time-orientated)or particularistic (short time-orientated)www.derby.ac.uk/businessSensitivity: InternalThe 6th dimension(Communicaid 2013, Hofestede 2010)INDULGENT cultures place moreimportance on freedom of speechand personal control….RESTRAINED cultures there is a greater senseof helplessness about personal destinyLikelihood of employees voicing opinions andgiving feedback….?Attitudes to happiness, freedom, or seeking ajob/career change….?Visible demonstration of happiness, e.g.smiling….?Impact of new generations…. (the iPhone instantgratification generation)INDULGENT RESTRAINEDwww.derby.ac.uk/businessSensitivity: InternalWills’ Cross Cultural Diffusion/learning MatrixUses the dimensions of diffusion/learning (the degree to whichacceptance of change and innovation is embraced) with the degree of highor low context culture that exists e.g.:Japan: high context/fast diffusion India: high context/slow diffusionUSA: low context/fast diffusion UK: low context/slow diffusionwww.derby.ac.uk/businessSensitivity: InternalTrompenaars and Hampden -Turners7 dimensions of Culture (1997)Trompenaars identified sevendifferent, fundamental culturedimensionsThis was developed based onresearch of 46,000 managers in 40different countrieswww.derby.ac.uk/businessSensitivity: InternalTrompenaars and Hampden-Turner’s 7Dimensions of Culture (1997)www.derby.ac.uk/businessSensitivity: InternalRichard Lewis (1992)Classified cultures as having either Monochromicor Polychromic characteristics – as follows:www.derby.ac.uk/businessSensitivity: InternalMonochronic People Polychronic PeopleDo one thing at a time,concentrate on the jobDo many things at once,are highly distractible andsubject to changesTake time commitmentsseriouslyConsider time commitments anobjective to be achieved if possibleAre committed to the job Are committed to people and humanrelationshipsadhere religiously to plans Change plans often and easilyAre accustomed to short termrelationshipshave strong tendencies to build lifelongrelationships.www.derby.ac.uk/businessSensitivity: InternalMonochronic People Polychronic PeopleDo one thing at a time,concentrate on the jobDo many things at once,are highly distractible andsubject to changesTake time commitmentsseriouslyConsider time commitments anobjective to be achieved if possibleAre committed to the job Are committed to people and humanrelationshipsadhere religiously to plans Change plans often and easilyAre accustomed to short termrelationshipshave strong tendencies to build lifelongrelationships.www.derby.ac.uk/businessSensitivity: InternalMonochronic People Polychronic PeopleDo one thing at a time,concentrate on the jobDo many things at once,are highly distractible andsubject to changesTake time commitmentsseriouslyConsider time commitments anobjective to be achieved if possibleAre committed to the job Are committed to people and humanrelationshipsadhere religiously to plans Change plans often and easilyAre accustomed to short termrelationshipshave strong tendencies to build lifelongrelationships.www.derby.ac.uk/businessSensitivity: InternalMonochronic People Polychronic PeopleDo one thing at a time,concentrate on the jobDo many things at once,are highly distractible andsubject to changesTake time commitmentsseriouslyConsider time commitments anobjective to be achieved if possibleAre committed to the job Are committed to people and humanrelationshipsadhere religiously to plans Change plans often and easilyAre accustomed to short termrelationshipshave strong tendencies to build lifelongrelationships.www.derby.ac.uk/businessSensitivity: InternalMonochronic People Polychronic PeopleDo one thing at a time,concentrate on the jobDo many things at once,are highly distractible andsubject to changesTake time commitmentsseriouslyConsider time commitments anobjective to be achieved if possibleAre committed to the job Are committed to people and humanrelationshipsadhere religiously to plans Change plans often and easilyAre accustomed to short termrelationshipshave strong tendencies to build lifelongrelationships.www.derby.ac.uk/businessSensitivity: InternalMonochronic People Polychronic PeopleDo one thing at a time,concentrate on the jobDo many things at once,are highly distractible andsubject to changesTake time commitmentsseriouslyConsider time commitments anobjective to be achieved if possibleAre committed to the job Are committed to people and humanrelationshipsadhere religiously to plans Change plans often and easilyAre accustomed to short termrelationshipshave strong tendencies to build lifelongrelationships.www.derby.ac.uk/businessSensitivity: InternalConclusion• In conclusion, a variety of methods have been seen today thesecan be explored further for your assignment cw1 and cw 2.• Please research and understand the positives and negatives ofeach method.www.derby.ac.uk/businessSensitivity: InternalNext week…..The International Marketing Arena and Culture

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