Proposed Development: Residential dwelling | My Assignment Tutor

Educational use onlySeptember 23, 201Project No. 0001LWI/msSITE INVESTIGATION REPORTClient: Mr & Mrs BrownAddress: 1 Lake Road Toronto16:Proposed Development: Residential dwellingSite DescriptionApprox. area (m2): 698.6Approx. fall: 1 metre to the west, reasonable site drainageVegetation: Grass, trees and shrubsImprovements: 1LOGeology, Fieldwork Details and Subsurface ConditionsThe Sydney geological series sheet at a scale of 1:100,000 shows the site is underlain byTriassic Age Ashfield Shale of the Wianamatta Group. Rocks within this formationcomprise shale and laminite.Three boreholes were drilled and three Dynamic cone penetrometer (DCP) tests werecarried out on September 14, 201 at the locations shown on Drawing No. $.Restricted site access dictated the borehole locations. The subsurface conditionsencountered are shown on the attached borehole logs. Explanation sheets and notesrelating to geotechnical reports are also attached.When making an assessment of the subsurface conditions across a site from a limitednumber of boreholes, there is the possibility that variations may occur between testlocations. The data derived from the site investigation programme are extrapolated acrossthe site to form a geological model and an engineering opinion is rendered about overallsubsurface conditions and their likely behaviour with regard to the proposed development.The actual condition at the site may differ from those inferred, since no subsurfaceexploration programme, no matter how comprehensive, can reveal all subsurface detailsand anomalies.The subsurface conditions consist of topsoil overlying silty clays and weathered shale. Thetopsoil is 0.3 to 0.4 metres thick. Natural silty clays underlie the site to depths of1.1 metres and the depth of drilling, 3.0 metres. The strength of these materials varybetween firm to stiff and very stiff. In BH1 and BH3 weathered shale was present to depthsof 1.5 and 2.0 metres. Auger refusal occurred at these depths.This document is an amended version of an original report prepared in 2010 for a client of SMEC Testing Services Pty Ltd. Certain details have been changed andredacted to protect private and confidential information. TAFE NSW has been granted use of the report solely for educational purposes and any person who receives acopy of this report (or any part of it) does so on the basis that he or she acknowledges and accepts that they may not rely on or use this report for any other purposewhatsoever. The author does not accept a duty of care or any other legal responsibility in relation to this report.Educational use onlyNo groundwater was observed in the boreholes during the fieldwork.Site ClassificationThe classification has been prepared in accordance with the guidelines set out in the“Residential Slabs and Footings” Code, AS2870 – 1996.Based on the subsurface conditions observed, the site is classified highly reactive (H),provided the recommendations given below are adopted.Foundation Design and ConstructionPad and/or strip footings founded in natural materials below the topsoil may beproportioned using an allowable bearing pressure of 100 kPa. The minimum depth offounding must comply with the requirements of AS2870If a higher load carrying capacity is required, piers should be used to transfer the loads tothe underlying stronger materials. Footings or piers founded in the weathered shale may beproportioned using an allowable end bearing pressure of 700 kPa. An adhesion value of70 kPa applies to the portion of the shaft within the weathered rock.In order to ensure the bearing values given can be achieved, care should be taken to ensurethe base of the excavations are free of all loose material prior to concreting. To this end, itis recommended that all excavations be concreted as soon as possible, preferablyimmediately after excavating, cleaning, inspecting and approval. Pier excavations shouldnot be left open overnight. The possibility of groundwater inflow needs to be consideredwhen drilling the piers and pouring concrete.The site is considered suitable for slab on ground construction provided due regard is givento the groundsurface slope.During foundation construction, should the subsurface conditions vary to those inferred inthis report, a suitably experienced geotechnical engineer should review the design andrecommendations given above to determine if any alterations are required.Additional CommentsAttention is drawn to Appendix B of AS2870 – 1996 regarding the need to properlymaintain the foundations. Surface drainage should be provided to avoid the possibility ofwater ponding near the building and the finished ground surface should fall at least 50 mmover a distance of one metre away from the building.The above classification has been made assuming that the maximum depth to filling placedin any building platform will be 400 mm and that all footings will bear in either naturalground or in control filling. Prior to the placement of any filling the existing surfaceshould be stripped of all vegetation and topsoil.This document is an amended version of an original report prepared in 2010 for a client of SMEC Testing Services Pty Ltd. Certain details have been changed andredacted to protect private and confidential information. TAFE NSW has been granted use of the report solely for educational purposes and any person who receives acopy of this report (or any part of it) does so on the basis that he or she acknowledges and accepts that they may not rely on or use this report for any other purposewhatsoever. The author does not accept a duty of care or any other legal responsibility in relation to this report.Educational use onlyThe above classification is based on the soil profiles observed at the time of testing. If siteworks are undertaken, the classification of the actual building platform may vary across thesite depending upon the extent of the cut and/or fill and the degree of compaction of anyfill. The designer of the footing system must take the above factors into account.If excavations for rainwater or detention tanks are to be made within 6 metres of thebuilding foundations, advice should be sought regarding their effect on the foundations.Placing absorption trenches on the high side of the property may create abnormal moistureconditions for the foundations (Refer to Section 1.3.3 of AS2870). This could have anegative effect on the foundation performance and more than likely alter the siteclassification provided above.This report has been prepared assuming the site development will be limited to one or twostorey residential buildings. The information and interpretation may not be relevant if thedesign proposal changes (e.g. to a five-storey building involving major cuts during the sitepreparation). If changes occur, we would be pleased to review the report and advise on theadequacy of the investigation.Laurie Ihnativ, BE, MEngSc, MBA, FIE Aust.Manager, SMEC Testing Services Pty LimitedThis document is an amended version of an original report prepared in 2010 for a client of SMEC Testing Services Pty Ltd. Certain details have been changed andredacted to protect private and confidential information. TAFE NSW has been granted use of the report solely for educational purposes and any person who receives acopy of this report (or any part of it) does so on the basis that he or she acknowledges and accepts that they may not rely on or use this report for any other purposewhatsoever. The author does not accept a duty of care or any other legal responsibility in relation to this report.Educational use only60(&7(67,1*6(59,&(63W/WG 6FDOH8QNQRZQ ‘DWH6HSWHPEHU8Client: MR & MRS BROWN6,7(,19(67,*$7,21 1 LAKE ROAD TORONTO NSW2283%25(+2/($1’3(1(7520(7(5/2&$7,2163URMHFW1R0001‘UDZLQJ1RA03BH3P3BH2P2BH1P1This document is an amended version of an original report prepared in 2010 for a client of SMEC Testing Services PtyLtd. Certain details have been changed and redacted to protect private and confidential information. TAFE NSW hasbeen granted use of the report solely for educational purposes and any person who receives a copy of this report (orany part of it) does so on the basis that he or she acknowledges and accepts that they may not rely on or use this reportfor any other purpose whatsoever. The author does not accept a duty of care or any other legal responsibility inrelation to this report.Educational use onlyNOTES RELATING TO GEOTECHNICAL REPORTSIntroductionThese notes have been provided to outline themethodology and limitations inherent ingeotechnical reporting. The issues discussed arenot relevant to all reports and further adviceshould be sought if there are any queriesregarding any advice or report.When copies of reports are made, they should bereproduced in full.Geotechnical ReportsGeotechnical reports are prepared by qualifiedpersonnel on the information supplied orobtained and are based on current engineeringstandards of interpretation and analysis.Information may be gained from limitedsubsurface testing, surface observations, previouswork and is supplemented by knowledge of thelocal geology and experience of the range ofproperties that may be exhibited by the materialspresent. For this reason, geotechnical reportsshould be regarded as interpretative rather thanfactual documents, limited to some extent by thescope of information on which they rely.Where the report has been prepared for a specificpurpose (eg. design of a three-storey building),the information and interpretation may not beappropriate if the design is changed (eg. a twentystorey building). In such cases, the report and thesufficiency of the existing work should bereviewed by SMEC Testing Services Pty Limitedin the light of the new proposal.Every care is taken with the report content,however, it is not always possible to anticipate orassume responsibility for the followingconditions: Unexpected variations in ground conditions.The potential for this depends on the amountof investigative work undertaken. Changes in policy or interpretation bystatutory authorities. The actions of contractors responding tocommercial pressures.If these occur, SMEC Testing Services PtyLimited would be pleased to resolve the matterthrough further investigation, analysis or advice.Unforeseen ConditionsShould conditions encountered on site differmarkedly from those anticipated from theinformation contained in the report, SMECTesting Services Pty Limited should be notifiedimmediately. Early identification of siteanomalies generally results in any problemsbeing more readily resolved and allows reinterpretation and assessment of the implicationsfor future work.Subsurface InformationLogs of a borehole, recovered core, test pit,excavated face or cone penetration test are anengineering and/or geological interpretation ofthe subsurface conditions. The reliability of thelogged information depends on thedrilling/testing method, sampling and/orobservation spacings and the ground conditions.It is not always possible or economic to obtaincontinuous high quality data. It should also berecognised that the volume or material observedor tested is only a fraction of the total subsurfaceprofile.Interpretation of subsurface information andapplication to design and construction must takeinto consideration the spacing of the testlocations, the frequency of observations andtesting, and the possibility that geologicalboundaries may vary between observation points.Groundwater observations and measurementsoutside of specially designed and constructedpiezometers should be treated with care for thefollowing reasons: In low permeability soils groundwater maynot seep into an excavation or bore in theshort time it is left open. A localised perched water table may notrepresent the true water table. Groundwater levels vary according torainfall events or season. Some drilling and testing procedures mask orprevent groundwater inflow.The installation of piezometers and long termmonitoring of groundwater levels may berequired to adequately identify groundwaterconditions.Supply of Geotechnical Information orTendering PurposesIt is recommended tenderers are provided with asmuch geological and geotechnical informationthat is available and that where there areuncertainties regarding the ground conditions,prospective tenders should be provided withcomments discussing the range of likelyconditions in addition to the investigation data.This document is an amended version of an original report prepared in 2010 for a client of SMEC Testing Services Pty Ltd. Certain details have been changed andredacted to protect private and confidential information. TAFE NSW has been granted use of the report solely for educational purposes and any person who receives acopy of this report (or any part of it) does so on the basis that he or she acknowledges and accepts that they may not rely on or use this report for any other purposewhatsoever. The author does not accept a duty of care or any other legal responsibility in relation to this report.Educational use onlySMEC Testing Services Pty Ltd GEOTECHNICAL LOG – NON CORE BOREHOLE Client: MR & MRS BROWNProject: 1 LAKE ROAD TORONTO NSWLocation: Refer to Drawing No. A03Project No.: 0001Date : September 14, 2018Logged: ACBOREHOLE NO.: BH 1Sheet 1 of 1CONSISTENCY(cohesive soils)orRELATIVEDENSITY(sands andgravels)MOISTUREWA TT AE BR LESAMPLESSYMBOLDESCRIPTION OF DRILLED PRODUCT(Soil type, colour, grain size, plasticity, minor components, observations)DEPTH(m)SILTY CLAY: dark brown, low plasticityTOPSOILCLFIRMD-M0.51.01.52.02.5SILTY CLAY: brown/orange brown, medium plasticityCLFIRM TO STIFFMSILTY CLAY: light grey with orange brown, medium plasticityCLVERY STIFFMSHALE: greyEXTREMELY LOWSTRENGTHDAUGER REFUSAL AT 1.5 MNOTES: D – disturbed sample U – undisturbed tube sample B – bulk sampleWT – level of water table or free water N – Standard Penetration Test (SPT)Contractor: STSEquipment: ChristieHole Diameter (mm): 100Angle from Vertical (°) 0See explanation sheets for meaning of all descriptive terms and symbols This document is an amended version of an original report prepared in 2010 for a client of SMEC Testing Services Pty Ltd. Certain details have been changed andredacted to protect private and confidential information. TAFE NSW has been granted use of the report solely for educational purposes and any person who receives acopy of this report (or any part of it) does so on the basis that he or she acknowledges and accepts that they may not rely on or use this report for any other purposewhatsoever. The author does not accept a duty of care or any other legal responsibility in relation to this report.Educational use onlySMEC Testing Services Pty Ltd GEOTECHNICAL LOG – NON CORE BOREHOLE BOREHOLE NO.: BH 2Client: MR & MRS BROWNProject: 1 LAKE ROAD TORONTO NSWLocation: Refer to Drawing No. A03Project No.: 0001Date : September 14, 2018Logged: ACSheet 1 of 1CONSISTENCY(cohesive soils)orRELATIVEDENSITY(sands andgravels)MOISTUREWA TT AE BR LESAMPLESSYMBOLDESCRIPTION OF DRILLED PRODUCT(Soil type, colour, grain size, plasticity, minor components, observations)DEPTH(m)SILTY CLAY: dark brown, low plasticityTOPSOILCLFIRMD-M0.51.01.52.02.5SILTY CLAY: orange brown, medium plasticityCLFIRM TO STIFFMSILTY CLAY: grey with orange brown, medium plasticityCLSTIFFBECOMINGVERY STIFFMSILTY CLAY: grey with red brown, trace to some fine gravelBOREHOLE DISCONTINUED AT 3.0 MCLVERY STIFFD-MNOTES: D – disturbed sample U – undisturbed tube sample B – bulk sampleWT – level of water table or free water N – Standard Penetration Test (SPT)Contractor: STSEquipment: ChristieHole Diameter (mm): 100Angle from Vertical (°) 0See explanation sheets for meaning of all descriptive terms and symbols This document is an amended version of an original report prepared in 2010 for a client of SMEC Testing Services Pty Ltd. Certain details have been changed andredacted to protect private and confidential information. TAFE NSW has been granted use of the report solely for educational purposes and any person who receives acopy of this report (or any part of it) does so on the basis that he or she acknowledges and accepts that they may not rely on or use this report for any other purposewhatsoever. The author does not accept a duty of care or any other legal responsibility in relation to this report.Educational use onlySMEC Testing Services Pty Ltd GEOTECHNICAL LOG – NON CORE BOREHOLE BOREHOLE NO.: BH 3Client: MR & MRS BROWNProject: 1 LAKE ROAD TORONTO NSWLocation: Refer to Drawing No. A03Project No.: 0001Date : September 14, 2018Logged: ACSheet 1 of 1CONSISTENCY(cohesive soils)orRELATIVEDENSITY(sands andgravels)MOISTUREWA TT AE BR LESAMPLESSYMBOLDESCRIPTION OF DRILLED PRODUCT(Soil type, colour, grain size, plasticity, minor components, observations)DEPTH(m)SILTY CLAY: dark brown, low plasticityTOPSOILCLFIRMD-M0.51.01.52.02.5SILTY CLAY: brown/orange brown, medium plasticityCLFIRM TO STIFFMSILTY CLAY: grey, medium plasticityCLSTIFFMVERY STIFFSHALE: greyEXTREMELY LOWSTRENGTHDAUGER REFUSAL AT 2.0 MNOTES: D – disturbed sample U – undisturbed tube sample B – bulk sampleWT – level of water table or free water N – Standard Penetration Test (SPT)Contractor: STSEquipment: ChristieHole Diameter (mm): 100Angle from Vertical (°) 0See explanation sheets for meaning of all descriptive terms and symbols This document is an amended version of an original report prepared in 2010 for a client of SMEC Testing Services Pty Ltd. Certain details have been changed andredacted to protect private and confidential information. TAFE NSW has been granted use of the report solely for educational purposes and any person who receives acopy of this report (or any part of it) does so on the basis that he or she acknowledges and accepts that they may not rely on or use this report for any other purposewhatsoever. The author does not accept a duty of care or any other legal responsibility in relation to this report.Educational use only SMEC Testing Services Pty Ltd14/1 Cowpasture Place, Wetherill Park NSW 2164Phone: (02)9756 2166 Fax: (02)9756 1137 Email: [email protected] Cone Penetrometer Test ReportProject No.: 001Report No.: 10/2018Report Date: 23/9/2018Project: 1 LAKE ROAD TORONTO NSW 2283Client: MR & MRS BROWNAddress: PO BOX 001, TORONTOTest Method: AS 1289.6.3.2 Page: 1 of 1Site No.P1P2P3LocationRefer toDrawing No.A03Refer toDrawing No.A03Refer toDrawing No.A03Starting LevelSurface LevelSurface LevelSurface LevelDepth (m)Penetration Resistance (blows / 150mm)0.00 – 0.152220.15 – 0.302330.30 – 0.453440.45 – 0.604440.60 – 0.755550.75 – 0.907660.90 – 1.0520/R861.05 – 1.201481.20 – 1.3520/D141.35 – 1.5020/R1.50 – 1.651.65 – 1.801.80 – 1.951.95 – 2.102.10 – 2.252.25 – 2.402.40 – 2.552.55 – 2.702.70 – 2.852.85 – 3.003.00 – 3.153.15 – 3.303.30 – 3.453.45 – 3.603.60 – 3.75Remarks: * Pre drilled prior to testingApproved Signatory……………………………………………Technician: AC Laurie Ihnativ – Manager This document is an amended version of an original report prepared in 2010 for a client of SMEC Testing Services Pty Ltd. Certain details have been changed andredacted to protect private and confidential information. TAFE NSW has been granted use of the report solely for educational purposes and any person who receives acopy of this report (or any part of it) does so on the basis that he or she acknowledges and accepts that they may not rely on or use this report for any other purposewhatsoever. The author does not accept a duty of care or any other legal responsibility in relation to this report.Educational use onlyE1. CLASSIFICATION OF SOILS E1.1SoilClassificationandtheUnifiedSystem An assessment of the site conditions usually includes anappraisal of the data available by combining values ofengineering properties obtained by the site investigationwith descriptions, from visual observation of the materialspresent on site.The system used by SMEC in the identification of soil isthe Unified Soil Classification system (USC) which wasdeveloped by the US Army Corps of Engineers duringWorld War II and has since gained international acceptanceand has been adopted in its metricated form by theStandards Association of Australia.The Australian Site Investigation Code (AS1726-1981,Appendix D) recommends that the description of a soilincludes the USC group symbols which are an integralcomponent of the system.The soil description should contain the followinginformation in order:Soil compositionx SOIL NAME and USC classification symbol (INBLOCK LETTERS)x plasticity or particle characteristicsx colourx secondary and minor constituents (name estimatedproportion, plasticity or particle characteristics, colourSoil conditionx moisture conditionx consistency or density indexSoil structurex structure (zoning, defects, cementing)Soil origininterpretation based on observation eg FILL, TOPSOIL,RESIDUAL, ALLUVIUM. E1.2(a)Soil CompositionSoil Name and ClassificationSymbol The USC system is summarized in Figure E1.2.1. Theprimary division separates soil types on the basis of particlesize into:x Coarse grained soils – more than 50% of thematerial less than 60 mm islarger than 0.06 mm (60 μm).x Fine grained soils – more than 50% of the materialless than 60 mm is smaller than0.06 mm (60 μm).Initial classification is by particle size as shown in TableE1.2.1. Further classification of fine grained soils is basedon plasticity.TABLE E1.2.1 – CLASSIFICATION BY PARTICLESIZE NAMESUB-DIVISIONSIZEClay (1)< 2 μmSilt (2)2 μm to 60 μmSandFineMediumCoarse60 μm to 200 μm200 μm to 600 μm600 μm to 2 mmGravel (3)FineMediumCoarse2 mm to 6 mm6 mm to 20 mm20 mm to 60 mmCobbles (3)60 mm to 200 mmBoulders (3)> 200 mm Where a soil contains an appropriate amount of secondarymaterial, the name includes each of the secondarycomponents (greater than 12%) in increasing order ofsignificance, eg sandy silty clay.Minor components of a soil are included in the descriptionby means of the terms “some” and “trace” as defined inTable E1.2.2.TABLE E1.2.2 – MINOR SOIL COMPONENTS TERMDESCRIPTIONAPPROXIMATEPROPORTION (%)Tracepresence justdetectable, little or noinfluence on soilproperties0-5Somepresence easilydetectable, littleinfluence on soilproperties5-12 The USC group symbols should be included with each soildescription as shown in Table E1.2.3TABLE E1.2.3 – SOIL GROUP SYMBOLS SOIL TYPEPREFIXGravelGSandSSiltMClayCOrganicOPeatPt The group symbols are combined with qualifiers whichindicate grading, plasticity or secondary components asshown on Table E1.2.4This document is an amended version of an original report prepared in 2010 for a client of SMEC Testing Services Pty Ltd. Certain details have been changed andredacted to protect private and confidential information. TAFE NSW has been granted use of the report solely for educational purposes and any person who receives acopy of this report (or any part of it) does so on the basis that he or she acknowledges and accepts that they may not rely on or use this report for any other purposewhatsoever. The author does not accept a duty of care or any other legal responsibility in relation to this report.Educational use onlyTABLE E1.2.4 – SOIL GROUP QUALIFIERS SUBGROUPSUFFIXWell gradedWPoorly GradedPSiltyMClayeyCLiquid Limit 50% – low to medium plasticityH (b)Grading“Well graded”Good representation of allparticle sizes from the largestto the smallest.One or more intermediatesizes poorly representedOne or more intermediatesizes absent“Poorly graded”“Gap graded” “Uniformly graded” Essentially single sizematerial.(c) Particle shape and textureThe shape and surface texture of the coarse grainedparticles should be described.Angularity may be expressed as “rounded”, “subrounded”, “sub-angular” or “angular”.Particle form can be “equidimensional”, “flat” orelongate”.Surface texture can be “glassy”, “smooth”, “rough”,pitted” or striated”. (d)ColourThe colour of the soil should be described in the moistcondition using simple terms such as:BlackWhiteGreyRedBrownOrangeYellowGreenBlue These may be modified as necessary by “light” or “dark”.Borderline colours may be described as a combination oftwo colours, eg. red-brown.For soils that contain more than one colour terms such as:x Speckled Very small (75 mm dia)x Streaked Randomly oriented streaks(e) Minor ComponentsSecondary and minor components should be individuallydescribed in a similar manner to the dominant component. E1.3Soil Condition(a)Moisture Soil moisture condition is described as “dry”, “moist” or“wet”.The moisture categories are defined as:Dry (D) – Little or no moisture evident. Soils are running.Moist (M) – Darkened in colour with cool feel. Granularsoil particles tend to adhere. No free water evident uponremoulding of cohesive soils.In addition the moisture content of cohesive soils can beestimated in relation to their liquid or plastic limit.(b) ConsistencyEstimates of the consistency of a clay or silt soil may bemade from manual examination, hand penetrometer test,SPT results or from laboratory tests to determine undrained shear or unconfined compressive strengths.classification of consistency is defined in Table E1.3.1.The TABLE E1.3.1 – CONSISTENCY OF FINE-GRAINEDSOILS TERMUNCONFINEDSTRENGTH(kPa)FIELDIDENTIFICATIONVerySoft400Brittle, can just be scratchedwith thumb nail. Tends tobreak into fragments. Unconfined compressive strength as derived by a handpenetrometer can be taken as approximately double theundrained shear strength (qu = 2 cu).(c) Density IndexThe insitu density index of granular soils can be assessedfrom the results of SPT or cone penetrometer tests. Densityindex should not be estimated visually.This document is an amended version of an original report prepared in 2010 for a client of SMEC Testing Services Pty Ltd. Certain details have been changed andredacted to protect private and confidential information. TAFE NSW has been granted use of the report solely for educational purposes and any person who receives acopy of this report (or any part of it) does so on the basis that he or she acknowledges and accepts that they may not rely on or use this report for any other purposewhatsoever. The author does not accept a duty of care or any other legal responsibility in relation to this report.Educational use onlyTABLE E1.3.2 – DENSITY OF GRANULAR SOILS TERMSPT NVALUESTATICCONEVALUEqc (MPa)DENSITYINDEX(%)Very Loose0 – 30 – 20 – 15Loose3 – 82 – 515 – 35Medium Dense8 – 255 – 1535 – 65Dense25 – 4215 – 2065 – 85Very Dense>42>20>85 E1.4(a)Soil StructureZoning A sample may consist of several zones differing in colour,grain size or other properties. Terms to classify these zonesare:Layer – continuous across exposure or sampleLens – discontinuous with lenticular shapePocket – irregular inclusionEach zone should be described, their distinguishingfeatures, and the nature of the interzone boundaries. (b)DefectsDefects which are present in the sample can include:xfissures x roots (containing organic matter)x tubes (hollow)x casts (infilled)Defects should be described giving details of dimensionsand frequency. Fissure orientation, planarity, surfacecondition and infilling should be noted. If there is atendency to break into blocks, block dimensions should berecordedE1.5 Soil OriginInformation which may be interpretative but which maycontribute to the usefulness of the material descriptionshould be included. The most common interpreted featureis the origin of the soil. The assessment of the probableorigin is based on the soil material description, soilstructure and its relationship to other soil and rockmaterials.Common terms used are:“Residual Soil” – Material which appears to have beenderived by weathering from the underlying rock. There isno evidence of transport.“Colluvium” – Material which appears to have beentransported from its original location. The method ofmovement is usually the combination of gravity anderosion.“Landslide Debris” – An extreme form of colluvium wherethe soil has been transported by mass movement. Thematerial is obviously distributed and contains distinctdefects related to the slope failure.“Alluvium” – Material which has been transportedessentially by water. Usually associated with formerstream activity.“Fill” – Material which has been transported and placed byman. This can range from natural soils which have beenplaced in a controlled manner in engineering constructionto dumped waste material. A description of theconstituents should include an assessment of the method ofplacement.E1.6 Fine Grained SoilsThe physical properties of fine grained soils are dominatedby silts and clays.The definition of clay and silt soils is governed by theirAtterberg Limits. Clay soils are characterised by theproperties of cohesion and plasticity with cohesion definesas the ability to deform without rupture. Silts exhibitcohesion but have low plasticity or are non-plastic.The field characteristics of clay soils include:x dry lumps have appreciable dry strength and cannot bepowderedx volume changes occur with moisture content variationx feels smooth when moist with a greasy appearancewhen cut.The field characteristics of silt soils include:x dry lumps have negligible dry strength and can bepowdered easilyx dilatancy – an increase in volume due to shearing – isindicted by the presence of a shiny film of water after ahand sample is shaken. The water disappears uponremoulding. Very fine grained sands may also exhibitdilatancy.x low plasticity indexx feels gritty to the teethE1.7 Organic SoilsOrganic soils are distinguished from other soils by theirappreciable content of vegetable matter, usually derivedfrom plant remains.The soil usually has a distinctive smell and low bulkdensity.The USC system uses the symbol Pt for partly decomposedorganic material. The O symbol is combined with suffixes“O” or “H” depending on plasticity.Where roots or root fibres are present their frequency andthe depth to which they are encountered should berecorded. The presence of roots or root fibres does notnecessarily mean the material is an “organic material” byclassification.Coal and lignite should be described as such and notsimply as organic matter.This document is an amended version of an original report prepared in 2010 for a client of SMEC Testing Services Pty Ltd. Certain details have been changed andredacted to protect private and confidential information. TAFE NSW has been granted use of the report solely for educational purposes and any person who receives acopy of this report (or any part of it) does so on the basis that he or she acknowledges and accepts that they may not rely on or use this report for any other purposewhatsoever. The author does not accept a duty of care or any other legal responsibility in relation to this report.

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