TESTING SEMICONDUCTOR MATERIALS | My Assignment Tutor

TESTING SEMICONDUCTOR MATERIALSUSING MICROWAVE TECHNIQUESRakshita RaviBachelor of EngineeringElectronic Engineering MajorDepartment of Electronic EngineeringMacquarie UniversitySeptember 4, 2017Supervisor: Dr Nikos Kopidakis ACKNOWLEDGMENTSI would like to acknowledge my supervisor, Dr Nikos Kopidakis for the continuousencouragement and support he has provided throughout my thesis project. Iwould like to express my gratitude to my tutor, Affan Baba, for his assistance inusing CST Microwave Studio. STATEMENT OF CANDIDATEI, Rakshita Ravi, declare that this report, submitted as part of the requirement forthe award of Bachelor of Engineering in the Department of Electronic Engineering, Macquarie University, is entirely my own work unless otherwise referencedor acknowledged. This document has not been submitted for qualification orassessment an any academic institution.Student’s Name: Rakshita RaviStudent’s Signature: Rakshita RaviDate: 04-09-2017 ABSTRACTSemiconductor industry is evolving with new emerging semiconductor materials.Researchers and engineers constantly test and analyse these new materials tofurther develop this technology. The most traditional method of testing thesehave been through soldering electrical contacts onto the wafer of the material.However, this is time consuming. TRMC technique used in this thesis is robustand uses relatively easy setup to analyse electronic properties of the test samples. The experimental setup will use 100 mm brass waveguide with test samplesdeposited onto the quartz. This experiment can also be conducted using silverplated waveguide which is a much better conductor than brass. However, silveris more expensive and the performance of brass waveguide is very close to silver.Hallow brass waveguide has power transmission of 99 % and low power reflection and losses. Brass waveguide with quartz has power transmission of 87% andpower reflection of 12%. These results will be used to design the next stages ofthe experiment. ContentsAcknowledgments iiiAbstract viiTable of Contents ixList of Figures xiList of Tables xiii1 Introduction 12 Background 32.1 What is TRMC? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32.2 Rectangular Waveguide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42.3 S Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52.3.1 Return Loss and Insertion Loss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62.4 CST Microwave Studio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 Testing Semiconductor in Open Waveguide 93.1 Waveguide Configurations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93.1.1 Material and Length of the waveguide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93.1.2 Waveguide wall thickness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133.2 Waveguide with quartz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153.2.1 Quartz placement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193.3 Waveguide with test sample . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224 Testing Semiconductor in Cavity Resonator 235 Conclusions and Future Work 256 Abbreviations 27ixx CONTENTSA Consultation form and Project Plan 29A.1 Consultation Meetings Attendance Form . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29A.2 Thesis Timeline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31Bibliography 31List of Figures2.1 Schematic of TRMC technique . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32.2 Absorption and Restoration of Microwaves in FP-TRMC . . . . . . . . . . 42.3 Schematic of 2-port S-parameter model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63.1 Hallow waveguide model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103.2 TM10 Field Distribution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113.3 S-Parameters graph from 50 mm brass waveguide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123.4 Power Transmission in Brass and Silver waveguide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133.5 Power Transmission vs Wall Thickness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153.6 Brass waveguide with quartz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163.7 Effect of Quartz on Field Distribution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173.8 Power Transmission in Brass waveguide with quartz . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183.9 Power Reflection in Brass waveguide with quartz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193.10 Power Absorption in Brass waveguide with quartz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193.11 Power Transmission with different quartz position . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203.12 Power Reflection with different quartz position . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213.13 Power Absorption with different quartz position . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21A.1 Consultation form . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30A.2 Gantt Chart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32xi List of Tables2.1 TEm;n mode cutoff frequencies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52.2 TMm;n mode cutoff frequencies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53.1 Brass Hallow Waveguide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123.2 Silver Hallow Waveguide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123.3 100mm Brass Hallow Waveguide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143.4 Brass Waveguide with Quartz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183.5 100 mm Brass Waveguide with varying quartz position . . . . . . . . . . . 20xiii Chapter 1IntroductionSemiconductors dominate the modern-day electronics, they are an essential substancein electronic devices such as solar cells, LEDs, mobile phones, computers, and more.The unique atomic structure of the semiconductor allows the conductivity to be easilycontrolled. Conductivity in a semiconductor can be stimulated by electric currents or electromagnetic fields. This conduction however varies depending on the amount of electriccurrents supplied or by the frequency and the intensity of the EM waves.The sheer popularity and high demand of semiconductors in modern world and hasled to new organic and inorganic semiconductor materials to emerge in this industry.This has led to the requirement of a reliable and efficient testing technique to probethese new materials for their electronics properties. This will assist in future developmentof semiconductor technology. Semiconductor materials have been tested previously byothers using various methods. The most popular method has been through solderingmetal electrical contacts onto the wafer of the material. The main disadvantage of usingthis method is that it is time consuming and requires personnel with good skill.This thesis uses an alternative method which is relatively easy and robust to testconductivity in semiconductors. This is achieved through Time Resolved Microwave Conductivity (TRMC). TRMC is a contactless conductivity probing technique, which involvesmeasuring the transmission of microwave signal through the sample as a function of timedelay between pump pulse and microwave probe pulse.Experiments will be conducted using computer simulation technology (CST) and theresults obtained from these experiments are valuable and play a significant role in prototyping. In the actual experimental setup (prototype), the only results TRMC can provideare quantitative results such as the amount of power absorbed, reflected and transmittedby the sample and then these results are used to translate it to the samples electronicproperties. The simulation results obtained in this thesis provides quantitative resultsas well as qualitative results. For instance, qualitative results provide a greater understanding of how electrical and magnetic fields interact with the sample. These simulationresults assist in designing the experiment in a better way. These simulation results canindicate if this experimental technique can measure low conductivity materials or justhigh conductivity materials, if it can probe just photoconductivity materials or can it12 Chapter 1. Introductionalso measure dark conductivity materials.Chapter 2Background2.1 What is TRMC?TRMC technique was first used by Margenau in mid-40s to analyze the behavior ofcharged particles in their gaseous form. This became popular after Warman and De Haasintroduced PR-TRMC technique and then later evolved to FP-TRMC (Flash PhotolysisTime Resolved Microwave Conductivity) in early 80s, where laser light was used as theradiation source. The TRMC technique setup is displayed in Figure 2.1. The sinusoidallines in the figure represent the standing-wave pattern of the microwave electric fields.Notice, sample is placed at a position where there is maximum electric field strengthinside the cavity.Figure 2.1: Schematic of TRMC technique setup using microwave cavity resonator andsample. [1]In FP-TRMC, the sample is placed inside a cavity resonator at position of maximumelectric field strength such that when microwaves is applied to the sample, and the lightis flashed (pumped) on the material, the photo induced carriers within the sample areexcited and absorbs particular range of frequencies. When the light is turned-off, thenthe carriers return to their stable state, restoring the microwave intensity. This processis better illustrated in Figure 2.2. In Figure 2.2 A, microwaves (probe) is applied to34 Chapter 2. Backgroundthe sample. Figure 2.2 B, Light is pumped onto the sample, and the carrier charges areexited. Microwave intensity is reduced while leaving the sample. Figure 2.2 C, Light isturned-off, the carrier charges are returning back to their normal state (very few mobilecharges present), and microwave intensity is restored. [2] [3]Figure 2.2: Absorption and Restoration of Microwaves in FP-TRMC. [3]The restoration of microwave takes place over a certain period of time. Hence theterm time-resolved. The absorption and the restoration of the waves indicate a lot aboutthe properties of the material and in particular about its conductivity. In simple terms,and to a certain extent, the change in absorbed microwave power is proportional to thechange in conductivity of the sample.The main advantage of using FP-TRMC technique is that, it is guaranteed that thenumber of mobile electrons created in the semiconductors conduction band is related toits change in conductivity. FP-TRMC can be used to monitor the generation of chargecarriers in thin films and in particular it is very useful in determining the key parametersof the photoactive part of the photovoltaic device. [4]2.2 Rectangular WaveguideRectangular waveguides are one of the earliest and well know technology used to transportmicrowave signals with their frequency band ranging from 1GHz to over 220 GHz. Sincewaveguide is basically a metal pipe, it has electric and magnetic field perpendicular to thedirection of travelling waves. Waveguides have certain boundary conditions that restrictthe propagation mode.• The electric field must be orthogonal to the conductor in order to exist at the surfaceof that conductor.• The magnetic field must not be orthogonal to the surface of the waveguide.Due to these boundary conditions, waveguides have transverse electric (TE) and transverse magnetic (TM) modes for propagation. Transverse electric (TE) and Transversemagnetic (TM) have different field configurations and each of these configuration is known2.3 S Parameters 5as a mode. A simple notation can be used to describe various modes of propagation asshown below:Txm;n (1)wherex = E for transverse electric mode, and M refers to transverse magnetic modem = the number of half-wavelengths along the x axisn = the number of half-wavelengths along the y axisTE wave has Ex, Ey, Hx, Hy, and Hz components. TM wave has Ex, Ey, Ez, Hxand Hy components. Signal propagation in a waveguide depends on the frequency of theinput signal. EM waves propagate inside the waveguide only when the frequency of theapplied signal is higher than the cut-off frequency fc;mn. [5] [6]fc;mn = 12πpµrmπ a )2nπ b )2 m; n = 0; 1; 2; ::: (2)Table 2.1: TEm;n mode cutoff frequencies mnfc;mnGHz120100116.56213.12314.76416.156 Table 2.2: TMm;n mode cutoff frequencies mnfc;mn GHz11212116.15630.24819.753 WR90 is metallic X band rectangular waveguide and its cross-sectional dimensions area=22.86 mm and b=10.16 mm. X-band region has frequencies from 8 GHz to 12.5 GHzand the Table 2.1 and 2.2 above indicate that WR90 allows TE10 mode to propagate inthe waveguide and this is also the dominant mode.2.3 S ParametersScattering parameters or S parameters define the input output relationship between thedevice ports.Applying the figure 2.3 to this thesis, the source is on Port 1 and detection is on Port2. This way a1 is the incident power, b1 is the reflected power, b2 is the transmitted6 Chapter 2. BackgroundFigure 2.3: Schematic of 2-port S-parameter model. [7]power and a2 on the Port 2 will be eliminated (i.e. a2 = 0). This eliminates the S12 andS22 parameters leaving behind just S11 and S21. Now S11 can be considered as the inputreflection coefficient and S21 as transmission coefficient. [8] [9]The equations below represent S11 and S21 in terms of incident energy (Ei), reflectedenergy (Er) and transmitted energy (Et). S11 = 20log10EidBEidB(3)(4) ErS21 = 20log10 Et2.3.1 Return Loss and Insertion LossReturn loss (RL) is a measure of effectiveness of delivering power from source (Port 1) toload. Return loss is a positive quantity when reflected power PR is less than PI. RLis the difference in dB between input power PI, and reflected power PR. InsertionLoss is the loss of signal power during signal transmission and similar RL, IL is a positivequantity. The below equations represent RL and IL in terms of input power PI, reflectedpower PR and transmitted power PT . [10]RL = 10log10PPRI dB (5)IL = 10log10PPTI dB (6)RL and S11 can be easily converted to one another. This relationship holds betweenIL and S21. [11] S11 = 20log10EidB = 10log10EidB = 10log10PI dB(7)ErErPR 2Therefore, RL dB = -S11 dB and IL dB = -S21 dB2.4 CST Microwave Studio 7S11 = 10log10PPRI dB (8)S21 = 10log10PPTI dB (9)2.4 CST Microwave StudioCST Studio Suite is a simulation platform for electromagnetic (EM) field problems andrelated applications. They currently offer seven modules namely, CST Microwave Studio,CST EM Studio, CST Particle Studio, CST Design Studio, CST PCB Studio, CST CableStudio and CST MPhysics Studio. This thesis uses CST Microwave Studio which isused for EM design, simulation and analysis of high frequency problems. This studiois capable of analysing components such as single and multi-element antennas, filters,waveguides, resonators and many more. This module offers a range of solvers that canbe used depending on the application and hence, this studio can solve basically any highfrequency field problem. In this thesis, the experimental setup is quite simple with basicstructure and time domain solver is sufficient to simulate this structure. Time domainsolver relies on Maxwells equations when simulating the structure and it provides realtime domain simulations which are extremely useful when studying the field propagationthrough a component. [12]8 Chapter 2. BackgroundChapter 3Testing Semiconductor in OpenWaveguideRectangular Waveguide modelled in CST is a replicate of WR90 waveguide available instore. Before directly testing the semiconductor samples, initial testing was performedon just waveguides. This was done to check the effectiveness of microwave propagationwithin the waveguide. Numerous experimental setups and model configurations wereinvestigated to find the best suitable configuration which would deliver the most reliable,accurate and desirable results. Much time was dedicated for these initial stages becauseit is crucial to get them right as the later stages of this thesis are heavily dependent onthese experimental setup.3.1 Waveguide ConfigurationsA number of factors can affect the microwave propagation within the waveguide, howeverthe major factors include the material of the waveguide, length of the waveguide, and thewall thickness of the waveguide.3.1.1 Material and Length of the waveguideWaveguide model specifications• Inner Dimensions: a = 22.86 mm, b = 10.16 mm• Length of the waveguide (z axis): 50 mm, 100 mm and 150 mm• Wall thickness: 0.5 mm• Material of the waveguide: Brass (91%) and Silver.• Material inside the waveguide: Vacuum• Input Power (PI) = 0.5W910 Chapter 3. Testing Semiconductor in Open WaveguideFigure 3.1 displays the models of brass and silver waveguides along with their materialconfigurations. These models are simulated using T solver. T solver provides numerous1D, 2D/3D results, however the results that are of interest for this thesis are the E-fieldand H-field distribution, and S-parameters.(a) Brass Waveguide(b) Silver WaveguideFigure 3.1: Hallow waveguide modelField DistributionsThe E-field and H-field distribution in figure 3.2 are obtained from brass model in figure3.1a. These field distributions indicate that waveguide is in TE10 mode and these resultssupport the concept discussed in background chapter.3.1 Waveguide Configurations 11(a) E-field cross-section 1 (b) H-field cross-section 1(c) E-field cross-section 2 (d) H-field cross-section 2(e) E-field cross-section 3 (f) H-field cross-section 3Figure 3.2: TM10 Field Distribution12 Chapter 3. Testing Semiconductor in Open WaveguideS ParametersS parameters (S11 and S21) values obtained from each waveguide can be used to calculatereflected power and transmitted power. This is achieved by rearranging the equations(8), (9) to obtain equation (10), (11). Table 3.1 and 3.2 are derived by substitutingS-parameters at 9 GHz into equation (10) – (12).PR = 10( S10 11 ) × PI (10)PT = 10( S10 21 ) × PI (11)PL = PI – (PR + PT ) (12)Figure 3.3: S-Parameters graph from 50 mm brass waveguideTable 3.1: Brass Hallow Waveguide Length(mm)S11(dB)S21(dB)PR (W)PT (W)PT %PR %PL50100150-81.609-80.987-81.106-0.007-0.017-0.0333.45E-093.98E-093.87E-090.4990.4980.49699.8399.699.26.9E-077.9E-077.7E-070.00080.00190.0038 Table 3.2: Silver Hallow Waveguide Length(mm)S11(dB)S21(dB)PR (W)PT (W)PT %PR %PL50100150-85.229-84.596-84.706-0.004-0.011-0.0241.49E-091.73E-091.69E-090.4990.4980.49799.8999.799.42.9E-073.4E-073.38E-070.00050.00130.0027 Waveguides are predominately made from brass as it is relatively cheap, but waveguides also come with silver plating which reduces the resistance loss and increases the3.1 Waveguide Configurations 13Figure 3.4: Power Transmission in Brass and Silver waveguide with varying lengthswaveguide efficiency. However, waveguides with silver plating is expensive. The resultsfrom figure 3.4 indicates that silver is slightly better than brass waveguide. The difference between silver and brass power transmission is less than 0.2% and upgrading a brasswaveguide to a silver plated waveguide is not worth it for such small difference.The figure 3.4 also indicates that the percentage of power transmission is reduced asthe length of the waveguide is increased. Since neither brass or silver are perfect metals,instead they are lossy metals and the waveguide is not infinitely long, this results inpower losses and reflection during microwave propagation. At this stage, a 100 mm brasswaveguide will be suitable for this thesis.3.1.2 Waveguide wall thicknessWall thickness of the waveguide depends on the skin depth of the material. The skindepth of brass material at 9 GHz frequency is as followingδS = r!µσ 2 = rπfµ 1 oσ (13)Where:µo = Permeability = 4π × 10-7σ = Conductivity of metal (Brass) = 2:56 × 10714 Chapter 3. Testing Semiconductor in Open Waveguidef = 9 GHzTherefore, from equation (13), δS = 1µmWaveguide model specifications• Inner Dimensions: a = 22.86 mm, b = 10.16 mm• Length of the waveguide (z axis): 150 mm• Wall thickness: 0.5 mm, 1 mm and 1.5 mm• Material of the waveguide: Brass (91%) lossy metal• Material inside the waveguide: Vacuum• Input Power (PI) = 0.5 WTable 3.3: 100mm Brass Hallow Waveguide Wall Thickness(mm)S11(dB)S21(dB)PR (W)PT (W)PT %PR %PL0.511.5-81.106-81.055-81.041-0.033-0.031-0.0323.87E-093.92E-093.93-090.4960.4960.49699.2399.2699.267.75E-077.84E-077.86E-070.00380.00360.0036 Figure 3.5 indicates that PT at 0.5 mm wall thickness is less than PT at 1 mm. Thissuggests that at lower wall thickness, there is still a bit of field leakage from walls of thewaveguide. At 1 mm, PT reaches its peak and at 1.5 mm, the curve dips slightly whichcould be due to resonance. Regardless of these minorities, PT remains at 99 % for wallthickness between 0.5 mm and 1.5 mm. This 1 % of power loss is due to brass not beinga perfect metal and the waveguide walls are not infinitely thick.3.2 Waveguide with quartz 15Figure 3.5: Power Transmission in Brass waveguide with varying wall thickness3.2 Waveguide with quartzQuartz plays an important role throughout this thesis even though it is not an objectof interest. Semiconductor material (object of interest) is deposited on a piece of quartzbefore placing it in the waveguide or cavity. To keep the experiment controlled, quartz istested and analyzed for its microwave absorption before depositing semiconductor materials on it. This helps in differentiating the amount of microwaves absorbed by the quartzand by the semiconductor material at the final stage. Figure 3.6 shows 100 mm brasswaveguide model with quartz at 50 mm (i.e. half way through the waveguide).Power absorption can be found by subtracting the power loss of hallow waveguide PL(hallow) from power loss of waveguide with quartz PL (quartz) and this can be seenin equation (13)PA = PL(quartz) – PL(hallow) (14)Waveguide model specifications• Inner Dimensions: a = 22.86 mm, b = 10.16 mm• Length of the waveguide (z axis): 100 mm16 Chapter 3. Testing Semiconductor in Open Waveguide• Wall thickness: 0.5 mm• Material of the waveguide: Brass (91%) lossy metal• Material inside the waveguide: Vacuum• Input Power (PI) = 0.5 WQuartz specifications• Inner Dimensions: a = 22.86 mm, b = 10.16 mm• Quartz thickness: 1 mm• Quartz placement (on z axis): 50 mm• Material: Quartz (lossy)Figure 3.6: Brass waveguide with quartz placed at 50 mm on z axisField DistributionsFigure 3.7 shows the field distributions for waveguide model with and without quartz. Inthese models, the quartz is placed in the middle of the waveguide and the effect quartzhas on field distribution is clearly visible and highlighted in figures 3.7 a and b. Notice,E-field and H-field are higher for quartz on input side (Port 1) as supposed to hallowwaveguides. This is due to the reflected waves being in phase with the incident waveswhich causes the resulting fields to be amplified near port 1.3.2 Waveguide with quartz 17(a) E-field with quartz (b) H-field with quartz(c) E-field without quartz (d) H-field without quartzFigure 3.7: Effect of Quartz on Field Distribution18 Chapter 3. Testing Semiconductor in Open WaveguideS ParametersUntil now, there was only one material inside the hallow waveguide, which was vacuum.But now, microwaves have to travel through vacuum as well as quartz which are two verydifferent medium and have different refractive index. The change in medium causes themicrowaves to be reflected, absorbed and transmitted. The amount of power transmitted,reflected and absorbed can be seen in figures 3.8 to 3.10.The presence of quartz has a great impact on power transmission and reflection asshown in figure 3.8 and 3.9. Quartz increases the power reflection by 12% as comparedto power reflection in hallow waveguide. Figure 3.10 indicates that absorption in quartzis extremely low, and power loss is the major contributor to the difference between powertransmission and power reflection.Table 3.4: Brass Waveguide with Quartz Length(mm)S11(dB)S21(dB)PR (W)PT (W)PL (W)PA (W)50100150-9.1623-9.1488-9.1563-0.57-0.58-0.600.06060.06080.06070.4380.4360.4350.0010.0020.0040.0001790.0001780.000331 Figure 3.8: Power Transmission in Brass waveguide with and without quartz3.2 Waveguide with quartz 19Figure 3.9: Power Reflection in Brass waveguide with and without quartzFigure 3.10: Power Absorption in Brass waveguide with and without quartz3.2.1 Quartz placementPosition of quartz within the waveguide is one of the factors that needs to be investigated.Power transmission, absorption and reflection was investigated by varying the quartzposition within the waveguide as shown in table 3.5.Figure 3.11 to 3.13 indicate that position of the quartz in an open waveguide doesnot have a massive impact on power transmission or reflection as they are approximately87.4% and 12.1% respectively. However, power absorption is high when quartz is placedcloser to port 2 rather than port 1. Since power absorption is found from power loss (referto equation (14)) and port 1 is the input port, there is more power reflection rather thanpower loss. However, as microwaves travel through waveguide towards port 2, there willbe some losses along the way. The angle at the which microwaves hit the quartz alsoplays an important role in determining the amount of power reflected and absorbed bythe quartz. Notice how power absorption is negative for quartz positioned at 25 mm, this20 Chapter 3. Testing Semiconductor in Open Waveguideis because, power loss in this model is lower than the power loss in the hallow waveguide.Table 3.5: 100 mm Brass Waveguide with varying quartz position Position(mm)S11(dB)S21(dB)PR (W)PT (W)PL (W)PA (W)255075-9.145-9.148-9.172-0.583-0.584-0.5830.06080.06080.06040.4370.4360.4370.00200.00210.0024-0.00014.2E-100.00023 Figure 3.11: Power Transmission with different quartz position3.2 Waveguide with quartz 21Figure 3.12: Power Reflection with different quartz positionFigure 3.13: Power Absorption with different quartz position22 Chapter 3. Testing Semiconductor in Open Waveguide3.3 Waveguide with test sampleThis section will include test samples with different electrical properties deposited on topof quartz and then these test sample will be analysed for their PT, PR and PA. The resultsobtained in pervious sections will be used to design next stage of this thesis.Chapter 4Testing Semiconductor in CavityResonator2324 Chapter 4. Testing Semiconductor in Cavity ResonatorChapter 5Conclusions and Future WorkNo conclusion can be drawn at this stage apart from the fact that the next followingexperimental procedures will be carried out using 100 mm brass waveguide with a 1 mmthick quartz.25 Chapter 6Abbreviations TRMCFP-TRMCCSTTime Resolved Microwave ConductivityFlash Photolysis Time Resolved Microwave ConductivityComputer simulation technologyTETransverse Electric modeTMTransverse Magnetic modeEM wavesE-fieldH-fieldRLElectromagnetic wavesElectric fieldMagnetic fieldReturn lossILInsertion lossPIInput PowerPRReflected PowerPTTransmitted PowerPAAbsorbed Power 2728 Chapter 6. AbbreviationsAppendix AConsultation form and Project PlanA.1 Consultation Meetings Attendance Form2930 Chapter A. Consultation form and Project PlanFigure A.1: Consultation FormA.2 Thesis Timeline 31A.2 Thesis Timeline32 Chapter A. Consultation form and Project PlanFigure A.2: Gantt ChartBibliography[1] O. Ostroverkhova, Handbook of Organic Materials for Optical and (Opto)ElectronicDevices, 1st ed. Woodhead Publishing, 2013. [2] R. Paschotta. Pump-probe measurements. [Online]. Available:rp-photonics.com/pump probe measurements.htmlhttps://www. [3] NREL. Probing solar photo conversion using flashphotolysis timeresolved microwaveconductivity. [Online]. Available: https://energysciences.nrel.gov/sites/default/files/embedded/files/fp trmc training 1.pdf[4] J. E. Kroeze, Photoinduced Charge Separation In Dye-Sensitized Films Of Smoothand Nanocrystalline Tio2. The Netherlands: DUP Science, 2004.[5] N. R. Council, Microwave Processing of Materials. Washington, DC: The NationalAcademies Press, 1994.[6] J. J. Carr, Practical Antenna Handbook, 4th ed. McGraw-Hill, 2001.[7] R. WIreless. Vector network analyzer tutorial | vna tu torial.[Online].Available:http://www.rfwireless-world.com/Tutorials/Vector-Network-Analyzer-VNA-tutorial.html[8] Y. Fujishiro. Taking advantage of s-parameter. [Online]. Available://product.tdk.com/en/products/emc/guidebook/eemc basic 03.pdfhttps: [9] D. M. Pozar, Microwave Engineering, 3rd ed. John Wiley, 2005.[10] T. Bird, Definition and Misuse of Return Loss, journal =.”[11] M. Hyde. What is the difference between returnloss(db) and s11(db).[Online]. Available: https://www.researchgate.net/post/What is the differencebetween ReturnlossdB and S11dB[12] C. Studio. Cst micorwave studio | transient solver. [Online]. Available:https://www.cst.com/products/cstmws/solvers/transientsolver33

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