APA 7 Torrens University Referencing | My Assignment Tutor

APA 7 Torrens University Referencing Guide 122020 – 1Torrens UniversityAPA 7th edition Referencing GuideTable of ContentsOverview………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………2APA 6 to APA 7: Key Changes……………………………………………………………………………………………………………..21.0 General principles ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….31.1 In-text referencing ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………41.1.1 Direct quotation………………………………………………………………………………………………………………41.1.2 Paraphrasing …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..51.2 Reference list ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..61.3 What if……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….71.3.1 Referencing common knowledge ………………………………………………………………………………………71.3.2 Referencing tables and figures ………………………………………………………………………………………….7What if ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………82.0 Referencing various sources ……………………………………………………………………………………….. 12Books / eBooks ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..12Journal articles………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………15Web pages ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………16Reports & standards ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………18Social media………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….19Personal communications ………………………………………………………………………………………………………21Lecture notes & class handouts……………………………………………………………………………………………….22Multi media ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….23Figures (incl. images) ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………..26Tables…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..31Dictionaries (print & online) ……………………………………………………………………………………………………33Magazines (print & online) ……………………………………………………………………………………………………..34Pamphlet/brochure (print & online)…………………………………………………………………………………………34Newspapers (print & online) …………………………………………………………………………………………………..35Theses (print & online) …………………………………………………………………………………………………………..36Conference papers…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………37Legislation & cases…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………37References ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 39Appendix A. Referencing when information is missing………………………………………………………. 40Appendix B. Common abbreviations in references…………………………………………………………….. 41APA 7 Torrens University Referencing Guide 122020 – 2OverviewIn this Referencing guide, you will find the following:• APA 6 to APA 7 – key changes• Section 1.0: background information on how the APA 7 referencing system works• Section 2.0: examples of a wide range of print, electronic and media sources, referencedusing APA 7 formattingAPA 6 to APA 7: Key ChangesTable 1Overview of main changes between APA 6 and APA 7 Updated itemAPA 6APA 7 formattingIn-textFormatting oftables andfiguresLabel for tables isabove, label forfigures is belowLabel for figures and tables is above.Use of et al.3-5 authors: write allnames for firstcitation, use et al. forsubsequent citations3 or more authors: use et al. for all citationsReference listE-booksThe indication [ebook] is includedWhen the e-book is a PDF of the print version, theformat [e-book] is no longer required.Place ofpublication forbooksThe place ofpublication is includedfor all booksThe place of publication is no longer required forbooks.Multipleauthors inreference listFirst 6 authors writtendown followed by . . .and last author’snameFirst 19 authors followed by . . . and last author’snameRetrieved from. . .The phrase ‘Retrievedfrom’ is used tointroduce url of onlinematerialsThe words ‘Retrieved from’ are no longer required APA 7 Torrens University Referencing Guide 122020 – 3 DOIsThe label ‘doi’ isrequired.doi:DOIs must be included if available, whetherusing a printed (online) version or an online versionAll DOIs must start with https://doi/org/ …If no DOI, use the URL (web address)Conferencepaper or posterpresentationsSome flexibility withregards to includingstate and/or countryInclude year, month and dates of conferenceUse [Paper presentation] or [Poster presentation]For conference location: Include city, state (ifapplicable) and countryHostingwebsites ororganisationsNot compulsoryInclude the name of the website or organisation thathosts a source, e.g.:Lawson, J. F. (2019). The impacts of plastic onIndonesian migratory birds. Department ofConservation.https://www.doc.govt.nz/reports/birds/indonesiaplastic/Hanging indentNo direction on indentspacing7 spaces (automatic default in Microsoft Word). 1.0 General principlesReferencing acknowledges the thoughts and ideas expressed by other people within your paper. Tomeet recognised academic integrity standards, all academic work must be referenced correctly toidentify the source. Torrens University requires that staff and students comply with the APA 7referencing style as covered in this guide (unless otherwise specified).Referencing is used to:• indicate to the reader the sources of your information and background ideas• show that your arguments are properly supported• avoid plagiarism.All referencing systems require both:• in-text referencing/citations; and• a list of references at the end of your work.APA 7th is an author-date system, which means that as a general rule, the citations consist of theauthor’s surname and year of publication.Example:In-text citation:Authors must provide clear definitions of any terms used in academic writing (Godfrey, 2013, p. 6).Reference list:Godfrey, J. (2013). The student phrase book. Palgrave Macmillan.APA 7 Torrens University Referencing Guide 122020 – 41.1 In-text referencingIn the text of an academic paper, in-text citations acknowledge the sources of information referred toand also direct the reader to the reference list, which provides the details necessary to locate thesources if the reader wishes to verify what has been written or read the text more fully.Note: In-text citations are included in the word count as these are part of the body of the text.There are two main ways to incorporate other people’s ideas into your work: direct quotations andparaphrasing.• Direct quotation is the exact use of an author’s own words. Short quotations mustbe placed in quotation marks, and long quotations shown as specified in the ‘Longquotations’ section. Page numbers must be provided.• Paraphrasing is the rephrasing of an author’s ideas using your own words andsentence structures without changing the original meaning, with a citationidentifying the original source. Page numbers (where possible) are recommended.Generally, it is better to paraphrase than quote as paraphrasing demonstrates your understanding ofthe content. Choose to quote when a paraphrase will reduce the impact of the information or whenthe original wording is very well-known.1.1.1 Direct quotationA direct quotation is the exact use of an author’s words in both oral and written sources. However,some adjustments can be made:• The first letter of the first word can be changed to upper-case or lower-case tobetter fit the sentence structure. Ellipsis (. . .) can be used to show where part ofthe original quote has been omitted, to include only the information relevant to thepoint you are making.• Square brackets [ ] can be used to show where text has been inserted to make thequote flow grammatically (See the first example under Long quotations)Short quotationsA short quotation is incorporated into a sentence without disrupting the flow of the text, and quotationmarks are used. It includes the author’s surname, the year of publication and the page number(s), asdemonstrated in the following examples.Source as part of the sentenceAs Godfrey (2018, p. 52) advised, “the appropriate number of quotations to use will vary according tothe subject and type of assignment”.ORSource at the end of the sentenceAPA 7 Torrens University Referencing Guide 122020 – 5“The appropriate number of quotations to use will vary according to the subject and type ofassignment” (Godfrey, 2018, p. 52).Long quotationsLong quotations (of 40 words or more) have distinct formatting:• The quote is set out as a separate block quotation, using a separate indentedparagraph, without quotation marks• Single spacing is used• All quotations must be grammatically correct and linked to the words that precedethem.Citation as part of the sentenceBrick et al. (2017) explained that most lecturers expect their students to extend their learning beyondthe theories and concepts outlined in class, and that students will:develop their own research and analytical skills, . . . learn to use the many sources of knowledge thatcontribute to academic life, including books, journals and databases . . . and use the library and otherresources to deepen their understanding. [In so doing, students will] develop skills in identifyingrelevant information and evaluating its relevance in relation to specific problems. (p. 60)Note: The page number is placed at the end of the quoteORCitation at the end of the sentenceFirst, the formation of the joint teamwork is of ultimate importance to the relationships betweenhotels, restaurants, and their suppliers. These hospitality firms should focus on the selection ofappropriate staff to serve as the joint team members, empower the team members with decisionmaking responsibility, and motivate them to work effectively on behalf of bilaterally organisationalinterests. (Shi & Liao, 2013, p. 119)Note: The punctuation is placed before the citation information1.1.2 ParaphrasingParaphrasing refers to using an author’s ideas but expressing those ideas in your own words. Theauthor and year of publication must be provided to acknowledge any information you include whichhas come from another source. APA 7 strongly recommends the provision of page numbers. Theabbreviation p. is used for a single page, and pp. is used for multiple page numbers.There are several ways of integrating evidence in your writing. Following are two examples (adaptedfrom Morley-Warner, 2009, p. 91):Source as part of the sentenceBloggs (2007, p.87) suggested that students’ writing is clearer if the purpose of anassignment is understood. Smith and Jones (2008, p. 76) have also emphasised theconnection between ‘metacognition and clarity of argument’.APA 7 Torrens University Referencing Guide 122020 – 6Source at the end of a sentenceUnderstanding the purpose of an assignment and an awareness of structure may result inclearer, more logical communication (Bloggs, 2007, p. 87; Smith & Jones, 2008, p. 76).Note: The full stop comes after the brackets at the end of a short quote or a paraphrase butbefore the brackets in long quotes.Important noteAPA 7 edition uses simple past tense or past perfect tense when discussing a researcher’s work.Simple past tense refers to something that occurred in the past. Past perfect tense is used to make itclear that one event happened before something else in the past. For example:In her recent research, Barwyn (2020, p. 47) found (simple past tense) that X was a significant factorin . . . , contradicting previous studies by Simpson (2006) and Collier (2004) which had found (pastperfect tense) that X was not a contributing factor.1.2 Reference listAn important purpose of the reference list is to enable readers to locate sources. Therefore, detailsmust be consistent, correct and complete. Every in-text entry requires a related reference list entrywith the exception of personal communication (works that cannot be recovered by readers, such asemails, telephone conversations, live speeches, unrecorded classroom lectures) and some classicalworks.A work is listed only once in the reference list, regardless of how many times it is cited in text.Equally, every reference list entry requires at least one related in-text reference. Works not cited inthe text should not appear in the reference list.The four main elements of a reference list entry are: author; date of publication; title; publication data. Reference list entries should:• start on a separate page with the title References, at the top, centred and in bold• be listed alphabetically• use a hanging indent format, meaning that the first line of each reference lines up with theleft margin, while the second and subsequent lines are indented (1.27cm)• be double spaced (without an extra space between each entry). Any image that is not your own work needs to be included in your reference list.Retrieval dates are not required except for online information that is designed to change over timeand is not archived.APA 7 Torrens University Referencing Guide 122020 – 71.3 What if1.3.1 Referencing common knowledgeCertain terms and expressions which are considered ‘common knowledge’ within an academic fieldand which are used regularly do not require referencing. It may take a short while in your field to besure what is considered ‘common knowledge’. If in doubt, include a reference to the source.For example, it is common knowledge that chefs need to comply with national food regulations, sothis statement does not need to be referenced unless it is part of a broader argument made by anauthor. Consider the sentence below.The term ‘cross contamination’ is well known in the industry.The term ‘cross-contamination’ would not require referencing as it is well known in hospitality.Highlight the use of the generic expression by using single quotation marks (the first time you use itbut thereafter no quotation marks), rather than double quotation marks, which are used only for adirect quote.1.3.2 Referencing tables and figuresEvery table and figure included in your assignment needs a caption (title or brief explanation). If thetable or figure is not your own work, it also requires an in-text citation. Figures include photographs,artwork, maps, graphs, drawings, plots, and charts.The caption for a table or figure should include:• The word Table or Figure and a number (from 1, in numerical order), both in boldfont.• A title or brief description of the table or figure in italics. Include an in-text citationwith author, date and page number if required.• If any further information is needed to clarify contents in the image, add the wordNote. In the case of papers for publications, the copyright permission that has beengranted is added here. The word Note should be added in italics, followed by a fullstop.You must refer to the table or figure within the text, e.g. “As seen in Figure 1 . . .” and include acomplete reference list entry.Note that images from the Internet must be referenced. This includes photos, graphic artwork,diagrams, and charts. All Creative Commons licences contain the Attribution element. This meansthat you must acknowledge the creator of the work, a requirement under Australian copyright law. Ifyou use stock images, whether royalty-free or purchased, they should be attributed in accordancewith the licence agreement or terms and conditions of the source website. For more informationplease refer to the Copyright Compliance and Intellectual Property Policy here:https://www.torrens.edu.au/policies-and-forms1.3.3 How do I reference when…APA 7 Torrens University Referencing Guide 122020 – 8What if What ifIn-text exampleReference list exampleNo author Sponsoringorganisationas author(e.g.corporations,associations,governmentagencies)The names of groups areusually spelled out eachtime they appear in atext citation. If the nameis long, you mayabbreviate the secondand subsequentcitations.First citation:The World HealthOrganisation (WHO,2005) stated . . .or. . . in the world (WorldHealth Organisation[WHO], 2005).Subsequent citations:According to the WHO(2005), . . .or. . . in Asia (WHO, 2005).World Health Organization. (2005). Hospital care forchildren: Guidelines for the management ofcommon illnesses with limited resources.Author.Provide the full name of the organisation in thereference list.If the author and publisher are the same, ‘Author’can be used in place of the publisher.No author no sponsoringorganisationUse the first few wordsof the title (or the entiretitle if it is short) in placeof an author name. Donot use anonymous. NB:the title is italicised intext.“Echinacea consists ofthe dried undergroundparts of . . .” (Britishherbal pharmacopoeia:Part 1, 1976, p. 73).orIn the British herbalpharmacopoeia: Part 1(1976, p. 73) it wasclaimed that . . .British herbal pharmacopoeia: Part 1. (1976). BritishHerbal Medicine Association.The title is moved to the author position (firstelement of the reference). Only capitalisethe first word of the title and subtitle, ifany, and proper nouns.No dateVan Doorn (n.d., p. 200)described Weesp as acity. . .If no date is available, write n.d. (for ‘no date’) inthe parenthesesVan Doorn, H. H. (n.d.). Over the Vecht. Schiedam,The Netherlands: Scriptum Publishers.Two authorsUse an ampersand (&)within the parenthesesor ‘and’ when giving theauthors’ names in thetext.Crosby, R., & Salazar, L. (2006). Research methodsin health promotion. Jossey-Bass.Put a comma before the ampersand in thereference list entry. APA 7 Torrens University Referencing Guide 122020 – 9 Crosby and Salazar (2006,p. 40) suggested . . .or. . . (Crosby & Salazar,2006, Chapter 3).Three to twentyauthorsFor all citations: use thefirst author’s name andet al. (meaning ‘andothers’).Reinders et al. (2008, p.175) stated . . .A recent publication(Reinders et al., 2008, p.175) claimed . . .Reinders, H., Moore, N., & Lewis, M. (2008). Theinternational student handbook. PalgraveMacMillan.All authors’ names are to be provided in the orderin which they appear in the publication. Do notrearrange them alphabetically.Put a comma and an ampersand before the finalauthorMore than twentyauthorsUse the first author’sname, followed by et al.Leggat et al. (2009, p. 35)proposed . . .List the first 19 authors in full, then use ellipsis (. . .), then list the last author’s nameLeggat, I. K., Hutchings, D., Poliness, S., Nemeth, T.,West, A., Ngo, A., . . . Mascilongo, J. (2009). How tomaximise the use of libraries in educationalinstitutions. Victoria University Press.Secondary reference(work cited in anothersource)Therapeutic massage is . .. (Anderson & Ramsdale,2016, as cited in Burton,2018, p. 77).Write the name of theoriginal author(s) anddate, ‘as cited in’ and thename of the author ofthe source your read, thedate and page number.Burton, M. (2018). Therapeutic massage techniques.Penguin Books.Provide the details of the reference from whereyou sourced the information.Multiple works(different authors) inthe same citationOrder the citationsalphabetically by theauthor’s surname.Separate the citationswith semi-colons.Research shows that byevaluating data and thenimproving some aspect ofknowledge or practice . . .(Merriam-Webster, 2020,p. 426; Zickmund, 2000,p. 81)All authors’ name and full reference details need tobe provided individually in alphabetical order inthe reference list.Multiple works by thesame author and dateTo distinguish betweenthe different works, adda lower case letter to theyear, beginning with a,then b, then c and so on.NB. The suffixes areassigned in the referencelist.In her first study Gorman,(2018a, p. 74) found thisGorman, K. (2018a). Health science research.Elsevier.Gorman, K. (2018b). Qualitative research in thehealth sciences. Mosby Elsevier.Order alphabetically by title, and then assignsuffixes a, b, c etc. APA 7 Torrens University Referencing Guide 122020 – 10 to be true. However, hersubsequent study(Gorman, 2018b, p. 23)contradicted . . .If no date, use a dashbefore the letter, e.g.n.d.-aMultiple works by thesame author withdifferent yearsGive the name of theauthor(s) followed bythe years of their studiesin chronological order,separated by commas.Studies on design (Patel,2017, p. 78, 2020, p. 90)have shown . . .Patel, P. (2017). Design and you. Coates PublishersPatel, P. (2020). Practical design. Coates Publishers.Order chronologically in the reference list.Multiple works withsame first author butdifferent second orthird authorsFirst and subsequent intext citations:(Marewski, Gaissmaier, &Gigerenzer, 2010, p. 107)(Marewski, Gaissmaier, &Schooler, et al., 2010, p.301)Normally we wouldabbreviate these twostudies to the first nameand ‘et al.’. However,this would result in twoidentical citations –(Marewski et al., 2010),sowrite out as many namesas necessary todistinguish between thetwo.Arranged alphabetically by the surname of thesecond author or, if the second author is also thesame, the surname of the third author, and so on:Marewski, J. M., Gaissmaier, W., & Gigerenzer, G.(2010). Good judgements do not requirecomplex cognition. Cognitive Processing, 11,103-121. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10339-009-0337-0Marewski, J. M., Gaissmaier, W., Schooler, L. J.,Goldstein, D. G., & Gigerenzer, G. (2010).From recognition to decisions: Extending andtesting recognition-based models for multialternative inference. Psychonomic Bulletin &Review, 17, 287-309.https://doi.org/10.3758/PBR.17.3.287Multiple works withdifferent authors butthe same surnameInclude the first initial inall in-text citations (evenif the year of publicationis different) to avoidconfusion.. . . (I. Light, 2019, p. 34).ORA study by I. Light (2019,p. 34), . . .If the authors share thesame surname andinitial, provide the givenname e.g.. . . (Paul Smith, 2020;Peter Smith, 2019).Arrange works alphabetically by first initial.Light, I. (2019). Illegal immigration: Managingnetworks and economic factors. Russell SageFoundation.Light, M. A., & Light, I. (2018). Social and economicfactors of increasing migration in South-EastAsia. Journal of Migration Studies, 14, 73-82.If the authors share the same surname and initial,provide the given name in square brackets e.g.Smith, P. [Paul]. (2020). Dining out in the FestivalCity. Bell Printing House. APA 7 Torrens University Referencing Guide 122020 – 11 Author: single name(no initials)Sushil (2018, p. 188)confirmed that . . .Sushil. (2018). Managing lifetime wastivity. GlobalJournal of Flexible Systems Management, 19(3),187-189. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40171-018-0194-8Translated worksCite in the languagethat you are reading itin.Tzu (2003, p. 61) claimedthat . . .Tzu, L. (2003). Tao The Ching (J. Wu, Trans.).Shambhala. (Original work published 2000).Mention the translator after the title, along withthe abbreviation ‘Trans.’ and include the date itwas originally published.Foreign works in LatinscriptsCheck with your lecturerif you can use foreignworks first.. . . (Janzen & Hawlik,2005).Follow the basic APA rules for a book, journal etc.Include an English translation of the title only insquare brackets.Janzen, G., & Hawlik, M. (2005). Orientierung imRaum: Befunde zu Entscheidungspunkten[Orientation in space: Findings about decisionpoints]. Zeitschrift für Psychologie, 213(4), 179–186. https://doi.org/10.1026/0044-3409.213.4.179Foreign works in anon-Latin script (e.g.Chinese, Japanese,Russian, etc.)Check with your lecturerif you can use foreignworks first.. . . (Motoki & Kurosawa,1954).. . . (Najm, 1966).Names should be transliterated (converted) to aLatin script. Titles should be transliterated andtranslated to English.Motoki, S. (Producer), & Kurosawa, A. (Director).(1954). Shichinin no samurai [Seven samurai;motion picture]. Japan: Toho.Najm, Y. (1966). Al-qissah fi al-adab Al-Arabi alhadith [The novel in modern Arabic literature].Dar Al-Thaqafah.Reprinted bookCite both the originalpublication year andrecent publication year.. . . (Smith, 1793/1976).Smith, A. (1976). An inquiry into the nature andcauses of the wealth of nations. ChicagoUniversity Press. (Original work published 1793) APA 7 Torrens University Referencing Guide 122020 – 122.0 Referencing various sourcesYou can use Section 2.0 to create your own reference as follows:1. Identify the type of source you need to reference (e.g. a journal article, a website, an image or other)2. Use the index to locate the correct page3. Use the example given as a model to create your own in-text and reference list citations4. Pay careful attention to the spacing, capitalisation, use of italics and other formatting, as well as to providing all the required informationFor further examples, see the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 7th edition (2020) or visit https://apastyle.apa.org/instructionalaids/reference-examples.pdfBooks / eBooks Books / ebooksIn-text exampleReference list exampleBookAuthors must provide clear definitions of any terms used inacademic writing (Godfrey, 2013, p. 6).OrGodfrey (2013, p. 6) emphasised the importance of . . .Godfrey, J. (2013). The student phrase book. Palgrave Macmillan.Only capitalise the first word of the title and subtitle (if any) and propernouns.Editions (second andsubsequent)Debate and discussion are . . . (Brick et al., 2017, p. 111.)Brick, J., Herke, M., & Wong, D. (2017). Academic culture: A student’sguide to studying at university (3rd ed.). Palgrave Macmillan.(ed.) is used to denote edition. Note that the edition number is not APA 7 Torrens University Referencing Guide 122020 – 13 *an edition number is notnecessary for first editionsitalicised as it is not part of the title.Chapter in an edited bookInclude authors in the order they appear in the chapter.Anti-inflammatory plant constituents have shown . . . (Polya etal., 2002, pp. 1-5).Italicise the title of the book (not the title of the chapter).Polya, G. M., Polya, Z., & Kweifio-Okai, G. (2002). Biochemicalpharmacology of anti-inflammatory plant secondary metabolites.In D. K. Majumdar, J. N. Govil, & V. K. Singh, (Eds.), Series recentprogressing medicinal plants, Vol 8 – Phytochemistry &pharmacology II (pp. 1-22). Stadium.NB: the authors of the chapter are written as ‘Author, A. A’. The editorsare written ‘A. A. Author’.If the book is not the first edition, mention the edition number asfollows:Palmer, F. (2007). Treaty principles and Maori sport: Contemporaryissues. In C. Collins & S. Jackson (Eds.), Sport in Aotearoa/NewZealand society (2nd ed., pp. 307-334). Thomson.Editor (single). . . (Porter, 1986, p. 99).Porter, J. F. (Ed.). (1986). The control of human fertility (2nd ed.). BlackwellScientific.Ed. is used to denote editor, ed. is used for edition.Editors (two). . . (Cauchi & Young, 2018, p. 44).Cauchi, N., Young, Y. L. (Eds.). (2018). The clinical pathology of the frontallobe. Edward Publishing.Eds. is used to denote editors, and here the reference is to the wholebook, not a particular chapter. APA 7 Torrens University Referencing Guide 122020 – 14 Editors (three or more)If there are more than three editors you only need to put thefirst editor’s name followed by et al. which means and others.Skeletal muscle is defined as . . . (Sambrook et al., 2010, p. 19).Sambrook, P., Schrieber, L., Taylor, T., & Ellis, A. (Eds.). (2010). Themusculoskeletal system (2nd ed.). Churchill Livingstone.Eds. is used to denote editors. The above refers to the whole book.All editors’ names are to be provided in the citation in the order theyappear in the publication.e-book (without DOI). . . (Smith & Morton, 2020, p. 85).Smith, M., & Morton, D. (2020). The digestive system (2nd ed.) ChurchillLivingstone. https://www.elsevier.com/books/the-digestivesystem/smith/978-0-7020-3367-4Add the URL when the DOI is not available.e-book (with DOI). . . (Shipster & Reindersma, 2020, p. 26).Shipster, W., & Reindersma, T. (2020). Agility in academia: The newnormal? https://doi.org/ 10.1042/10452-000e-book (no pagenumbers)For short documents, count the paragraph number from thestart of the document. . . (Smith, 2020, para. 3).For longer documents, use the heading plus a paragraphnumber within that section. . . (Jones, 2019, Discussion section, para. 3).For long headings, use a short title enclosed in quotation marks. . . (Wentworth, 2019, “Mandatory police checks”, para. 3).With DOI:Shipster, W., & Reindersma, T. (2020). Agility in academia: The newnormal? https://doi.org/ 10.1042/10452-000Without DOI:Smith, M., & Morton, D. (2020). The digestive system (2nd ed.) ChurchillLivingstone. https://www.elsevier.com/books/the-digestivesystem/smith/978-0-7020-3367-4 APA 7 Torrens University Referencing Guide 122020 – 15 e-book for specificelectronic deviceShort (2020, p. 43) claimed . . .Short, M. A. (2020). Addiction in Australia: A study of multiple dependency[DX Reader version].http://www.ebookstore.tandf.co.au/html/index.asp Journal articles Journal articlesIn-text exampleReference list exampleJournal article – print (=hard-copy)(with author)There are a number of practitioners who . . .(Wilkinson, 2018, p. 36).The growth of genetics in the future . . .(“Transplantation into the next century”, 1999, p.1004).Shorten the title and enclose in quotation marks.Wilkinson, J. (2018). The internet as a research and information tool for health.Canadian Journal of Physiology, 6(2), 34-45.You only give a volume number and issue number if there is one (some journals willonly have a volume number, some may have an issue number only and some mayhave the season recorded, or they may be in combination).All volume and or issue details are to be provided in the reference list as they appearin the publication.NOTE: Journal article titles are in sentence case. The name of the journal is capitalisedand italicised. Journal article – print(no author)Transplantation into the next century: Genetic engineering and xenotransplantation.(1999). Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology, 26(12), 53-64.Volume(italics) APA 7 Torrens University Referencing Guide 122020 – 16 Online journal – Full textwith a Digital ObjectIdentifier (DOI)Online journal – Full textwithout a DOI (when DOI isnot available). . . (O’Neill & Russell, 2019, p. 45)O’Neill, R., & Russell, A. (2019). Stop! Grammar time: University students’ perceptions ofthe automated feedback program Grammarly. Australasian Journal ofEducational Technology, 35(1), 42–56. https://doi.org/10.14742/ajet.3795Note: the DOI must be preceded by https:// and is written in lower case This responsibility is heightened when . . . (Marsh& Campion, 2018, p. 215).Marsh, J. D. & Campion, J. (2018). Academic integrity and referencing: Whoseresponsibility is it? Journal of Academic Language and Learning, 12(1), 212-217.http://journal.aall.org.au/index.php/jall/article/view/546/299Add the URL when the DOI is not available. Web pages Web pagesIn-text exampleReference list exampleWeb page – with authorNote: example is a pdfAs Fitch (2005) claimed . . .Fitch, P. (2005). Recovering body and soul from post-traumatic stress disorder. https://pamelafitchrmt.com/docs/soul.pdfWeb page(corporate/governmentauthor or sponsoringbody). . . (Australian Bureauof Statistics [ABS], 2018).Australian Bureau of Statistics. (2018). 33401.0 – Overseas arrivals and departures, Australia, Mar 2019.http://www.abs.gov.au/Ausstats/[email protected]/0/C5717BACF2EA231ACA25751A0019DBB7?OpenDocumentWeb page (no date)According to the AustralianInstitute of Sport (n.d.) . . .Australian Institute of Sport. (n.d.). Australian Sports Commission. www.ausport.gov.au/ais/ APA 7 Torrens University Referencing Guide 122020 – 17 n.d. is used if no date is available.Web page in general(not used as evidencefor an argument)YouTube (www.youtube.com)is one of the most popularwebsites in the world.If referring to a website in general (rather than specific information), give only the URL in the text the firsttime you mention it. You do not need to include an entry in the reference list.Blog PostParaphrase: The issue ofsustainability in architecture . .. (katzsj, 2009).Use the screen name for theauthor of a post if the authorhas adopted one. Direct quotein text e.g.:“The vast majority of us haveperfectly robust immunesystems . . . ” (Newsome,2011).katzsj (2009, February 11). Water bottles as a design tool [Blog post].http://katzsj.wordpress.com/2009/02/11/waterbottles-as-a-design-tool/Some bloggers have chosen to use a blog name using lower case.Newsome, B. (2011, March 10). Immune to science [Blog post].http://www.theage.com.au/opinion/blogs/scepticscience/immune-to-science-20110309-1bn9m.htmThe name of the blog itself is not part of the reference, although you can often see it in the URL. The title ofthe post is not italicised.Blog comment. . . (glamazon, 2015).glamazon. (2015, October 23). Re: Cambodia – The tourist [Web log comment].http://www.bigwordsblog.com/cambodia-the-tourist/#li-comment-52388For a response to a post, use “Re:” followed by the title of the blog post. Also use the label [Blog comment].Use the URL of the comment itself. To find this, click on the date stamp. APA 7 Torrens University Referencing Guide 122020 – 18Reports & standards Reports &standardsIn-text exampleReference list exampleAnnual report – print. . . (World Vision Australia, 2020).World Vision Australia. (2020). Annual report 2019. Burwood East, NSW, Australia.If the author and publisher are the same, omit the publisher information to avoidrepetition.Annual report – online. . . (World Vision Australia, 2019).World Vision Australia. (2019). Leading with impact: Annual report 2019.https://www.worldvision.com.au/docs/default-source/annual-reports/wvannual-reports/annual-report-2019.pdf?sfvrsn=852ba03c_2Government report –print. . . (Australian Government Department ofEducation and Training, 2014).Australian Government Department of Education and Training. (2014). Highereducation report 2011-2013. Canberra, ACT, Australia.If the author and publisher are the same, omit the publisher information to avoidrepetition.Government report –online. . . (Australian Institute of Health and Welfare,2020).Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. (2020). Australia’s health 2020.https://www.aihw.gov.au/reports-data/australias-healthStandard – print. . . (Standards Australia, 1994).Standards Australia. (1994). Information processing systems – Telecommunications andinformation exchange between systems – End system to intermediate systemrouting exchange protocol for use in conjunction with the protocol for providingthe connectionless-mode network service (AS/NZS 3651:1994). Homebush, NSW, APA 7 Torrens University Referencing Guide 122020 – 19 Australia: Author.If the author and publisher are the same, ‘Author’ can be used in place of thepublisher.If a number is assigned to the publication, write that number in parenthesesimmediately after the title.Standard – online. . . (Standards Australia, 2020).Standards Australia. (2020). Safe use of medical electrical equipment in healthcare (AS/NZS 2500:2020). https://www.standards.org.au/standardscatalogue/sa-snz/health/he-003/as-slash-nzs–2500-colon-2020 Social media Social mediaIn-text exampleReference list exampleFacebook status –individual authorObama has confirmed that addressing climatechange is a priority . . . (2016).Obama, B.. (2016, August 13). The Clean Power Plan is a significant step in combatingclimate change – and we need to keep moving forward [Status update].Facebook. https://www.facebook.com/barackobama/photos/a.53081056748.66806.6815841748/10154073260291749/?type=3&theatreFacebook status – groupauthorPolio has recently resurfaced in Nigeria (WorldHealth Organization, 2016). . .World Health Organization. (2016, August 12). We are deeply saddened by the newsthat 2 Nigerian children have been paralysed by polio. The Government of Nigeriahas made significant strides to stop this paralysing disease in recent years. Theoverriding priority now is to rapidly immunize [Post].Facebook.https://www.facebook.com/WHO/posts/1193450940700287If the title is the content of the post use up to the first 40 words. APA 7 Torrens University Referencing Guide 122020 – 20 Instagram. . . (White Rabbit Gallery, 2020).White Rabbit Gallery [@whiterabbitgallery]. (2020, October 20). Welcome to the officialInstagram for #whiterabbitgallery The White Rabbit Gallery is open[Photograph]. Instagram.com/whiterabbitgallery/OOObbbaaammmaaa,,, BBB… [[[BBBaaarrraaaccckkkOOObbbaaammmaaa]]]… (((222000000888,,, JJJuuulllyyy 111555)))… LLLaaauuunnnccchhheeeddd AAAmmmeeerrriiicccaaannn GGGrrraaaddduuuaaatttiiiooonnn IIInnniiitttiiiaaatttiiivvveeetttooo hhheeelllppp aaaddddddiiitttiiiooonnnaaalll 555 mmmiiillllll… AAAmmmeeerrriiicccaaannnsss gggrrraaaddduuuaaattteee cccooolllllleeegggeee bbbyyy 222000222000:::hhhttttttppp::://////bbbiiittt…lllyyy///gggcccTTTXXX777 [[[TTTwwweeeeeettt]]]… TTTwwwiiitttttteeerrr…Include Author, A.A. and then the screen name in square brackets.Twitter – individualauthorPresident Obama announced the launch of theAmerican Graduation Initiative (Obama, 2008).Twitter – group author. . . (Melbourne University, 2016).Melbourne University [unimelb]. (2016, August 15). Liver cancer rates have tripled.Hepatitis C researchers urge: Get tested, get treatedhttp://newsroom.melbourne.edu/news/get-tested-get-treated-hep-cresearchers-urge … [Tweet]. Twitter.https://twitter.com/unimelb/status/765017668122386432Linked in. . . (Schiller Palmisano, n.d.).Schiller Palmisano, N. (n.d.). LinkedIn [Profile page]. LinkedIn. Retrieved July 12, 2012,from http://www.linkedin.com/profile/edit?trk=hb_tab_pro_topIt is not possible to tell what date a LinkedIn profile was published, so only theretrieval date is included.Social media video. . . (World Health Organization, 2016).World Health Organization. (2016, August 13). Question and answer on polio [Videofile]. Facebook. https://www.facebook.com/WHO/?fref=nfItalicise the title of the video. http://twitter.com/BarackObama/status/2651151366 APA 7 Torrens University Referencing Guide 122020 – 21 Social media image orgraphic – with caption. . . (National Geographic Magazine, 2016).The photographer can be acknowledged in the texte.g.Michael Nichols photographed the sunrise . . .(National Geographic Magazine, 2016).National Geographic Magazine. (2016, August 3). Today’s top shot: The sun rises over theMerced River, which famously courses through Yosemite National Park and theYosemite Valley. http://on.natgeo.com/2b05fuS [Photograph].https://www.facebook.com/NGM/photos/a.406883368335.198383.72996268335/10154432737933336/?type=3&theaterUse up to the first 40 words of the caption as the title. Do not italicise the title.Social media image orgraphic – withoutcaption. . . (National Geographic Magazine, 2016).The photographer can be acknowledged in the texte.g.Charlie Hamilton James photographed . . . (NationalGeographic Magazine, 2016).National Geographic Magazine. (2016, May 18). [Young ocelot looks startled][Photograph]. Facebook.https://www.facebook.com/NGM/photos/a.10150779166933336.469045.72996268335/10154237159743336/?type=3&theaterIf the image contains no caption, provide a description of the item in square brackets.Social media – photoalbum. . . (Time, 2014).Time. (2014, May 1). https://www.facebook.com/time/photos/?tab=album&album_id= 10152029513376491 Time 100 Gala 2014 [Photo album]. Facebook. Personal communications PersonalcommunicationsIn-text exampleReference list exampleEmailAn email (S. Johnson, personal communication, August 12, 2020) confirmed . . .Do not include an entry in the reference list. APA 7 Torrens University Referencing Guide 122020 – 22 InterviewThe company’s CEO confirmed during an interview that . . . (C. Castillo, personalcommunication, May 11, 2019).ORDuring an interview, CEO Christian Castillo stated that “profits have . . .”(personal communication, May 11, 2019).Do not include an entry in the reference list.LetterHis gratitude was evident in a letter (B. Thompson, personal communication,January 1, 2018)Do not include an entry in the reference list.Telephone callThe President’s statement was confirmed during a phone interview (K. Nott,personal communication, May 31, 2020)ORDuring a phone interview conducted on May 31, 2020, President Kathryn Nottstated that . . .Do not include an entry in the reference list. Lecture notes & class handouts Lecture notes &class handoutsIn-text exampleCheck with your lecturer before referencing lecturenotes. You may need to refer to primary sources.Reference list exampleLecture notes – print. . . (Reed, 2020, p. 14).Reed, M. (2020, February 20). [Lecture notes on human development]. JensenNewman Institute, Torrens University, Sydney, NSW, Australia. APA 7 Torrens University Referencing Guide 122020 – 23 Class handouts. . . (Jones, 2019).Jones, L. (2019). CAM102C: [Class handout on Zingiber officinale]. SouthernSchool of Natural Therapies, Torrens University, Fitzroy, Vic, Australia.Lecture notes – online. . . (Jacobs, 2018).Jacobs, P. (2018). MGT101: Organisational discourse [PowerPoint slides].Torrens University. https://laureate-au.blackboard.com/ik&jijNotes taken during classNotes taken in class should be considered ‘personalcommunication’.It is reported that . . . (A. Harman, personal communication,July 13, 2020).Do not include an entry in the reference list. Multi media Multi mediaIn-text exampleReference list exampleYouTube (or otherstreaming video)(Khan Academy, 2016).See ‘Direct quotations from audio-visual material –timestamp’ for quotes/paraphrased materialKhan Academy. (2016, July 14). Brexit and European Union primer [Video].YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gbIgkcIfg0EMotion picture. . . (Spurlock, 2004).Spurlock, M. (Producer & Director). (2004). Supersize me [Film]. FortissimoFilms.DVD. . . (Clarke, 2003).Clarke, P. (Executive Producer), & Appel, G. (DVD Producer). (2003). Love is inthe air [Film]. Australian Broadcasting Commission. APA 7 Torrens University Referencing Guide 122020 – 24 Television series. . . (Kring, 2008).Kring, T. (Producer). (2008). Heroes [TV series]. Seven Corporation.Television series – episode. . . (Davies & Walsh, 2019).Davies, B. (Writer), & Walsh, F. (Director). (2019, June 23). Pepper. Episode 1)[TV series episode]. In F. Mirking & A. Turner (Producers). Pepper trees.ABC Studios.Radio program. . . (Williams & Vaux, 2009).Williams, R. (Presenter) & Vaux, D. (Guest). (2009, December 20). A shorthistory of cell deaths. [Radio broadcast]. In B. Seega (Producer),Ockham’s razor. ABC Radio National.Radio program transcript. . . (Smith, 1996, para. 3).Smith, H. (1996). Medicine in Chaucer’s time [Transcript]. In Ockham’s Razer.ABC Radio National.http://www.abc.net.au/rn/science/ockham/or110896.htmDirect quotations fromaudio-visual material –time stampInclude a time stamp (in lieu of page numbers) to directthe reader to a specific point in the audio/video. Use therelevant part of the format HH:MM:SS. In the examplebelow, the time refers to 17 seconds.Acceleration is the “change in velocity over time” (KhanAcademy, 2011, 0:17).Khan Academy. (2011, June 13). Acceleration: One-dimensional motion [Video].Khan Academy. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FOkQszg1-j8Podcasts (audio or video). . . (Van Nuys, 2007).Van Nuys, D. (Producer). (2007, December 19). Shrink rap radio [Audiopodcast]. http://www.shrinkrapradio.com/Write [Video podcast] for video files. APA 7 Torrens University Referencing Guide 122020 – 25 Podcast episode. . . (Glass, 2011).Glass, I. (Host). (2011, August 12). Amusement park (No. 443) [Audio podcastepisode]. In This American life. WBEZ Chicago.https://www.thisamericanlife.org/radioarchives/episoed/443/amusement-parkAppsOnly include references if you have paraphrased or quotedfrom any software or app. The citation is similar to that ofan edited book. If you used common software or mobileapps during your studies, simply give the proper name ofthe software or app along with the version number in thetext, if relevant.. . . (Evans, 2019).Rights holder, A. A. (year). Title of Software or Program (Version number)[Mobile app]. Publisher. http://xxxxxEvans, C. (2019). Cycling tips for champions (Version 2.3) [Mobile app]. Googleplaystore.https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.CA.PomodoroTimer&hl=enMusic recording – songfrom CDThe heartfelt song “Born to try” debuted at number three(Goodrem, 2003, track 1).. . . (Lavin, 2003).If the composer and recording artist are the same:Goodrem, D. (2003). Born to try. On Innocent Eyes [CD]. New York, NY: EpicRecords.If the composer and recording artist are different:Lavin, C. (2003). A Christmas/Kwanzaa/Solstice/Chanukah/ Ramadan/BoxingDay song [Recorded by C. Lavin & the Mistletones]. On The runawayChristmas tree [CD]. West Chester, PA: Appleseed Recordings.Note the album title is italicised (not the song title).Music recording – wholealbum (CD). . . (Goodrem, 2003).Goodrem, D. (2003). Born to try [CD]. New York, NY: Epic Records. APA 7 Torrens University Referencing Guide 122020 – 26 Music recording – songretrieved online. . . (Timberlake, 2016).Timberlake, J., Martin, M., & Shellback. (2016). Can’t stop the feeling[Recorded by J. Timberlake]. On Trolls: Original motion picturesoundtrack [MP3]. https://itunes.apple.comNote: Shellback is a single name.CD-ROM. . . (Maciocia, 2005).Maciocia, G. (2005). The foundations of Chinese medicine [CD-ROM]. Beijing,China: Elsevier. Figures (incl. images) Figures (incl.images)In-text exampleReference list exampleNOTE: A figure may be a chart, graph, photograph, drawing, or other illustration.Artwork viewed inpersonFigure 1Christina’s worldWyeth, A. (1948). Christina’s world [Painting]. New York, NY: Museum of Modern Art.Include a description of the work of art (e.g. sculpture, painting) in square brackets. APA 7 Torrens University Referencing Guide 122020 – 27 Note. Tempera on panel by Wyeth(1948).Artwork viewedonlineFigure 1Christina’s worldNote. Tempera on panel by Wyeth(1948).Wyeth, A. (1948). Christina’s world [Image of painting].http://www.moma.org/explore/collection/indexArtwork viewed in abookFigure 2River at ArgenteuilNote. Manet, River at Argenteuil, 1874(Pool, 1973, p. 134).In the note include details you considerrelevant e.g. title, artist, medium,attributionThe reference entry is that of the book in which the artwork was viewed.Pool, P. (1973). Impressionism. Thames & Hudson. APA 7 Torrens University Referencing Guide 122020 – 28 Image from awebsiteFigure 3Piriformis stretchNote. The Daily Bandha (2010).Figure 4Visualisation during pelvic floor exercisesNote. Visualisation during pelvic floorexercises (“Radiating ripples”, n.d.).The Daily Bandha. (2010). Piriformis stretching in supta padangusthasana [Image].http://www.dailybandha.com/2013/12/healing-with-yoga-piriformis-syndrome.htmlImage from GoogleimagesGo to the original source by selectingthe image and then clicking ‘Visit page’.Then follow the format above forimages from a website.Follow the format above for images from a website. Image from awebsite – no authorand no dateRadiating ripples [Image]. (n.d.). http://www.bergoiata.org/fe/divers28/10.htmMove the image title to the start of the reference. n.d. = no date.If there is no title, write a brief description of the image. APA 7 Torrens University Referencing Guide 122020 – 29 Image from GoogleMaps. . . (Google, 2015).Google. (2015). Tin Can Bay QLD 4580 [Map].http://maps.google.com.au/maps?q=tin+can+bay&hl=en&sll=-37.817178,144.96124&sspn=0.076889,0.110378&hnear=Tin+Can+Bay+Queensland&t=m&z=11Image from a book(or journal article)Figure 5Important childhood micronutrientsNote. Important childhoodmicronutrients by Insel, Turner, and Ross(2007, p. 689).Include the page number in the in-textcitationInsel, P., Turner, R. E., & Ross, D. (2007). Nutrition (3rd ed.). Jones and Bartlett Publishers.Unpublished – in apersonal collectioni.e. you created thefigure and it is notpublishedFigure 6Hot potYou do not need to include an entry in the reference list as the work has not been published. APA 7 Torrens University Referencing Guide 122020 – 30 Note. Hot pot, by Chiang Rai (2015,Personal collection).Image withapproximate dateFigure 7Mona LisaNote. Mona Lisa by Da Vinci, [ca. 1503].Da Vinci, L. [ca. 1503]. Mona Lisa [Image of painting]. http://www.louvre.fr/en/mediaimages/portraitde-lisa-gherardini-epouse-de-francesco-del-giocondo-dite-monna-lisa-la-giocondaca. (meaning circa) written before the year, and square brackets used instead of round brackets.Figure (graph) –reprinted from ajournalFigure 8Functions of JapaneseNote. Reprinted from “Japanese highschool students’ use of L1 during pairwork”, by P. Leeming, 2011,International Journal of AppliedLinguistics, 21(3), p. 368. Copyright 2011Leeming, P. (2011). Japanese high school students’ use of L1 during pair-work. International Journal ofApplied Linguistics, 21(3), 360-382.The reference entry is that of a journal – hard copy. APA 7 Torrens University Referencing Guide 122020 – 31 by the International Journal of AppliedLinguistics.Note: If the figure requires further explanation, include a ‘Note’ below the figure; this can be used for a legend, to include informationneeded to clarify the contents, or to include attributions. Tables TablesIn-text exampleReference list exampleNote: Any illustration other than a table should be indicated as a figure.Table/graph – book(reprinted)Table 1Daily dosage of chromiumDAILY DOSAGERDA Adults 0– 00 μg/dayInfants 10-40μg/dayOsiecki, H. (2010). The nutrient bible (8th ed.). Bio Concepts Publishing.The reference entry is that of the book. APA 7 Torrens University Referencing Guide 122020 – 32 SR 100-300 μg/dayDeficiencylimits

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