demolition waste management in China | My Assignment Tutor

1Challenges and solutions in current construction anddemolition waste management in China1. Executive SummaryChina produced a large amount of construction and demolition (C&D) waste, owing to therapid development of construction industry. Although a set of policies and regulations are beingdrafted in China for promoting C&D waste management, execution of these policies in practiceseems to be far from effective. Currently, approximately 75% of Chinese cities are stillsurrounded by large volumes of C&D waste. Therefore, identification of challenges andsolutions in the development of C&D waste management is essential. Eight challenges areidentified: (1) unstable source of C&D waste for recycling, (2) absence of subsidies forrecycling activities, (3) high cost for land use, (4) insufficient attention paid to design for wasteminimisation, (5) absence of regulations on on-site sorting, (6) unregulated landfill activities,(7) a lack of coordination among different government administration departments, and (8) alack of accurate estimation of waste quantity and distribution. Six recommendations areprovided: (1) provision of subsidies and franchised right, (2) development of relevant policies,(3) landfill ban, (4) coordination mechanism, (5) research and development, and (6)development of waste tracing system. Specifically, ‘a lack of accurate estimation of wasteestimation and distribution’ is identified as the most significant challenge in C&D wastemanagement in China, while ‘landfill ban’ is the most frequently mentioned solution inprevious literatures.2. Objective statementThis paper aims to identify the challenges in the current C&D waste management in China andprovide recommendations to improve recycling rate. The results of this study are expected toaid policy makers in formulation of proper C&D waste management.3. Specific objectivesThe specific objectives of this paper are listed as follows:a. Briefly introduce the current status of C&D waste management in China;b. Identify the challenges of C&D waste management in China; andc. Provide recommendations for improving the C&D waste management in China.4. BackgroundTopic is specific and not in the format of a sentenceBackground ofC&D wastemanagement inChinaSignificanceof the studySummary offindingsEmphasizingthe keyfindingsSpecific objectives here explain more detailed research goals by breaking downthe research aim in steps and using a point formFull name (abbreviation) when it appears for the first timeNo in-text citationappears at Executivesummary, Objectivestatement, and Specificobjectives2Using title “;”between eachreference whenusing more thanone referenceUsing referenceand data tosupport theclaimLast name of thefirst author, with“et al.” and“year” whenthere are morethan threeauthorsTopicsentence ofthe paragraphaims toaddress theissues occurand researchsignificanceThe global construction industry continues to grow, because construction activities couldcontribute to economic growth, creation of wealth, and improvement of life quality (Ibrahimet al. 2010; Tam, Kotrayothar & Loo 2009). However, massive construction and demolition(C&D) waste is generated owing to the rapid development of construction industry (Nagapan,Rahman & Asmi 2012; Xiao et al. 2012). Of all the countries in the world, China produces thelargest amount of C&D waste, with 2.4 billion tonnes generated in 2015 (Duan et al. 2019).Without proper waste management, massive C&D waste has inevitably occupied landresources and destroyed natural habitats (Nagapan, Rahman & Asmi 2012), as a large amountof C&D waste is dumped or landfilled (Bravo et al. 2015). Since large-scale C&D activitiesare undergoing in China, production of C&D waste is unavoidable. Considering the negativeeffects on environment, effective and proper treatment of C&D waste is imperative. It isgenerally agreed that the principle of “reduce, reuse, and recycle” can contribute to asustainable future (Huang et al. 2018). C&D waste recycling could reduce dependence onlandfill (Yu et al. 2020). In addition, approximately 80% of C&D waste in China could beprocessed into secondary construction materials, which could contribute to resourceconservation. In recent couple of years, a set of policies and regulations are being drafted inChina to promote C&D waste management, especially C&D waste recycling, to address theenvironmental concerns of authorities and the public.Despite these efforts, the C&D waste has not been efficiently utilised, because many clausesare not detail enough and the execution in practice is difficult (Yuan 2017). Currently,approximately 75% of Chinese cities are surrounded by large volumes of C&D waste (Huanget al. 2018). Some municipal governments have detailed the national polices and regulations,based on the circumstances of their administrative region (Yuan 2017). Therefore, municipalregulations and performance of C&D waste management vary among Chinese cities. Therecovery rate of C&D waste in most Chinese cities is between 3% and 10% (Huang et al. 2018).The best-performing cities, such as Shanghai and Shenzhen, have achieved recovery ratesof higher than 15% (Ghisellini et al. 2018). However, this number is still significantly lowerthan that in some developed countries, such as 96% in Japan, 88% in Germany and 70% ofthe United States (Duan et al. 2019). Implementation of these municipal policies andregulations in practice seems to be far from effective. Therefore, identification ofchallenges in the development of C&D management is essential to the execution ofrelevant policies and regulations in practice. This sentence is in line with Specific objectives (b)3Currently, recycling of C&D waste in China is still in the primary stage (Huang et al. 2018).Studies on C&D waste management in China increase rapidly. A comprehensive collection ofpast studies conducted empirical investigation of C&D waste management in specific Chinesecities, including Shenzhen (Lu et al. 2011; Wu, H & Yuan 2016; Yu, D et al. 2018; Yuan 2017),Hong Kong (Au, Ahn & Kim 2018; Hao, Jane L., Hills & Tam 2008; Hao, J. L. et al. 2011;Tam & Tam 2008), Beijing (Shi et al. 2019), Shanghai (Jin et al. 2017), Tianjin (Zhao et al.2009) and Chongqing (Wang, D et al. 2013; Xu et al. 2012; Yong et al. 2016; Zhao, Leeftink& Rotter 2010). In addition, potential challenges hindering implementation of C&D wastemanagement in different countries or regions were investigated. Major challenges includeinsufficient regulations (Agamuthu 2008; Fatta et al. 2003; Huang et al. 2018; Yuan, Shen &Wang 2011), involvement of multiple government departments (Yuan 2017), uncertainty inquantity estimation (Akhtar & Sarmah 2018), unorganized collection (Zhao, Ren & Rotter2011), immature recycling technology (Huang et al. 2018), underdeveloped market forproducts recycled from C&D waste (Huang et al. 2018; Yuan 2017; Yuan, Shen & Wang 2011),insufficient attention from industry (Huang et al. 2018; Yuan 2017), extra cost for recycling(Tam, Kotrayothar & Loo 2009), and a lack of higher value use of recycled aggregates(Lockrey et al. 2016). Although C&D waste management in China has received increasingattention from researchers and a few empirical studies were conducted, most of past studiesfocused on a single challenge and analysed its in-depth solution. Overall review of potentialchallenges in C&D waste management, particularly in promotion of recycling in China, is stilllimited and it has significant rooms for analysis.5. Challenges solutions (Explicit knowledge)5.1 Current challenges5.1.1 Unstable source of C&D waste for recyclingOne challenge faced by recycling companies is how to ensure the stability of the waste sourcesfor recycling activities. Stability of source of C&D waste for recycling is an importantprerequisite to maintain long-term operation. The unstable source of C&D waste for recyclingmight result in problems in product supply and further cause absence of stability of revenueand market sustainability (AECOM 2018).5.1.2 Absence of subsidies for recycling activitiesIntroduction of preference policies, including financial subsidies, tax reduction, and low rentof land, could help recycling companies to achieve economic feasibility and businessprofitability, and therefore foster recycling industry (Jin et al. 2017). It is hard for C&DIdentification of the research gap; that is why youconduct such a research and what your research values.In-text citation: using abbreviation of organizationChallenges are listed in separated points and each challenge issupported by various references.4recycling companies to make profit without provision of economic preferences fromgovernment (AECOM 2018).Value added tax (VAT), as one consumption tax levied on a product, accounts forapproximately 36% of the total tax revenue (Ma et al. 2020). In the beginning of 2009, a VATreform was implemented at national wide, which allows tax deduction in the purchase of fixedassets and provide tax incentives to investors (Zhang, Chen & He 2017). State TaxationAdministration (2015) has applied VAT deduction to encourage recycling activities. C&Drecycling companies, whose recycled aggregates are made from more than 90% C&D wasteand satisfy technical requirements, are exempt from 50% VAT (STA 2015). However,subsidies for C&D waste recycling have not been implemented in practice in majority cities(Ma et al. 2020).5.1.3 High cost for land useIn addition, C&D waste management is a complex system involving waste generation,transportation, recycling, disposal, and land use (Yuan 2017). Land use is linked to enoughspace for waste storage, production, and product preservation, while appropriate location isclosely related to cost of waste transportation. However, land use for C&D waste recycling isnot guaranteed, because it is not included in urban construction plan in many cities and hindersthe development of recycling (AECOM 2018). Land acquisition imposes an economicburden on investors for fixed plants. Many investors rent a piece of land to operate recyclingplants.5.1.4 Insufficient attention paid to design for waste minimisationIt is generally agreed that 3R principle (reduce, reuse and recycle) is the basic principle in C&Dwaste management, and waste minimisation is of the top priority, because it is theoptimal management measure for lowest negative impacts on environment (Huang et al.2018). In addition, it can contribute to reduction in waste transportation and recycling(Yuan, Shen & Wang 2011). The pressure from the large volume of C&D waste and therapid depletion of lands in China may be difficult to be addressed through recycling andlandfilling completely. Waste minimisation at design stage should be considered.Approximately one third of construction waste is resulted from design decisions (Yuan,Shen & Wang 2011). However, design for waste minimisation has not received sufficientattention, because of inadequate training and education for industry practitioners (Yuan,Shen & Wang 2011), practitioners’ indifference to environment protection (Lu & Yuan2010) and absence of regulations on waste reduction (Huang et al. 2018).55.1.5 Absence of regulations on on-site sortingConstruction waste, renovation waste and demolition waste are identified as the three typicalcategories of C&D waste, based on its generation phase (Wu et al. 2014a). Inert materials(including concrete, blocks and bricks) and some hazardous components (such as asbestos) aremajor components of C&D waste (Wu et al. 2014a). However, the absence of regulations onon-site sorting, C&D waste mixed with unwanted fractions (such as domestic garbage) wouldbe transported to recycling plants. It might potentially decrease quality of recycled aggregatesand increase following treatment cost, because recycling companies need to sort the waste(Wang et al. 2010). Steel should be separated from concrete waste at the demolition site andsold back to the market. Approximately 90% of steel and 50% of wood could be sold orcollected on-site (Zhao, Leeftink & Rotter 2010). On-site sorting is preferred, because lesslabours and costs are required compared with sorting at recycling centres (Li et al. 2020).Conducting on-site sorting could increase reusability and recyclability of C&D waste andtherefore contribute to production of high-quality products (Bao & Lu 2020). However, itseems very slow for the construction industry in China to embrace on-site sorting.5.1.6 Unregulated landfill activitiesLandfill is an undesirable option to treat C&D waste, because C&D waste can consume largespace and detrimental components can lead to harmful chemical leachate and othercontaminants (Ulubeyli, Kazaz & Arslan 2017). Approximately 80% of C&D waste has thepotential of recycling (Ding & Xiao 2014). Diverting C&D waste from landfill to recycling isurgent, because of the depletion of land resources (Li et al. 2020). Landfilling of C&D wastegenerated in Chongqing, Shanghai and Changsha is lawfully accepted. However, landfillactivities are not strictly regulated in some Chinese cities which result in the heavy dependenceon landfilling (Ma et al. 2020).5.1.7 A lack of coordination among different government administration departmentsBecause of the specific organizational structure of Chinese government, municipal regulationswould be developed after issue of fundamental principles formulated by central government(Yuan 2017). Regulations and policies formulated by local governments could largelyinfluence the practice of C&D waste management (Wang et al. 2010), which requirescooperative efforts made by various departments of municipal government. Approximatelynine departments are involved in C&D waste management in one city, including MunicipalCommission of Housing and Urban-Rural Development, Municipal Comprehensive Lawenforcing Bureau of City Administration, Municipal Environmental Protection Bureau,Using “a, b, c…”to distinguishthe differentreferences in thesame in-textcitation format6Municipal Planning and Natural Resources Bureau, Municipal Tax Service, Municipal FinanceBureau, Municipal Science & Technology Commission, Municipal Public Security Bureau andMunicipal Transport Burau. However, as multiple departments are involved in the process ofC&D waste management, ineffective coordination arises when these departments are at thesame administrative level as the leading department. In addition, responsibilities of thesedepartments are limited to specific areas and are not efficiently arranged (Yuan 2017). Forinstance, in Changsha, Municipal Comprehensive Law-enforcing Bureau of CityAdministration is responsible to deliver waste transportation license, but overload is regulatedby Municipal Public Security Bureau.5.1.8 A lack of accurate estimation of waste estimation and distributionThe large generation of C&D waste in China is a big challenge in the development of aneffective waste management system (Ding & Xiao 2014). Estimation of C&D waste quantityis a prerequisite to understand the generation trend in one city and formulate reasonablerecycling policies (Yu et al. 2018). In China, the estimation of C&D waste quantity is based onthe waste quantity notified in waste disposal plans, which is submitted before demolitionprocess. However, the actual amount is not accurately qualified, which might further causeinappropriate resource allocation and effectiveness of management (Menegaki & Damigos2018). Specifically, multiple factors, including project type, function of projects andcomposition of waste stream, could influence the accuracy of estimation (Yuan 2017).Behaviours of related stakeholders in the construction industry can directly influence theeffectiveness of these policies (Li et al. 2017). The obeyance of related stakeholders is largelydependent on an effective supervision system (AECOM 2018). A waste tracing system enablesgovernment to trace waste from its source to the final disposal site. In addition, it couldindirectly verify the waste quantity for disposal. All the vehicles used for transportingC&D waste should be equipped with a global positioning system (GPS), follow an approvedroute, and be supervised by local government. Normally, before waste removal, contractorsshould submit a C&D waste disposal plan to local government and obtain permits for wastedisposal (Ma et al. 2020). Figure 1 explains the waste tracing system used in Shanghai. InShanghai, contractors should make an advance payment to an authorised account fordisposal and transportation fees, according to the approved demolition amount in the disposalplan. The final payment can be made only after completion of transportation and waste disposal.The transportation and disposal fees are transferred directly from the governmental accountA sentenceto explainthe meaningof figure andtable used7after official verification. Figure 2 could present the C&D waste tracing system used in mostChinese cities. Most C&D waste would end up in landfill sites.ContractorsLocalgovernmentTransportationcompanyRecyclingcompany1. Submita disposalplan2. Approvethe plan 3. Make anadvancedpayment7. Re 4. Waste5. Waste6. Wastearrival proofportcompletion oftransportation8. Payment after official verificationFigure 1: Waste Tracing System in Shanghai (Ma et al. 2020)ContractorsLocalgovernmentTransportationcompanyRecyclingcompany1. Submita disposalplan2. Approvethe plan3. Waste4. WasteLandfill site4. WasteFigure 2: Waste Tracing System in Chongqing (Ma et al. 2020)5.2 Possible solutions5.2.1 Provision of subsidies and franchised rightIt is hard for C&D recycling companies to make profit without provision of economicpreferences from government (AECOM 2018). Provision of subsidies for recycling activitiesshould be considered to improve the economic feasibility of recycling companies. Landtaking is one challenging issue, because of high costs of land acquisition (Ma et al. 2020).However, economic situation of municipality could determine choice of preference policies(Liu, Nie & Yuan 2020). It is difficult for some local governments to reduce rental pricesFigure xxx: Title of figure(In-text citation)All solutions come from literature review; that is, all thesolutions are supported by in-text citations as well.8for land use to a low level, because of financial constraints. Franchise management, such asBuild-operate-transfer (BOT), could be applied and shelter recycling enterprises fromcompetition, and ensure the stability of C&D waste for recycling. Private sector who obtains aBOT right is given responsibility to finance, build, operate infrastructure projects until theprojects are transferred back to public sector (Shen 2007; Song et al. 2017). BOT contracts canefficiently link the benefits or welfare of the private sector with the local government, ensuresufficient fund, combine strength of different sectors and optimize risk allocation (Wang et al.2018). For instance, C&D waste recycling in Nanjing, Zhoukou, and Suzhou is developed ona BOT basis (Ma et al. 2020). Although a BOT contract provides recycling companies with amonopoly status and prevent them from competition for a set period (Qiu & Wang 2011), itcreates substantial entry barriers for new recyclers. Therefore, local governments shouldconsider the possible effects of franchise management. In addition, if there is no sufficientmarket for products recycled from C&D waste, long-term support from local government is inneed (AECOM 2018). These secondary products should be the prior choice in governmentfunded projects. Besides, government could widen the application of recycled aggregatesin structural use and introduce standards for recycled products from C&D waste to foster therecycling industry (Zhao, Leeftink & Rotter 2010).5.2.2 Development of relevant policiesGovernment should introduce policies to require industry practitioners to consider wasteminimisation during the design stage and promote design standards to guide real practice(Huang et al. 2018). In recent years, China has investigated prefabrication technology that cansignificantly influence the waste reduction and subsequent waste handling activities (Li, Shen& Alshawi 2014). However, current practice of precast construction in China is in a stage ofinfancy, because of the immaturity of the prefabrication market (Hong et al. 2018). Trainingprograms could help practitioners to obtain a comprehensive understanding of wasteminimisation and to provide them with technical guidance. For instance, architects could learnselection of material and technology. Site operatives could improve their construction skills(Yuan, Shen & Wang 2011).In many cases, a mixture of materials, including non-inert and inert waste materials, hazardouscomponents and some municipal waste is delivered to recycling companies directly. As someuntreated waste in the mixture would impact the quality of recycled aggregate, recyclingcompanies need to spend efforts to sort clean concrete from other kind waste. Relevantregulations should be executed to guide efficient on-site sorting. For instance, some recyclable9materials, including concrete and bricks, should be carried to recycling plants, while municipalwaste should be separately collected and delivered to incineration plants.5.2.3 Landfill banExecution of a landfill ban could be employed to increase recycling rate (Jin et al. 2017). Thisban can apply to all the reusable or recyclable components. Landfill is only allowed to treatnon-hazardous and unrecyclable components and should not be permitted without approvalfrom the local government. However, fully implementation of the landfill ban is not advisablein a short-term, if there is no effective recycling system (Zhao, Leeftink & Rotter 2010).Economic penalties, such as a high landfill-tipping fee, could be another idea approach tochange industry’s behaviours from landfill to recycling and therefore stimulate recyclingactivities (Li et al. 2020). It could potentially increase the profits earned by recyclingcompanies in the competition with high landfill charge fees. Specifically, mixing one class ofwaste with other substances or classes of waste should be prohibited to drive on-site sorting5.2.4 Coordination mechanismThe leading role of Municipal Commission of Housing and Urban-Rural Development in C&Dwaste management in city is clearly defined by central government (AECOM 2018).However, in some Chinese cities, as multiple departments are involved in the process ofC&D waste management, ineffective coordination arises when these departments are at thesame administrative level as the leading department. In addition, responsibilities ofthese departments are limited to specific areas and are not efficiently arranged (Yuan2017). For instance, in Changsha, Municipal Comprehensive Law-enforcing Bureau ofCity Administration is responsible to deliver waste transportation license, but overloadis regulated by Municipal Public Security Bureau. A department of a higheradministrative level should be nominated to take the primary responsibilities andeffectively arrange activities of these departments. For instance, in Xi’an and Chengdu,the Municipal People’s Congress, was in charge of translating national guidance intoregional context, and co-ordinating the C&D waste management of each department (Ma etal. 2020).5.2.5 Research and developmentMultiple factors, including project type, function of projects and composition of waste stream,could influence the accuracy of estimation (Yuan 2017). The influences from these factorscould be minimised through extensive researches in a large amount of sample projects (Yuan2017). Local governments can cooperate with universities or research institutes to establisha systematic data collection method (Akhtar & Sarmah 2018).105.2.6 Development of waste tracing systemA waste tracing system enables government to trace waste from its source to the final disposalsite. In addition, it could indirectly verify the waste quantity for disposal. In Shanghai wastetracing systems, responsibilities of related stakeholders in the recycling chain are emphasized.Bills are delivered to contractors from recycling companies or local governments. Contractorsshould fill these bills with relevant information such as the waste class, appearance, amount,and treatment. When transportation companies receive these bills, they should check the wasteclass, waste quantity, and drop-off location. Recycling companies and landfill sites shouldvisually inspect waste, determine whether the waste can be lawfully accepted, verify the wastevolume, and sign the bills. To improve the management efficiency, an electronic bill systemfor data sharing could be developed. Contractors, transportation companies, recyclingcompanies, and operators of landfill sites can log in to the system and record the waste details.Waste holders have to make an advanced payment to transportation and recycling companies,to ensure the proper treatment of waste and prevent illegal dumping. Local governments canassess advantages and disadvantages of existing systems and formulate a suitable C&D wastetracing system.6. Discussions (Tacit knowledge)6.1 Current challengesThe results of comparison of the eight challenges is presented in Table 1. As presented in thetable, C8 ‘a lack of accurate estimation of waste estimation and distribution’ is the mostsignificant challenge in C&D waste management in China, because the accumulated numberof this challenge appears in references is the five and ranked first. This challenge has also beenemphasized by previous studies, including Ding & Xiao (2014), Li et al. (2013), Lu et al. (2017),and Wu et al. (2014b). Past researches have indicated that the pressing need to understand theaccurate generation and accumulation of C&D waste, which is caused by growing populationand construction activities, has contributed to the significance of this challenge (Ding & Xiao2014). In China, the consideration on C&D waste generation amount has been fairly neglectedfor a couple of years (Ding & Xiao 2014). In the last decade, large-scale urbanization and urbanrenewal programs have led to an overwhelming amount of construction activities throughoutentire China (Yuan 2017). A set of policies and regulations are being drafted in China topromote C&D waste management to address the environmental concerns of authorities and thepublic. However, an estimation of generation and distribution of waste stream is an inevitableprerequisite to implement these policies and regulations (Li, J et al. 2013). For instance, a C&DUsing table to organize what you have found in literature reviewAnalysisfrom TableresultCompareand contrastthe resultswith otherstudies11waste management plan requires qualifying amount of waste, which will facilitate wastereduction, reusing and recycling during the construction process and is closely associated witheffectiveness of resource allocation and waste management (Li et al. 2013). Currently, theexisting regulations are not rigid and enforceable in supporting the quantification of C&Dwaste, while a few cities, including Beijing and Shanghai, have taken actions to handle theC&D waste (Zheng et al. 2017).In addition, C5 ‘absence of regulations on on-site sorting’ is the second significant challenge,with the accumulated number of four. The reason for this might be because on-site sorting isclosely associated with higher rate of reuse and/or recycling, reduction in cost for wastetransportation and disposal, prolonging lefespan landfill for receiving non-inert C&D wasteand efficiency in waste management (Duan, Wang & Huang 2015). Effective on-site sortingshould be implemented before further process of C&D waste, because it is often the mixtureof inert and organic materials and some contaminated materials are not suitable for reuse orrecycling (Wang et al. 2010). Specifically, on-site sorting could increase the overall proportionof wasted materials for reuse and recycling from 14% to 24% by volume, and from 8% to 19%by weight (Wang et al. 2010). However, it seems very slow for the construction industry inChina to embrace on-site sorting (Ma et al. 2020). Currently, approcimately 90% of concreteand masonry waste do not have recycling strategies (Duan, Wang & Huang 2015). Thissituation might be led by disincentive of recycling. From the stakeholders’ perspectives, thecost of recycling, excluding financial support from the government, is higher than the cost oflandfilling with the exceptions of metal, timber and plastic (Duan, Wang & Huang 2015).Anotheranalysis12Table 1: Comparison of current challenges Ref.Challenges(AECOM2018)(Ma etal.2020)(Yuan2017)(Yuan,Shen&Wang2011)(Lu &Yuan2010)(Huanget al.2018)(Wang,et al.2010)(Li etal.2020)(Bao& Lu2020)(Li etal.2020)(Yu etal.2018)(Menegaki& Damigos2018)AccumulatednumberC1Unstablesource of C&Dwaste forrecycling√√2C2Absence ofsubsidies forrecyclingactivities√√2C3High cost forland use√√√3C4Insufficientattention paidto design forwasteminimisation√√√3C5Absence ofregulations onon-site sorting√√√√4C6Unregulatedlandfillactivities√√2C7A lack ofcoordinationamongdifferentgovernmentadministrationdepartments√√2 13 C8A lack ofaccurateestimation ofwasteestimation anddistribution√√√√√5 146.2 Possible solutionsTable 2 presents comparison of six possible solutions. According to Table 2, S3 ‘landfill ban’ is themost frequently mentioned solution to improve the performance of C&D waste management, withaccumulated number of five. According to Villoria, Sáez & Osmani (2019), low recycling rate couldbe explained by low landfill taxes or bans, because it is often considered as an important driver for therecycling of C&D waste. A landfill ban for recyclable materials, unsorted waste and waste suitable forincineration should be introduced, aiming to prevent untreated waste from ending up in legal dumpingand backfill sites (Zhao, Leeftink & Rotter 2010). In Europe, landfill taxes and bans are implementedas one C&D waste management policy in 24 out of 28 European countries (Villoria, Sáez & Osmani2019). A landfill charge scheme of different price levels for different class of waste could be considered.In United Kingdom and Germany, higher landfill charge fee is applied to unsorted C&D waste (Li etal. 2020). In Hong Kong, HK$ 27 (about US$ 3.44) per ton is charged for inert waste without noninert waste, while mixed C&D waste containing over 50% non-inert waste is HK$ 125 (aboutUS$ 15.93) per ton for landfilling (Li et al. 2020). However, before implementing landfill ban, localgovernment should provide guidance on classification of C&D waste and different treatments fordifferent class (Ma et al. 2020). For instance, C&D waste should be separated into recyclable and nonrecyclable materials and inert debris should be recycled and reused as secondary materials (Duan,Wang & Huang 2015). In addition, municipal waste should end up in incineration plants. Propermethods to handle waste that is unrecyclable or incombustible (such as aerated blocks) need to befurther investigated and developed. Besides, S6 ‘development of waste tracing system’ is ranked lower,with the accumulated number of 1. That might be because it is time-consuming and costly for localgovernment to formulate a suiatble C&D waste tracing system (Ma et al. 2020).15Table 2: Comparison of possible solutions Ref.Solutions(AECOMAsiaCompanyLimited2018)(Ma et al.2020)(Huang et al.2018).(Yuan,Shen &Wang2011)(Jin et al.2017)(Li et al.2020)(Yuan2017)(Akhtar &Sarmah2018)AccumulatednumberS1Provision of subsidiesand franchised right√√√3S2Development ofrelevant policies√√√3S3Landfill ban√√√√√5S4Coordinationmechanism√√2S5Research anddevelopment√√√3S6Development ofwaste tracing system√1 167. ConclusionRecycling as an alternative approach to deal C&D waste could reduce dependence on landfill.However, the implementation of recycling policies in practice seems to be far from effective in China.Therefore, identification of challenges is essential in the development of C&D management. AlthoughC&D waste management in China has received increasing attention from researchers, the focus of paststudies was on one specific challenge or solution. Overall review of potential challenges and solutionsin C&D waste management, particularly in promotion of recycling in China, is still inadequate.Eight challenges were identified in this paper: (1) unstable source of C&D waste for recycling, (2)absence of subsidies for recycling activities, (3) high cost for land use, (4) insufficient attention paidto design for waste minimisation, (5) absence of regulations on on-site sorting, (6) unregulated landfillactivities, (7) a lack of coordination among different government administration departments, and (8)a lack of accurate estimation of waste quantity and distribution. Six recommendations were provided:(1) provision of subsidies and franchised right, (2) development of relevant policies, (3) landfill ban,(4) coordination mechanism, (5) research and development, and (6) development of waste tracingsystem. Specifically, ‘a lack of accurate estimation of waste estimation and distribution’ was identifiedas the most significant challenge in C&D waste management in China, while ‘landfill ban’ was themost frequently mentioned solution’ is the most frequently mentioned solution in previous literatures.The results of this study present current C&D waste management in China and provide a usefulreference for researchers who are interested in C&D waste recycling industry. Some challenges whichwere not emphasized in previous studies, should receive additional attention. In addition,recommendations raised in this study could help policy makers in China to improve the performanceof C&D waste management.8. 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