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iFactors That Influence Green Purchase Behaviour ofMalaysian ConsumersTang Sook MunA research project submitted in partial fulfillment of therequirement for the degree ofMaster of Business AdministrationUniversiti Tunku Abdul RahmanFaculty of Accountancy and ManagementAugust 2014iiFactors That Influence Green Purchase Behaviour ofMalaysian ConsumersByTang Sook MunThis research project is supervised byChong Shyue ChuanSenior LecturerHead of Department(Department of Economics)Faculty of Accountancy and ManagementiiiCopyright @ 2014ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. No part of this paper may be reproduced, stored in aretrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, graphic, electronic,mechanical, photocopying, recording, scanning, or otherwise, without the priorconsent of the authors.iv21,175 wordsTANG SOOK MUN11UKM01737DECLARATIONI hereby declare that:(1) This MKMA25106 Research Projects is the end result of my own work andthat due acknowledgement has been given in the references to all sources ofinformation be they printed, electronic, or personal.(2) No portion of this research project has been submitted in support of anyapplication for any other degree or qualification of this or any other university,or other institutes of learning.(3) The Word count of this research report is __________________________.Name of Student: ____________________________Students ID: ____________________________Signature: ____________________________Date: ____________________________vACKNOWLEDGEMENTFirst of all, I would like to express my sincere gratitude and appreciation to allparties who have guided and helped me throughout the duration of the time untilthe completion of this research.I would like to express my deep and sincere gratitude to my supervisor, Mr ChongShyue Chuan, who had been guiding me patiently from the very beginning untilthe completion of this research. He had spent his precious time to help and guideme when I was in doubt or encountered any problem throughout the developmentof the research. His intelligent guidance and advices had facilitated and assistedme. Without his supervision, I may not able to complete my research report in thetime given.On the other hand, I would like to acknowledge the help of the Universiti TunkuAbdul Rahman for giving chance to me for conducting this research project. Byconducting this research, I had learnt and developed my skill and knowledge. Thisknowledge will be put into good use that will support the society in different ways.Other than that, I would like to thank all the respondents for supporting me inanswering my survey. Thank you for all the cooperation that you all have givenme. Besides that, I want to thank my family and friends who have given theirsupport and encouragement throughout my study.Last but not least, I am regret that I unable to mention everyone by name; thosewho has helped me in conducting this research project. Therefore, by using thisplatform, I specially want to thanks to all these people.viDedicationTo my family and all my loved ones,Thanks for being there when I needed you the most.viiTABLE OF CONTENTSPageCopyright………………………………………………………………………… iiiDeclaration…………………………………………………………………….… ivAcknowledgement………………………………………………………………… vDedication……………………………………………………………………….. viTable of Contents……………………………………………………………..… viiList of Tables……………………………………………………………………. xiiList of Figures………………………………………………………………………………………… xiiiList of Appendices……………………………………………………………… xiiiPreface………………………………………………………………………..… xivAbstract………………………………………………………………….……… xvCHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION1.0 Introduction…………………………………………………………….…….. 11.1 Research Background………………………………………….…..…. 11.2 Research Problem…………………………………………………….. 61.3 Research Questions…………………………….………………….…. 81.4 Research Objective…………………………………………….…..…. 81.5 Significance of the study…………………………………………..…. 91.6 Conclusion………………………………………………….…….…. 11CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW2.0 Introduction…………………………………………………………………. 122.1 Literature Review……………………………………..………..…… 122.1.1 Green Consumer and Green Products…………………..… 122.1.2 Green Marketing………………………………………..… 172.1.2.1 Green Marketing in Malaysia…………………… 202.1.3 Green Purchase Behaviour (GPB)..………………………… 21viii2.1.3.1 Theory of Reasoned Actions (TRA)……………. 232.1.3.2 Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB)……..…….. 242.1.4 Social Influence (SI)…………….………………………… 252.1.5 Environmental Attitude (EA)………………………………. 262.1.6 Environmental Concern (EC)………………………………. 282.1.7 Perceived Seriousness of Environmental Problems (EP)…. 292.1.8 Perceived Environmental Responsibility (ER)……………. 302.1.9 Perceived effectiveness of Environmental Behaviour (EB).312.1.10 Government Initiative (GI)………………………………. 322.2 Research Framework………………………………………..………. 332.3 Hypotheses Development…………………………………………… 342.3.1 Demographic Profile………………………………………. 342.3.2 Social Influence (SI).…………………………….……..…. 352.3.3 Environmental Attitude (EA)……………………………… 362.3.4 Environmental Concern (EC)…………….……………….. 372.3.5 Perceived Seriousness of Environmental Problems (EP)….. 382.3.6 Perceived Environmental Responsibility(ER).……….…… 392.3.7 Perceived effectiveness of Environmental Behaviour (EB). 392.3.8 Government Initiative (GI).…………………………..……. 402.4 Conclusion ………………………………………………………..… 41CHAPTER 3 RESEARCH METHOD3.0 Introduction…………………………………………………………………. 423.1Research Design……………………………………………………… 423.1.1 Quantitative Research……………………………….…..… 433.1.2 Descriptive Research……………………………………… 433.2 Data Collection Method……………………………………….….… 433.2.1 Primary Data……………………………………………….. 44.3 Sampling Design……………………………………..………………. 443.3.1 Target Population………………………………………….. 443.3.2 Sampling Frame and Sampling Location…………………. 453.3.3 Sampling Elements…………………………………..….… 453.3.4 Sampling Technique……………………..…………….….. 45ix3.3.5 Sampling Size………………………………………….….. 463.4 Research Instrument………………………………………………… 463.4.1 Questionnaire Design……………………………………… 473.4.2 Pilot Test…………………………………………………… 493.5 Constructs Measurement…………………………….………………. 493.5.1 Origins of Constructs…………………………………..….. 493.5.2 Primary Scale of Measurement………………………..….. 523.5.2.1 Nominal Scales …………………………….…… 523.5.2.2 Ordinal Scale………………………………….… 533.5.2.3 Interval Scales ………………………………….. 533.5.2.4 Ratio Scales……………………………………… 533.6 Data Processing……………………………………………….…….. 543.6.1 Questionnaire Checking………………………………..…. 543.6.2 Data Editing………………………………………….……. 543.6.3 Data Coding ……………………………………….……… 553.6.4 Data Transcribing…………………………….…………… 553.6.5 Data Cleaning…………………………..…………………. 553.7 Data Analysis…………………………………………………..…… 563.7.1 Descriptive Analysis………………………………………. 563.7.1.1 Frequency Distribution…………………………..……… 563.7.2 Factor Analysis……………………………………………….…… 573.7.3 Reliability Test……………………………………………………. 573.7.4 Inferential Analysis……………………………………………….. 573.7.4.1 Independent Sample t-test…………………………….………… 583.7.4.2 One-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA)………..……………. 583.7.4.3 Pearson’s Correlation Analysis…………………………………. 583.7.4.4 Multiple Regressions………………………………….………… 593.8 Conclusion…………………………………………………………… 59CHAPTER 4 RESEARCH RESULTS4.0 Introduction………………………………………………………………….. 604.1 Descriptive Analysis…………………….………………………….. 604.1.1 Respondent Demographic Profile………….……………… 61×4.2 Factor Analysis…..…….……………………………………..……… 634.3 Reliability Statistics…………………………………………………. 674.4 Inferential Analysis…………………………………………………. 704.4.1Independent Sample t-test…………………………………. 704.4.2One-way ANOVA…………………………………..…….. 714.4.3 Pearson Correlation Analysis………………………..……. 754.4.4 Multiple Regressions……………………………………… 794.5 Conclusion…………………………………………………………… 82CHAPTER 5 DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION5.0 Introduction…………………………………………………………….…… 835.1 Summary of Statistical Analysis……………………………….…… 835.1.1 Descriptive analysis………………………………………. 835.1.2Factor Analysis……………………………………………. 845.1.3Reliability Analysis……………………………………….. 855.1.4Inferential Analysis…………………………………..…… 855.1.4.1Independent Sample t-test………………….…… 855.1.4.2One-way ANOVA………………………….…… 865.1.4.3Pearson Correlations Analysis………….……….. 865.1.4.4Multiple Regressions Analysis……………..…… 875.2 Discussion of Hypotheses Results……………………………..……. 885.2.1Hypothesis 1a……………………………………………… 915.2.2Hypothesis 1b……………………………………..………. 915.2.3Hypothesis 1c……………………………………….…….. 925.2.4Hypothesis 2a…………………………………..…………. 935.2.5Hypothesis 2b……………………………………..………. 935.2.6Hypothesis 2c………………………………………..……. 945.2.7Hypothesis 2d………………………………………..……. 945.2.8Hypothesis 2e……………………………….………..…… 955.2.9Hypothesis 2f………………………………………………… 965.2.10Hypothesis 2g……………………….……………..…..… 965.3 Implication of Study……………………………………..………..… 975.3.1 Managerial of Implications………………………..……… 97xi5.3.2 Theoretical Implication…………………..……………… 1005.4 Limitation of Study……………….……………………………..… 1005.5 Recommendations ………………………………………..……….. 1015.6 Suggestion for Further Study………………………………………. 1025.7 Conclusion …………………………………………………………. 103References …………………………………………………………………….. 104Appendices ……………………………………………………………………. 124xiiLIST OF TABLESPageTable 1: Type of Green Consumers and the Implication for the GreenMarketers………………………………………………………………. 14Table 2: Comparison between Green Marketing and Conventional Marketing… 18Table 3: Practices Lead to the Failure of Green Marketing…………………..… 19Table 4: Questions Asked For Each Factors Influence……………………….… 50Table 5: Questions Asked For Green Purchase Behaviour………………….….. 52Table 6: Respondents’ Demographic Profile…………………………………… 61Table 7: Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy…………..….… 63Table 8: Factor Analysis………………………………………………….…….. 64Table 9: Interpretation Scale of Cronbach’s Alphas Tests Results……………… 67Table 10: Reliability Test Result for Each Variable…..….…………………….. 68Table 11: Reliability Statistics and Item-Total Statistics (Government’sInitiative)……………………………………………………………… 69Table 12: Reliability Statistics and Item-Total Statistics (Perceived EnvironmentalResponsibility)……………………………..……………..…….……. 69Table 13: Independent Samples Test…………………………………………….. 70Table 14.1: One-way ANOVA (Ethnic Group).…………………….………….. 71Table 14 2: Post Hoc Test (Ethnic Group)…………..………………………….. 71Table 15 1: One-way ANOVA (Monthly Income)……………………………… 73Table 15 2: Post Hoc Test (Monthly Income)…………………………………… 73Table 16: Rules of thumb About Correlation Coefficient Size………………….. 75Table 17: Bivariate Correlation Results…………………………………..…….. 76Table 18: Multiple Regression Result………………………………………..….. 79Table 19: Summary of Outcome of Research…………………………………… 88xiiiLIST OF FIGURESPageFigure 1: Proposed Conceptual Framework……………………………..……… 33LIST OF APPENDICESPageQuestionnaire…………………………………………………………………… 124SPSS Output…………………………………………………………………… 130xivPREFACEThis research project is a compulsory subject needed to be done for students ofMaster of Business Administration in order to complete their Master studies. Theresearch title for this thesis is “Factors that influence working consumers’purchasing behaviour towards green products in Malaysia”.Intensely competitive business environment and rapidly economic developmentprovided more convenient technology to people. However, failure in preservationthe use of nature resources may continue expanding the environment issue.Besides, people aware of the deteriorating of the environment in Malaysia but didnot behave in an environmentally friendly manner. As such, it is important tounderstand working consumers’ green purchasing behaviour in government andmarketing context.The main purpose of this research project is to investigate the factors thatinfluence working consumers’ green purchasing behaviour in Malaysia.Throughout this research project, there are a total of seven variables has beenidentified which are social influences, environmental attitudes, environmentalconcern, perceived effectiveness of environmental problems, perceivedeffectiveness of environmental behaviour, perceived environmental responsibility,and government initiative. This study also can discover what reasons causedconsumers less response in green products in Malaysia.xvABSTRACTToday, rapid development of technology has caused both positive or negativeaffect and changes in the environment. While enjoying the convenience providedby technology, people should have the right mind-set in keeping and protectingtheir environment healthy. Therefore, the aim to conduct this study is to examinethe factors that influence working consumers’ green purchase behaviour. They areseven independent variables were used in this research project to identify thefactors that influence working consumers’ purchasing behaviour toward greenproducts; social influences, environmental attitudes, environmental concern, andperceived effectiveness of environmental problems, perceived effectiveness ofenvironmental behaviour, perceived environmental responsibility, and governmentinitiative.Two hundred working consumers are the sole targeted respondents in this study. Itis found that there are no significant differences for the gender and race variableswhereas monthly income variable was found a significant difference on it. Inaddition, the study findings also discovered that there is a significant relationshipbetween the factors influence and working consumers’ purchasing behaviourtowards green products.Consequently, these research findings have provided some insight and feedback tobusinesses who basically facing a lot of challenges in convincing consumers topurchase green products. By gathering this information, marketers can understandthe route that shifts the environmental factors to green purchase behaviour. Theyalso would be able to formulating their various strategies to effectively attractmore consumers to purchase green products.Page 1 of 143CHAPTER 1INTRODUCTION1.0IntroductionThe purpose of this research is to study the factors that influence workingconsumers’ purchasing behaviour towards green products. The main focus areasin this chapter have state the purpose of this study and describe the majorproblems. After that, set the research questions, and follow by the significant ofthis study.1.1 Research BackgroundGlobal warming was one of the environmental degradation signals that were aserious worldwide issue encountered by all global people in recent years. Thenegative impact of global warming includes melting glaciers in Arctic. Thethickness of Arctic sea ice was melting decreased by 40% since 1960’s and itsmelting level was now at the alarming rate of 9% per decade. If the melting ratecontinuously increased without rescue action taken by people, the Arctic could beice-free in 2040 (Natural Resources Defense Council). It can be predicted that sealevel could accelerating rise until an uncontrollable level in future. Many countrieswill be disappear due to inundated by the sea. On the other hand, global warmingwill weaker ozone layer and caused about 120,000 people in a southern Chile cityexposure to very high level of ultra-radiation due to ozone depletion and causehuman suffering from cancer (Njie, 2013). Drastically change in climate also oneof the impact of global warming. According to BBC News (2009), TyphoonPage 2 of 143Kestana occurred in Vietnam has destroyed or damaged about 170,000 homes andcaused around 380,000 people homeless. Meanwhile, the storm also affectednearly 2 million people in Philippine and caused more than 100,000 peoplehomeless (Conde, 2009).Apart from global warning, rapid industrialization that caused pollution in landfill,water and air also led to another environmental degradation signal. China hasundergoes rapid industrialization and successfully become the second-largesteconomy in the world in year 2012. However, it does exacerbate its environmentaldeterioration. According to Yang (2012), up to 40% of rivers are polluted in China.The water pollution caused high cancers rates in China due to consumption ofcontaminated water that polluted by vary types of industrial sewage such ascadmium, lead, indium, zinc and other metals. Besides, air pollution does happenin China and it reached a crisis level. This cause millions of people in China aresuffer under the smog every day. According to World Bank study (as cited in Tan,2009), approximately 460,000 people die prematurely in China annually fromthose diseases related to the air and water pollution that are highly andcontinuously exposure to China people. Besides, many others environmentaldegradation and harmful activities that performed in the modern economy havealways led to environmental issues and it always caught the attention ofworldwide citizens.Through the efforts of government and society in education and publicity works,many people around the world are well informed the threats, negative impacts andconsequences that endanger their environment are caused by the irresponsibilitycompanies and their irresponsibility behaviour towards their environment. Hence,many environmental issues related terms such as air and water pollution,unexpected and rapidly change in climate, deterioration problem of ozone layers,and so on are quite well known by individuals. After realize the seriousnessproblems towards environmental issues, people from worldwide are willing toimplement their own responsibility to safe and protect their environment becausethey believe their efforts can improve their quality of life in the future.Page 3 of 143Emerson, Esty, Kim, Mara, Sherbinin, & Srebotnjak (2010) stated that Malaysiaranked 54 out of 163 examined countries and performed better in addressingenvironmental challenges. This indicated that Malaysia has enjoyed one of theleast polluted environments in Asia. However, massive industrial development inrecent years caused Malaysia still facing a number of environmental problems dueto an increase in urbanization and vehicle use. According to Waltraud Mayr(2010), about 56% of waste is recycled in Singapore, whereas Malaysia isprojected to only reach 22% by 2020. This shows that Malaysia has low publicawareness on recycling as compare with Singapore.An article in Bernama shows that littering was a common legal offence in Penang.Surprisingly, the main reason caused the river pollution was littering by Penangresidents, no longer caused by industrial waste. Thus, it shows that there is a lackof environmental responsible behaviour expressed in Penang residents (“Garbage,Main Cause of River Pollution in Penang,” 2009).Besides, Malaysia realized that investing in environmental protection becomeincreasingly important. Therefore, environmental awareness is building up.Currently, several other initiatives are being implemented by government toencourage consumers and industries to fully practice energy efficiency. Forexample, phase out incandescent light bulbs in order to reduce the emission ofcarbon dioxide. Moreover, a scheme set up by government known as GreenTechnology Financing Scheme was aim to promote industries for utilise lowcarbon and resource efficient technologies. Therefore, green services will belaunched to reduce energy consumption and minimise pollution (“Market Watch”,2012).Nowadays, environmental problems have caught the attention not only forworldwide citizens, but also worldwide companies and institutions. According toPapadopoulos’s study (as cited in Zand Hessami & Yousefi, 2013), consumershave more concern to their environments compare to the past and it will changetheir purchase behaviour. Thus, from the perspective of consumers, concern forPage 4 of 143environmental will greatly influence their decision making in selecting orpurchasing goods or products.According to Polonsky and Rosenberger (2001) indicated that 84% peopleconsidered they have the responsibility to the environment. They are willing topurchase products from environmental friendly companies. Besides,environmental issues have change 49 per cent of respondents’ purchasingbehaviour (Bowee’s study as cited in Zand Hessami et al., 2013) and 75% peoplebecome more concern on the environmental issues (Baker’s study as cited in ZandHessami et al., 2013).People become more consciousness and awareness towards environmental issueshas led to a green revolution and alters peoples’ demands and purchase behaviour.Consumers who purchase those eco-friendly products and services will havepositive effect on the environment. A new market was developed which known asgreen marketing. Those customers who concern about the environment andsupport green marketing are known as green consumers. Normally, this kind ofconsumers will practice their consumption behaviour by purchase green productsthat have less impact to their environment.In additions, property sector also involved in concerning the environmentaldevelopment by develop the green building such as Hotel Penage and 1 FirstAvenue, and Digi Technology Operation Centre Malaysia. Other than that,hypermarket chains such as Carrefour, Giant, and Tesco have implemented “NoPlastic Bag Day” practise to minimize the plastic usage. Meanwhile, manycorporate sectors in Malaysia have launched their respective green initiatives. Forexample, Sime Darby held a campaign program known as “Plant a Tree Program”.DIGI has launched “Deep Green” and “Mangrove-Saving Project” with the aimsto develop a green value chain with the help from its local communities andvarious stakeholders. Besides, the purpose of the “The Light” project thatlaunched by IJM Land Berhad was to promote green property that includes somegreen technologies in its construction. Not only that, recently 8TV has activelypromoted and educated public regarding the positive behaviour towardsPage 5 of 143environment via a television programme known as “Let’s Cycle”. In additions,government also encourage all institutions to participate in “Earth Hour”campaign on March 28 every year to turn off the light for one hour in order topromote environmental awareness to public as well as to respond to the support ofgreen activities.According to Our Green World (2008), an online survey conducted by the globalmarket insight and information group TNS in 2008 shown about 35% Malaysianrespondents resulted that “green” promotion launched by companies wouldinfluence their purchasing decisions. Meanwhile, about 83% Malaysianrespondents replied from online survey shown that their buying decision would beaffected based on their perceptions towards how environmental protection wasimplemented by a company. These finding results are consistence to Abdul Wahid& Abustan (2002) which found that majority consumers indicated that theirpurchasing intention will affect by the green products’ advertisement.Besides that, consumers now are more care and aware of their consumptionbehaviour to the environmental impact. Dagnoli and Klein’s study (as cited inFollows and Jobber, 2000) discovered that more than 60% of consumers werelinked their buying behaviour with the impact on the environmental. It shows thatconsumers now are more prefer on green products. This implies that there isincreasing number of green consumers in the market.Therefore, concern to the environmental issues did change the consumers’consumption pattern because they are starting to realize that their buyingbehaviour can actually bring a significant impact to their environmental. Althoughthe green marketing create an opportunity to those marketers, but they stillencounter some greatest challenges such as tendency of consumers acceptancetowards green products, changes in consumers preferences, unfavourableconsumers perception towards green products, high cost investment in developingin green marketing, misgiving of green advertising claim and others challenges.Hence, companies who wish to sustain in this market should resolve all challengesencounter by them, advocate the contribution of consumers towards environmentPage 6 of 143by purchase green products and deeply analyse on the consumers preferencestowards green products. Meanwhile, companies should practice socialresponsibility by offering environmental friendly products. This can be thecompetitive advantage for those companies who wish to a leader in the greenmarketing.1.2 Research ProblemThis research aims to identify the working consumers’ purchasing behaviourtowards green products. The study also analyses how the factors (social influences,environmental attitudes, environmental concern, perceived effectiveness ofenvironmental problems, perceived effectiveness of environmental behaviour,perceived environmental responsibility, and government initiative) influenceworking consumers’ green purchasing behaviour.Nowadays, “green” can be considered in the mainstream of the business as it canbe seen from the finding that about 83% Malaysian respondents replied fromonline survey shown that their buying decision would be affected based on theirperceptions towards how environmental protection was implemented by acompany (Our Green World, 2008). Therefore, businesses that offer eco-friendlyproducts and services would be a very profitable business in the market. The studyof Abdul Wahid et al. (2002) stated that consumers who concerning on theenvironmental will show their purchasing behaviour through supporting on“Green” brand (Oyewole, 2001). In additions, many institutions have activelylaunched and participated in promoting green programme to community such asEcoKnights. It provides environmental outreach programmes for communities andindustry players to advance the cause of environmental issues through better andwider dissemination of environmental news and views. Anugerah Hijau or GreenAwards is a programme launched by EcoKnights to address environmental issueswith youth through “Sustainable Fashion”, “Eco Architecture” and“Environmental Film Making” competition.Page 7 of 143Although studying those determinates that affects consumers purchase behaviourtowards green products could definitely provide important information andforesight even benefits to green marketer in this high competitive business world.However, the findings from numerous studies that have been carried out byformer researchers regarding to the green purchase behaviour are often clash witheach other. This may because the research outcome may be only relevant incertain period, geographical, demographical or culture context due to changeablein consumers purchasing behaviour towards green products.Furthermore, many people believe that introduce green products to public are oneof the market means to grow their consumers consumptions rate and boost theirsale rate rather than to satisfy consumers’ needs and wants. According to Grunert(1993), only few customers insist on the environmental concerns and show it inthe actual purchase behaviour. Despite many environmental friendly products withgreen attribute and features have been introduced in the markets, yet consumershave not totally changed their taste and old habits. Even though many peopleaware about the environment issues and willing to respond in environmentalfriendly products or services, yet there have a survey result shown that only 8%respondents changed their purchasing behaviour to benefit the environment (OurGreen World, 2008).Besides, study conducted by Nik Abdul Rashid (2009) shows that consumers maynot necessarily would purchase green products or services although they haveplenty knowledge on green products and eco-labels. Moreover, a research foundthat although consumers are care for their environmental but they still did notbuying the green products or services (Alwitt & Bergers’s study as cited in YamTang and Chan, 1998). This means that they did not perform in green manneralthough they realized on the environmental degrading. Therefore, it was worth tofound out what cause consumers did not behave in environmental friendly mannereven though they are aware the environmental issues.On the other hand, there have few studies regarding green purchasing behaviourwere conducted by former researchers such as Chan and Lau, 2000; Soonthonsmai,Page 8 of 1432001; Tanner and Kast, 2003; Kamal & Vinnie, 2007; Lee, 2008; Cheah, 2009.Most of the researchers are focused on youth or general consumers than workingconsumers. Apart from this, the results are varies due to the origin or differentsamples were used in different countries. In this study, researcher decided tofocuses on working consumers because high purchasing power caused themhaving the final decision in all purchasing activities. Therefore, the factors thataffected working consumers’ green purchase behaviour are worth to find out.1.3 Research QuestionsThe research questions in this study are generated as the following:i. Is demographic factors would influence working consumers’ greenpurchasing behaviour?ii. Is there any relationship between factors influence (social influences,environmental attitudes, environmental concern, perceived effectiveness ofenvironmental problems, perceived effectiveness of environmental behaviour,perceived environmental responsibility, and government initiative) and workingconsumers’ green purchasing behaviour?1.4 Research ObjectivesThis study is aim to identify factors that influence working consumers’ greenpurchasing behaviour. The research objectives are generated as the following:i. To investigate whether demographic factors would influence workingconsumers’ green purchasing behaviour.Page 9 of 143 ii.To identify whether there is a relationship between factors influence(social influences, environmental attitudes, environmental concern, perceivedeffectivenessofenvironmentalproblems,perceivedeffectivenessof environmental behaviour, perceived environmental responsibility, and governmentinitiative) and working consumers’ green purchasing behaviour.1.5 Significance of the studyAs we known that “green” was the mainstream in business due to awareness ofenvironmental issues. However, only few researches have related to the topic ofgreen purchase behaviour in Malaysia context. Therefore, deeply examine in thisrelated topic will provide a clear understanding for marketers on workingconsumers’ purchasing behaviour towards green products.Apart from this, this study also assists marketers to better understand the potentialof green market as well as the green purchase tendency of consumers. Normally,what was prefers by consumers now may not remain the same in the future due todynamic change in the competitive business world. Consumers’ green purchasingbehaviour is constantly changed. Therefore, continuously exploring in the greenconsumption pattern and preference of green purchase is a must for all greenmarketers who wish to improve and sustain their competitive advantage. Cheah(2009) and Chen and Lau (2010) stated that the demand of green products inMalaysia market was increasingly. Besides, about 83% Malaysian respondentsreplied from online survey shown that their buying decision would be affectedbased on their perceptions towards how environmental protection wasimplemented by a company. According to Lung (2010) found that around 95%consumers from Thai, more than 80% Korean and Malaysian consumers arewilling to pay more for green products. It is worth to discover what actually drivesconsumer from emerging market to buy green products and provide foresights togreen marketers who wish to target in the market segment.Page 10 of 143In additions, this study also can help marketers well known on the consumers’willingness to buy green products. According to Bui (2005), there have asignificant amounts of studies has been conducted on topics regarding to thepurchasing of environmental friendly products or consumers behaviour towardsenvironmental friendly products since 1970’s. However, a study conducted byAbdul Wahid et al. (2002) concluded that respondents who possess highawareness of environmental issues not so willing to purchase environmentalfriendly products. According to Ohtomo & Hirose’s study (as cited in Ooi, Kwek,& Keoy 2012) said that although a person was concerned and appreciated to her orhis environment will not necessarily perform in a green manner or buy greenproducts. This state of affairs was known as value-action gap.Dickson (2001) explained that value-action gap is “a gap between the high valuepeople place on the nature environment and relatively low level of action taken byindividuals to counter environmental problems”. Blake (1999) also defined valueaction gap was “the gap occur when the values or attitudes of an individual do notcorrelate with their actions”. It means that consumers will only support and buygreen products when their environmental awareness and consciousness align withtheir purchase behaviour (Ajzen, 1991). Hence, a study proves that people whoare aware of the environment do not necessarily behave in green manner (Ooi et al,2012). Therefore, researcher need to have a deep investigation on the factorsinfluencing that caused the situation above and fully understanding what factorswill mainly and exactly influence and affect consumers purchasing behaviourtowards green products.Furthermore, this research can assists and benefit marketers in promoting andincreasing the awareness of working consumers towards green products. It alsocan provide useful foresight to manufacturers who wish to target on workingconsumers. On the other hand, government would like to encourage moreMalaysia entrepreneurs to participate in production, promotion and marketing ofthe green products in order to promote and increase green consumptions amongMalaysian consumers. These enable consumers to found that green productswould be better met their needs and wants in the near future. Green consumptionPage 11 of 143is a way to support for sustainable development which can provide a better andimproved natural environmental to society. According to Ward (2010), sustainabledevelopment means “development that meets the needs of the present withoutcompromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs”.Consequently, this study can provide an overview of the green marketing tomarketers who have interest to penetrate on it. It also provide beneficial tocommercial sector that targeted on green consumers to have a better understand inthe green market abilities and capabilities.1.6 ConclusionThis chapter provide an overview study on the factors influence on workingconsumers’ purchasing behaviour. Next chapter will be discussed on the variablesand developed a proposed conceptual framework that descripted the relationshipsbetween variables and working consumers’ green purchasing behaviour. All theformer researchers’ statements or results are provided and explained in nextchapter.Page 12 of 143CHAPTER 2LITERATURE REVIEW2.0 IntroductionThis chapter provides a literature review of factors that influence workingconsumers’ purchasing behaviour towards green products. The purpose toconducted literature review is to further define the term and the characteristics ofthe topic related in respectively. After that, a good conceptual framework will bedeveloped to summaries the variables’ relationship in a graphical way, follow byhypotheses development. This chapter will end with conclusion of this chapter.2.1 Literature Review2.1.1 Green Consumer and Green ProductsGreen consumers are defined as consumers who are concern, care and pay closeattention to the environmental issues (Soonthonsmai, 2007). Green consumersalways have a clear mindset that they have the responsibility to the environmentalprotection and concern for the environment issues. Therefore, green consumersalways purchase products that have less environmental impact. Green consumersalso defined by Renfro (2010) as the people who support businesses that trade inthe environmental friendly or green manner. Therefore, not only organic productwill be buy by green consumers, those products that have eco-label or eco-friendlypacking will always being chosen by green consumers. In addition, corporates orPage 13 of 143companies such as Starbucks and The Body Shop are actively participate in thefair trade or environmental save programme. This practice will be alwayssupported by green consumers. Table 1 show the different types of greenconsumers and their implications for the green marketers. For betterunderstanding of the green consumers, it was essential to have some knowledgeand understandable about the green products.Page 14 of 143Table 1: Type of Green Consumers and the Implication for the Green Marketers Attributes of environmentally consciousconsumersImplications for the green marketersWill most likely be well-educated, young adultwomen who have more money to spend.• Target products to women who generally buy behalf of men and families.• Use the influence of children to encourage parents to try green products. They aregreen consumers of the future and are generally knowledgeable aboutenvironmental issues thanks to school and community education programs.• Offer samples and incentives to try products.Will expect green products to function as effectivelyas non-green products and won’t pay much extra orsacrifice quality for greener products.• Effectively communicate assurances of quality, for example, quality ofperformance, look, feel, fit, comfort, durability, etc.• Will not buy green products on the basis of environmental benefits alone. Productchoice is still based on whether it meets their basic want and need. Environmentalfeatures are added selling points.• Link environmental attributes such as energy efficiency or toxic substancereduction with other benefits such as lower price, convenience or quality of lifeimprovementsWill be more likely to respond to product attributesthat will personally benefit them.• Emphasise personal benefits by using terms such as ‘safe’, ‘non-toxic’, ‘costeffective’ rather than more generalised green messages such as ‘biodegradable’ or‘ozone friendly’. Page 15 of 143Note: Government, Q. (2009). Fact Sheet Green Marketing. E. P. Agency. Will tolerate only minimal inconvenience in usinggreen products and don’t want to have to go out oftheir way to buy them.• Make using the product simple, for example, minimise or eliminate refillingbottles.• Select mainstream distributors where possible.• Offer one-stop shopping and eye-appealing displays.Will be analytical, eager to learn, and can be cynicalabout corporate claims for green product unless theyhave independent verification.• Reinforce product benefits with evidence of corporate environmental performanceand improvements.• Educate consumers about environmental issues and your efforts through a varietyof means.• Provide credible environmental endorsements.• Use labels, in compliance with government labelling guidelines, to convey precise,detailed information about your product and its packaging.Will not expect companies to have perfect greencredentials, but will look for a commitment toimprove and evidence backed by facts.• Communicate your steps towards sustainability and commitment to improvement.• Seek feedback and promote your efforts to respond to customer concerns. Page 16 of 143Many researchers have defined green product in various definitions. Ottman(1998), Nimse, Vijayan, Kumar, and Varadarajan (2007) and Pavan (2010)defined green products as products that made from recyclable materials, leastwastage or minimum packaging, less or non-toxic substance, and reduce thewastage of energy and water. Generally, green products also known asenvironmental friendly products or ecological products which enhance or protectthe environment and brings less negative impact or harmful effect to environmentas well as human. According to Baker and Ozaki (2008), it was difficult to defineenvironmentally sustainable products because there is unable to find a greenproduct that is genuinely green or sustainable. All the goods or products that wepurchase, use or throw away will have some negative impacts and consequencesto the environment at its lifecycle stage. Therefore, Baker et al. (2008) concludedthat environmentally sustainable products were those products that have less orlow impact to the environmental.Moreover, Schlegelmilch, Bohlen, and Diamantopoulos (1996), Lee (2008) andPavan (2010) had classified green products into several categories which arecontain natural ingredients, original grown,do not pollute environment,not test onanimals, contain recycled content, recyclable and reusable, and contain approvedchemical. Examples of green products include organic agricultures or food, green(lead-free) electronics products, alternative fuel vehicles and hybrids, eco-friendlygarments, and other green products.Takafumi (2002) stated that green products can provide direct and indirect valueto consumers. Direct value means the value will be immediate effect to consumerssuch as increase in safety or reduce in capital if consumers use green products.Whereas, indirect value means that consumers believe utilizing green productswill benefits and protect the environment although they cannot determine animmediate benefits from utilizing the green products.Page 17 of 1432.1.2 Green MarketingGreen can be defined and indicated in many different meanings. Green defined byPrem and Daleen (1993) as environmental and ecological awareness orconsciousness, corporate social responsibility (CSR), sustainable development,environmental protection or conservation, and new consumerism.Polonsky (1994) stated that “green or environmental marketing consists of allactivities designed to generate and facilitate any exchanges intended to satisfyhuman needs or wants, such that the satisfaction of these needs and wants occurswith minimal detrimental impact on the natural environment”. In other words,green marketing was a path for companies to introduce and promoteenvironmental friendly or green products to customers in order to satisfy itscustomers’ needs and wants. Generally, companies or organizations thatpenetrated in green marketing will vigorously promote its environmental friendlypolicies and achievements to its target customers as well as potential targetcustomers. It means that companies or organizations need to advertise andpromote its products or services that composite with environmental or greencharacteristics like organic, environmental friendly and recycle that applied inproducing consumer products or goods. Besides, the difference betweenconventional marketing and green marketing lead to a variety of activities neededin green marketing which includes modification on the products, changes in theproductions process, change in the products distribution, new style and decorationin products packaging, and change in the way of marketing communications.Table 2 explained the better way to understand the concept of green marketing.Page 18 of 143Table 2: Comparison between Green Marketing and Conventional MarketingNote: Prem & Daleen (1993). Consumer Awareness towards Green Marketing, 2011.According to the Dagnoli (1991), there were a growing number of people thatprefer to purchase environmental friendly products will lead to increasingly in thenumber of green customers. In other words, consumers now are more concern tobusiness that play more environmental efforts and they will support companiesthat excellent in and master with their green marketing. However, greenconsumers not really will buy green products although they have plentyknowledge on green products Nik Abdul Rashid, 2009), possess high awarenessof environmental issues (Abdul Wahid et al., 2002) or concerned and appreciatedto her or his environment Ohtomo & Hirose’s study as cited in Ooi et al., 2012)will not necessarily behave in green manner or take responsibility to purchaseenvironmental friendly or green products. This circumstance may due to somewrong green marketing practices implemented by companies which led to thefailure of green marketing. Table 3 illustrates in details about the practices ofgreen marketing that led to the failure of green marketing. CategoriesGreen MarketingConventionalMarketingConsumerHuman beings with livesConsumer with lifestyleProducts“Cradle-to-cradle”flexible services“Cradle-to-gave” one sizefits for all productsMarketing andCommunicationEducational valuesSelling oriented andbenefitsCorporateProactive,interdependent,cooperative, holistic, longtermReceptive, independent,competitive, short termoriented, profitmaximizing Page 19 of 143Table 3: Practices Lead to the Failure of Green MarketingNote: Peattie, K., & Crane, A. (2005). Green marketing: Legend, myth, farce or prophesy?Qualitative Market Research: An International Journal, 8(4), 357–370.According to Peattie and Crane (2005), ‘green selling’ is one of the practices thatcommonly led to the failure of green marketing. To seize the businessopportunities of green marketing trend, many companies blindly follow the trendby adding some green characteristic into the original products in order to boosttheir sales without conducts a thoroughly research and plenty knowledge onconcept of green marketing and green consumerism. Moreover, some companieswho implements green harvesting practices will become enthusiastic to theenvironment only when this practice could led to cost savings such as packagereductions (Peattie et al., 2005). In addition, according to Peattie et al. (2005),some firms also practice entrepreneur marketing by developing an innovative Practices that led to thefailure of green marketingDefinitionGreen spinningTaking a reactive approach by using publicrelations to deny or discredit the public’scriticisms against the company’s practices.Green sellingTaking an opportunistic approach by adding somegreen claims to existing products with theintention to boost sales.Green harvestingBecoming enthusiastic about the environment onlywhen greening could result in cost savings (e.g., interms of energy and material input inefficiencies,package reductions, etc.).Entrepreneur marketingDeveloping innovative green products to marketwithout really understanding what the consumersactually want.Compliance marketingUsing simple compliance with implemented orexpected environmental legislation as anopportunity to promote the company’s greencredentials without taking initiatives to go beyondresponding to regulations. Page 20 of 143green products to market without clearly understand the actual needs and wants ofconsumers. In other words, it produces useless products to market because theproducts didn’t meet the needs and wants of consumers. To avoid misuse onmarketing practices, marketing practitioners should thoroughly understand thegreen marketing concept in order to help them select and implement the rightgreen marketing practices which in return can bring a lot of benefits to companies.Besides, there are some international companies that implement their greenpractices and strategies successfully in green marketing. For example, accordingto Petrecca & Howard (2007), Timberland implement green packaging in itsshoeboxes by using 100% recycled material. A new label that draws up the shoesconsisted of organic, recycled, and renewable materials contents was introduced tomarket in 2007. The company’s green effort can be recognized by consumersthrough the new label of its products. Therefore, Timberland was successfullyimproved the environment (Petrecca et al., 2007). In additions, according toPetrecca et al. (2007), PepsiCo also successfully improve the environment throughits business operations. In 2007, solar energy was staring to implement intoPepsiCo’s building and water are recycles from its own factory.2.1.2.1 Green Marketing in MalaysiaApart from this, according to Sinnappan et al. (2011), Malaysia has enacted theEnvironment Quality Act since 1974. This indicated that Malaysia is one of thecountries that have seriously considered the environment impact and issues.Except enacting legislation to protect environment and beware of environmentaldeterioration, government recently have established the “Ministry of Energy,Green Technology and Water” to meets the sustained increase in demand andimprovement of green technology towards sustainable development.Ahmed, Kamalanabhan & Chih (2001) revealed some green corporations inMalaysia have contributed to the environment by implemented green marketingstrategies. For example, Canon Corporation emphasize on the using the recyclePage 21 of 143cartridge in its “Clean Earth Campaign” to reduce the environmental pollution.Besides, 3M Company deemed that prevention is better than cure. Hence, they arefocus on and struggle in preventing the pollution sources rather than remove it. Inaddition, Monark is stressed on green manufacturing processes by using therecycle bottle in order to lessen the waste and control the pollution rate.Furthermore, Rampai Niaga Sdn Bhd emphasized its cosmetic and toiletriesproducts of are no animal testing. It used this competitive advantage to distinguishitself from competitors.2.1.3 Green Purchase Behaviour (GPB)Green purchase behaviour defined by Chan (2001) as a particular types ofenvironmental friendly behaviour that consumers express their caring andattention to the environment. In addition, green purchase behaviour also refers tothe consumption of products that are recyclable or conservable, beneficial orbenevolent to the environment, and sensitive or responsive to ecological concern(Mostafa, 2007). Increasing the awareness of consumers towards environmentalissues will increased the demand for ecological products.Many past researcher have conducted research on consumers’ behaviour towardsgreen products since 1970’s. Therefore, there have many different variables suchas attitudes, values, beliefs or knowledge are used to test which factors will driveconsumers’ choice to purchase environmental friendly products (Bui, 2005).Follows and Jobber (2000) confirmed that their study existence the hierarchicalrelationship of values-attitudes-intention-behaviour when they conducted aresearch on prediction of buying eco-friendly and unfriendly products on adifferent consumer model.Some studies on green segmentation have been conducted by past researchers.Laroche, Bergeron & Barbaro-Forleo (2001) were investigated on the NorthAmerica consumers’ willingness to pay more for eco-friendly products based onthe consumers’ demographics, psychological and behavioural. They found thatPage 22 of 143women who are married with at least one child were supported to its result.Besides, the analysis has been done by Paco et al. (2009) regarding to thedemographic and environmental criteria in Portuguese consumers was found thatthey were reluctant to buy green products even though they are aware of theenvironmental issues. For Straughan et al. (1999), they study had shown thatpsychographic criteria was more accurate and useful than demographic criteria inanalyse consumers purchasing behaviour.Furthermore, numerous studies regarding factors that influence green consumers’purchase behaviours have been conducted by former researchers such as Chan andLau (2000), D’Souza, Taghian, Lamb and Peretiatkos (2006), and Lee (2008). Totesting on the consumers’ green purchase intention, target respondent of Lee(2008) was adolescent consumers whereas the respondents of D’Souza et al. (2006)were majority Australian female consumers with aged around 35 to 54 years old.Chan et al. (2000) were studying on Chinese consumers’ green purchasebehaviour through the influence of three independent variables. According to Lee(2009), a further study conducted to survey on how different in gender in variousfactors would influence Hong Kong adolescent consumers’ green purchasebehaviour.According to Gupta and Ogden (2009), “trust”, “in-group identity”, “expectationof others’ co-operation” and “perceived efficacy” was useful individualcharacteristics to differentiate buyers from “green” or “non-green”. Their researchalso helpful in understanding the reasons caused the gap between attitude andbehaviour in green consumerism.In recent years, researchers only start carries out studies on environmental labels.D’Souza (2004) had developed a model to classified consumers into fourcategories, namely “environmentally green consumers”, “emerging greenconsumers”, “price sensitive green consumers” and “conventional consumers”.D’Souza et al. (2006) were further investigated on the different environmentalismlevel of Australian consumers through the influence of environmental labels. Theystudy found that consumers can be grouped into either they found environmentalPage 23 of 143labels are difficult to understand or they can read the labels and willing to buygreen products although the products are in low quality (D’Souza et al, 2006).However, there has only few researchers conducted qualitative research related togreen purchase behaviour and green strategy. After discover this research gap,Tadajewski and Tsukamoto (2006) conducted a qualitative research to study onthe complexity behavioural of UK and Germany consumers towards greenproducts by using life-cycle analysis. Their study shows that looking for theproducts’ brand name was the simplest way for consumers to evaluate the“greenness” of a product (Tadajewski et al., 2006). Besides, Pujari and Wright(1996) also conducted a qualitative study in analysing the product developmentstrategies for eco-friendly products on the selected companies in Britain andGermany. Their study revealed that effectiveness of environmental strategy onproduct development can create a competitive advantage to company itself (Pujariet al., 1996).Besides, differences in a country’s cultural and socio-economic conditions wouldcause different factors are being tested on consumers’ green purchase behaviour inthat country. Thus, variables use by researches to determine the consumer’s greenpurchase behaviour also varies among them. For example, Sinnappan et al. (2011)and Lee (2008) used Theory of Reasoned Actions model to determine theMalaysian consumers’ green purchasing behaviour. The variables used in theirstudies were “environmental attitude”, “government initiative”, “peer pressure”,“green purchase intention” and et cetera.2.1.3.1Theory of Reasoned Actions (TRA)Theory of Reasoned Actions (TRA) was a theory use to study consumers’attitudes regarding to how these attitudes are formed and how other people couldinfluence their behaviour. Hence, TRA model is used to discuss on how theconsumers’ attitudes towards the environmental issues can affect their greenbuying behaviour and action (Fishbein and Ajzen, 1975). Many researchers suchPage 24 of 143as Baker and Ozaki (2008), Gupta and Ogden (2009), and Kalafatis, et al. (1999)have applied this theory in different field to analyse human’s behaviour. Besides,TRA also extensively discussed and used to explore consumers’ purchasingintention (Lee and Green, 1990) or consumers’ purchasing behaviour (Mostafa,2007; Cheah, 2009).TRA assumed that “People consider the implications of their actions before theydecide to engage or not engage in certain behaviours” (Fishbein et al., 1975; 1980).Ajzen (2005) stated that an individual’s intention consist of behavioural character,when an individual have decide to engage in certain behaviour will convert his orher intention into action in an appropriate opportunity and right time. On the otherhand, Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) model also useful in predicting andexplaining consumers’ green purchasing behaviour (Sparks and Shepherd, 1992).2.1.3.2 Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB)According to Ajzen (1991), “the theory of planned behaviour is an extension ofthe theory of reasoned action (Ajzen && Fishbein, 1975; 1980) made necessaryby the original model’s limitations in dealing with behaviours over which peoplehave incomplete volitional control”.Azjen (1991) explained that “intentions to perform behaviours of different kindscan be predicted with high accuracy from attitudes toward the behaviour,subjective norms, and perceived behavioural control; and these intentions,together with perceptions of behavioural control, account for considerablevariance in actual behaviour.”TPB model also been used by many former researchers in studying on organicfoods such as Aertsens, Verbeke, Mondelaers & Van Huylenbroeck (2009),Tarkiainen and Sundqvist (2005), Vermeir and Verbeke (2006). Thus, this theorycan be used to investigate the purchasing behaviour of green products sinceorganic foods were categories as one of the green products. Chan (2001) statedPage 25 of 143that consumers who concern to their environmental will show environmentalfriendly behaviour and support green purchasing. However, the study of Ohtomoand Hirose (2007) revealed that green consumers will not necessary behave ingreen manner or supporting and buying green products even though they are careand aware to the environmental issue. It meant that consumers did not transforminto actual performance although they have the intention to do so.This study is to understand the various determinates of the green purchasebehaviour in order to provide the insights of the green consumerism and serve as aguideline for companies to formulate and implement their green and sustainablemarketing strategies accurately and effectively. The determinate includes socialinfluences, environmental attitudes, environmental concern, perceivedeffectiveness of environmental problems, perceived effectiveness ofenvironmental behaviour, perceived environmental responsibility, and governmentinitiative.2.1.4 Social Influence (SI)Information provided by people can have a great effects or tremendous impact onconsumers are known as social influence. According to Ryan (2001), socialdynamic refers to association among an individual with other people. It means thatan individual shares their beliefs, thoughts and values with other people that he orshe communicated with. For example, how much the person gain knowledgeabout green products through his or her family, how much she or he discusses inthe field of environmental products with his or her friends and how much he orshe shares the information about green products with family (Finisterra do Paço &Raposo, 2008).Kalafatis et al. (1999) further defined that “social norm is whether an actionshould or should not be performed by a respondent in a referent’s point of view”.The referent’s point of view in here could be defines as the perspective of friends,colleagues, neighbours, organizations, family members or other referents.Page 26 of 143According to Daido (2004), change in the environmental can change the mindsetand influences the behavioural of people. When people were complying to dosome things that they were not required to comply with, the social influence canled to a big shifting in people behavioural. This meant that people will buy greenproducts when their social context is encouraging them to behave in green manner.It is clearly to show that providing people with information are not enough tochange their behaviour. Bearden and Etzel (1982), Moore, Wilkie, and Lutz(2002), Price, Feick, and Higie (1987), and Ward and Reingen (1990) havementioned that the importance of social influence on consumers’ productsevaluation and products choice. According to Coulter, Price & Feick (2003),social network and product involvement are co-related. Social context ofconsumers, for instance friends, co-workers, and family which provide essentialinfluence and feedback on their consumption will finally affected their decision onproduct and brand choice.According to Business Wire (2009), a survey conducted by Ad-ology Researchfound that social media or social networking such as Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn,YouTube, Flickr and others social media have significant impact on consumerspurchasing behaviour. For instance, people are widely share the informationrelated to environmental activities such as Earth Hour in social media. Thus,social media played an importance role in coaching people in learning aboutenvironmental activities. When they transfer the received information intopractices and in the end, social media can affect consumers’ buying behaviourtowards green products.2.1.5 Environmental Attitude (EA)Attitude refers to “a mental and neural state of readiness, which exerts a directinfluence upon the individual’s response to all objects and situations with which itis related” (Allport, 1935). Attitude also can be defined as desirable or undesirablePage 27 of 143evaluations (Ajzen, 1991) and continuous positive or negative feelings (Newhouse(1991) that a particular people have towards objects, issues or other people.Nik Abdul Rashid (2009) defined environmental attitude as “a learnedpredisposition to respond consistently favourable or unfavourable manner withrespect to the environment”. While, Schulz, Shriver, Tabanico and Khazian (2004)defined environmental attitude as “the collection of beliefs, affect, andbehavioural intentions a person holds regarding environmentally related activitiesor issues”. In additions, environmental attitude was further defined by Lee (2008)based on an individuals’ cognitive assessment of the value of environmentalprotection. In other words, environmental attitude would affect consumers’attitude and buying decisions (Schwepker and Cornwell, 1991).Peattie (2001) proposed that the degree of compromise involved and confidenceof a particular purchasing choice towards green products may vary accordingly.According to Laroche et al. (2001) and Chyong et al. (2006), attitudes is the mostsignificant factor in predicting consumers’ willingness to pay more forenvironmental friendly products. This means that price is not an obstacle forconsumers who are voluntary participate in pro-environment activities or to buygreen products. Environment degradation will decrease if consumer possess apositive attitude towards environmental protection will eventually transfer it into areal practice by being a green consumerism (Tanner and Kast, 2003). However,many people feel that government have the fundamental and essentialresponsibility in preserving the environment although people have high consciousand concern on their environment.Schultz (2000) stated that environmental attitudes can be classified in three typeswhich are altruistic attitudes, self-centered attitudes, and eco-centric attitudes.Altruistic attitudes include the concerns over others. Self-centered attitudesinclude their concerns. Eco-centric attitudes include concern for the environment.Based on research result, Schultz (2000) founded that self-centered attitudes arecausing the behaviour of consumers.Page 28 of 143In additions, Abdul Wahid et al. (2002) discovered that young Malaysian willingto behave in more green manner to improve the quality of their environment.According to Abdul Wahid, Abustan and Karwi (2000) revealed that individual,industries, government and finance have equal important roles in build up apositive attitude of individual towards environmental protection. Therefore, manycompanies recently started to emphasize their responsibility towards environmentby produced environmental friendly products and keep track with the changes ofenvironment.2.1.6 Environmental Concern (EC)According to Chan and Lau (2004), environmental concern has variety definitionswhich depend on perspective and its complicated and unstable nature.Environmental concern defined by Dunlap and Jones (2002) as people awarenessof environmental problems and attempts to solve it. However, the early definitionof environmental concern was the degree of protective attitude towardsenvironment (Crosby, Taylor & Gill, 1981), but later was defined as a generalattitude which has an indirect influence on attitude through behavioural intent(Gill, Crosby & Taylor, 1986).In addition, environmental concern refers to an individual’s emotional featuresuch as like or dislike, worries and consideration Yeung, 2004) and the belief,attitude, and degree of concern (Said, Ahmadun, Paim & Masud, 2003) towardsthe environment. Hence, environmental concern can be concluded that anindividual was emotionally involved to environmental related issues.Schultz and Zelezny (2000) stated that “attitudes of environmental concern arerooted in a person’s concept of self and the degree to which an individualperceives him or herself to be an integral part of the natural environment”. Someof the environmental sociologists have referred environmental attitudes as“environmental concern” (Vining & Ebreo, 1992; Fransson & Gärling, 1999;Dunlap et al, 2002). It meant that environmental concern is synonymous withPage 29 of 143environmental attitude. Therefore, this two terms can used interchangeable inmany studies (Dunlap et al., 2002). However, some of the studies have separatedthem into two different terms (Stern and Dietz, 1994; Schultz et al., 2000;Sinnappan et al., 2011; Zank Hessami et al., 2013).Moreover, different segments of the workforce react differently towards the greenissues (Ahmed et al., 2001). Walter (1990) found that consumers concern onenvironmental issues does not always translate into purchasing decisions.However, Dagnoli (1990) and Bang, Ellinger, Hadjimarcou, & Traichal (2000)found that consumers who are more concern towards environment issues will stillswitched to purchase green products even its price much higher than non-green orless eco-friendly products. Kim and Choi (2005) pointed out that people with highconcerning to the environmental issues are willing to buy green products and viceversa.2.1.7 Perceived Seriousness of Environmental Problems (EP)Amyx, DeJong, Chakraborty and Wiener (1994) defined perceived seriousness ofenvironmental problems as a degree of personal concern and considerable towardsecological issues. When people encounter those environmental issues, the amountof inconveniences and troubles that people need to deal with and the attitude andbehaviour that they should have towards the environmental issues was difficultyto know. For instance, easy and convenience for consumption may causeconsumers to purchase a product or food even they know the packaging of theproduct or food will hazardous or damage for the nature and environment.Banerjee and Mckeage (1994) stated that the perception of an individual to theintensity, dangerous and seriousness of environmental issues and problems couldaffect his or her green purchasing behaviour. In other words, non-green consumersthat do not behave in green manner believe that the environment problems will besolved by themselves automatically and vice versa.Page 30 of 143Besides, Moser and Uzzell (2003) stated that the mass media play an essential rolein educating consumers to understand the importance of environmental problems.For example, marketers convey the message regarding to how their product canreduce the environmental problems and how consumers can contributed toenvironment through buying the green products. Through this, people will awarethe environmental problems and their responsibility towards the environment.2.1.8 Perceived Environmental Responsibility (ER)According to Sukhdial and Venice (1990), perceived environmental responsibilityrefers as the degree of an individual’s perception of self-employment in protectingthe environment. In other words, perceived environmental responsibility was thelevel of concern belongs to an individual towards the environmental and socialresponsibility to save the environment from continuously deterioration by usingnot eco-friendly products.Lai (2000) further defined perceived environmental responsibility as a degree ofemotional involvement in environmental issues. However, perceivedenvironmental responsibility was defined by Zank Hessami et al. (2013) as abehaviour and attitude of a person that he or she is responsible for his or herconsumption behaviour and its effects towards the nature and environment.Generally, people expect and believe government have the ability and caneliminate the environmental problems. However, Lai (2000) found that people arehesitate or unwilling to make one-side sacrifices with the government’s policy.Therefore, even many people have ecological concern, but they feel that theenvironmental protection is the responsibility of the government or hugecorporations instead of themselves.Furthermore, according to Strong (1996) revealed that the major damage to theenvironment was caused during the manufacturing process. Thus, consumers whosupport green products will avoid those not eco-friendly products which willPage 31 of 143endanger and damage their health. The norm activation model that suggested bySchwartz (1977) found that when individual aware and conscious of adverseconsequences and feel responsible for these consequences will inspire theindividual’s helping behaviour. Johri and Sahasakmontri (1998) verified thatAsian citizen’s societies are becoming conscious of alarming environmentalproblems. To create green purchase behaviour among individuals cannot be shortof their own perceived responsibility. Hence, perceived environmentalresponsibilityis a determinant of purchasing behaviour towards green products2.1.9 Perceived Effectiveness of Environmental Behaviour (EB)According to Lee (2008), perceived effectiveness of environmental behaviour isclosely related to the perception of an individual. An individual who are activelyparticipated into pro-environmental activities and possess of pro-environmentalbehaviour will like to contribute more to the environmental. Kollmuss andAgyeman (2002) and Jensen (2002) define “pro-environmental behaviour asconscious actions taken by an individual so as to minimize the negative impact ofhuman activities on the environment or to improve the environment”.The effectiveness perceived by consumer also defined by Kenneth & Sanjay(1998) as a consumer’s confidence in their ability to improve the environment.Kim and Choi, (2005) mentioned that the level of effectiveness which is perceivedby the consumer is varies from person to person and this was determined by directand indirect knowledge and experience. In other words, people from dissimilarbackground possess different life experience and personal knowledge. Thus,people who are confidence in their abilities believed their contributions andactions can led to positive and great changes in the future and vice versa.Page 32 of 1432.1.10 Government Initiative (GI)Government initiative refers to support given or initiative actions taken by thenational government (Diekmeyer, 2008). This means that government play animportant part in environmental protection and all the initiative efforts taken bygovernment is undeniable. Therefore, government should ‘walk the talk’ inorganizing and executing environmental sustainable development plans.Governments should play more efforts in promoting the environment sustainableprogrammes to people in order to continuously raise their awareness towardsenvironmental issues. Normally, the purposes of national government campaignsare encourage green products consumption habits of its community. According toOECD (2008), Japan government implemented 3R campaign to promotesustainable packaging and recycling. Besides, the Ministry of Environment andMinistry of Energy and Transport in Denmark were jointly launched the “OneTonne Less” campaign in order to reduce the greenhouse gas emissions by itscitizen. Furthermore, government in France used a television campaign known as“Let us reduce our garbage: We’re overflowing” to reduce littering such as singleuse throwaway products, excessive paper printing, and bottled water (OECD,2008).As the role model to all people in the country, Tan et al. (2010) indicated thatMalaysian government has implemented various strategies for sustainableconsumption and development. Initiated policies such as encouraging car-pooling,providing incentives to green product producers and manufacturers, andencourage consumers to behave in green manner or purchase green products thatinitiated by Malaysia government in order to enhance environmental sustainability.In addition, Haron, Paim and Yahaya (2005) said that Malaysian governmentchoose to use social advertising to educate and foster environmental awarenessand concern among the public. Government should launch a campaign to promoteconsciousness on the environmental protection activities such as “go-green”Page 33 of 143campaign, “Earth Hour”, and others campaign activities to reduce the burden ofenvironmental.2.2 Research FrameworkThe conceptual framework is the foundation for the research project. In this study,both TRA and TPB theories are used to form the research framework. The figurebelow shows the conceptual framework established to study the relationshipbetween dependent and independent variables.Figure 1: Proposed Conceptual FrameworkIndependent VariablesDemographicSocial influenceEnvironmental attitudeEnvironmental concernPerceived seriousness ofenvironmental problemsPerceived environmentalresponsibilityPerceived effectiveness ofenvironmental behaviourGovernment initiativeDependent VariableWorking Consumers’Green PurchasingBehaviour (+)(+)(+)(+)(+)(+)(+) (+)Page 34 of 1432.3 Hypotheses Development2.3.1 Demographic ProfileInformation regarding to consumers’ demographic profile enable marketers tobetter perform its market segmentation and target consumers. Straughan et al.(1999) and Soonthonsmai (2001) indicated that some demographic variables weresignificantly correlated with consumers’ green purchase behaviour whenconsidered individually whereas some are lacks significance.Besides, Tikka, Kuitunen, and Tynys (2000), Mainieri, Barnett, Valdero, Unipan& Oskamp (1997) and Eagly (1987) have demonstrated that gender havesignificant different towards environmental behaviour because female havepositive attitude towards environment than male. However, Tan et al. (2010)found that there is no significant different between male and female in greenbuying behaviour. Therefore, gender plays an important role to consumers whocare for their environmental (Ruiz, Arcas and Cuestas, 2001). Green purchaseintention also positively correlates with age and income except for education(Soonthonsmai, 2001).Memery, Megicks and Williams (2005) argued that race should be considered asan important factor when profiling consumerists and pro-environmentalconsumers. However, Sinnappan et al. (2011) resulted that race group is nosignificant in explaining the consumers buying behaviour towards green products.Generally, income was positive correlated to green purchasing behaviour becausemost green products are more expensive than conventional products (Awad, 2011).However Sandahl and Robertson (1989), Roberts and Bacon (1997) and Akehurst,Afonso, and Martins Gonçalves (2012) found that the result are not convincing.Different sort of demographic variables will result in different outcomes towardsgreen purchasing behaviour. Hence, demographic variable such as gender, ethnicand monthly income will be discussed in this study and the hypotheses aredeveloped as:Page 35 of 143H1a: There is a significant difference between gender and working consumers’green purchase behaviour.H1b: There is a significant difference between ethnic groups and workingconsumers’ green purchase behaviour.H1c: There is a significant difference between monthly income and workingconsumers’ green purchase behaviour.2.3.2 Social Influences (SI)Social influence has been considered as one of the important factors in determinedan individual’s purchasing behaviours. According to Baker et al. (2008), the studyfound that social influence has a strong connection with eco-friendly productsbecause it was significantly drive people to purchase green products. Chen-Yu andSeock (2002) found that peer conformity is an important factors for purchasecertain things. Thus, social influence was important in driving eco-responsiblebehaviour. Moreover, Kalafatis et al. (1999) proved that the most significancedeterminant that affects consumers’ purchasing intention towards green productswas social influence. Lee (2009) and Abdul Wahid et al. (2011) also found thatsocial influence was the significant stimulus and highest predictor towards greenpurchase behaviour.Besides, peer influence was one of the social influences which can drive consumerpurchasing behaviour towards green products. According to Ryan (2001), a personnormally will share and communicate with others who have the same thought,belief and behaviour. So, peer can be strongly influence and affect their purchasebehaviour. For example, consumers may choose to purchase green products whenthey have influence by their peers of friends who often share the beneficial ofgreen products.Page 36 of 143In additions, Moschis and Churchill (1979) found that mass media can influenceconsumers’ purchase behaviour towards green products. People normally willshare and gather information via various types of communication sources such asFacebook, Twitter and etc. Moreover, Atwater, Salwen & Anderson (1985)revealed that mass media such as magazine, newspaper, or television can be achannel that enables consumers to access various information regarding to theenvironmental problems. Thus, the hypothesis is developed as:H2a: There is a positive relationship between social influence and workingconsumers’ green purchase behaviour.2.3.3 Environmental Attitude (EA)People will purchase green products if they believed that their consumption have asignificant influence and consequence to their environment (Follows and Jobbers,2000). According to Gupta and Ogden (2009), Wasik (1992), Prothero (1990),Rice, Wongtada and Leelakulthanit (1993) sense of environmental deteriorationmakes consumers willing to pay more for green products in order to protect theirenvironment and this form their attitude and create green purchasing behaviouramong them. Squirea, Juris and Cornwell (2001) found that consumers who havepositive attitude towards environment are more likely to purchase organic foods.The result from a study conducted by Mostafa (2007) shows that consumers’attitude towards green purchase can directly affects their actual green purchasebehaviour. Researchers such as Beckford, Jacobs, Williams, & Nahdee (2010),Cornelissen, Pandelaere, Warlop and Dewitte (2008), and Lynne & Rola (1988)indicated that environmental attitudes have a significant or positive effect onconsumers’ green purchasing behaviour. On the other hand, Paco et al. (2009)stated that attitude still could have a powerful influence on customers greenpurchase although it not necessarily used as a foundation for them in purchasingdecisions.Page 37 of 143However, some studies conducted by Axelrod and Lehman (1993), Smith,Haugtvedt & Petty (1994), Berger and Corbin (1992) revealed that there was amoderate or weak relationship between environmental attitude and greenpurchasing behaviour. Lee (2008) also found that environmental attitude was aweak factor of Hong Kong young consumers’ purchasing behaviour. Hence, itnecessary to has an investigation on this issue in the context of workingconsumers’ green purchase behaviour in Malaysia. Thus, the hypothesis will be:H2b: There is a positive relationship between environmental attitude and workingconsumers’ green purchase behaviour.2.3.4 Environmental Concern (EC)Suchard and Polonski (1991) stated that ethical consumption was one of thepurchasing behaviour expressed by consumers who are concern about theenvironment. These kinds of consumers will only buy green products and checkthe packaging material of products.Many researchers proved that environment concern has positively andsignificantly influence on consumers’ behaviour to purchase green product(Roberts and Bacon, 1997; Van Liere and Dunlap, 1981; Bamberg, 2003).According to Said (2003), health issues cause the need of high concerning towardsenvironmental. Therefore, Kim et al. (2005) revealed that people with highconcerning to the environmental problems are more willing to buy eco-friendlyproducts and vice versa. Besides, consumers who are willing to pay higher pricefor renewable energy indicated that they are more caring and conscious to theproblems appear in their environmental as compare to others who are not caring totheir surroundingsBang et al., 2000).The level of people’s towards environmental concern is associated with theirinterest and desire to purchase green products (Biswas, Liecata, McKee, Pullig &Daughtridge, 2000; Mainieri, Barnett, Unipan & Oskamp, 1997; Schwepker &Page 38 of 143Cornwell, 1991). Hence, environmental concern would be an essential factor formarketers as they can easily target environmentally conscious consumers(Mostafa, 2007). Meanwhile, Lee (2008) found that the second factor influencingthe green purchasing behaviour of youth in Hong Kong is environmental concerns.Therefore, the hypothesis is defined as:H2c: There is a positive relationship between environmental concern and workingconsumers’ green purchase behaviour.2.3.5 Perceived Seriousness of Environmental Problems (EP)According to Dunlap (1994), most of these studies concentrated on determiningthe subjects view of the problem, its seriousness and how is differs from thenumerous cultures. Dunlap (1994) found that Asian people were more concernedwith such problems than other Western counties because Asian society tends toperceive their local society in a negative manner than Western countries. Bord andO’Connor (1997) found that women were more perceived seriousness of theenvironmental problems and worried about various negative impacts on theirhealth than men.Sinnapan et al. (2011) reveals that consumer would really take severe action of itbecause environmental problems will seriously affect their health and quality oflife. However, Lee (2008) found that it was an unimportant factor in influencingteenagers’ green purchasing behaviour due to their desensitization. Thus, theresult might vary in different context of study. Hence, the hypothesis is developedas:H2d: There is a positive relationship between perceived seriousness ofenvironmental problems and working consumers’ green purchase behaviour.Page 39 of 1432.3.6 Perceived Environmental Responsibility (ER)Lai (2000) has reported that Hong Kong’s citizens have really aware of theenvironmental problems and more responsible in protecting their environment.However, their sense of individual responsibility in environmental safety isnormally weak (Lai, 2000). However, study conducted by Lee (2008)demonstrated that the perceived environmental responsibility was an importantdeterminant for Hong Kong’s youth consumers towards purchase green products.In addition, females tend to have a better ability to take the responsibility foralleviating problems in the world (Gough, 1994). Therefore, Zelezny, Chua andAlrich (2000) have evidenced that females had higher levels of perceived personalresponsibility towards environmental protection as compared to males.To create green purchase behaviour among individuals cannot be short of theirown perceived responsibility. Protecting the environment is the responsibility ofeveryone. This also highly includes companies that produce green products. Thus,perceived environmental responsibility is the second top predictor of greenpurchasing behaviour in the study of Sinnapan et al. (2011). Therefore, thehypothesis is developed as:H2e: There is a positive relationship between perceived environmentalresponsibility and working consumers’ green purchase behaviour.2.3.7 Perceived Effectiveness of Environmental Behaviour (EB)According to Lee (2008) revealed that the people have different perception willlead to different action and this also will influence the consumers whether to buygreen products or not. Lee and Holden (1999) demonstrated that perceivedeffectiveness of environmental behaviour is a significant determinant of proenvironmental consumer behaviours. Consumers who have high perceivedeffectiveness of environmental behaviour will caused them to become greenbuying behaviours, including the purchase of sustainable products (Vermeir &Page 40 of 143Verbeke 2006), organic food (Verhoef 2005), and green products (Kim et al.2005).Different consumers’ perceived effectiveness of environmental behaviour can beobserved in various situations. If people believe that an environmental problemcan be solved by a specific behaviour, this may change the consumer’s behaviour.Perceived effectiveness of environmental behaviour can translate their attitudeinto actual purchasing action (Berger et al., 1992; Lee et al., 1999). Therefore, thehypothesis is defined as:H2f: There is a positive relationship between perceived effectiveness ofenvironmental behaviour and working consumers’ green purchase behaviour.2.3.8 Government Initiative (GI)In study of Tsen, Phang, Hasan and Buncha (2006) revealed that althoughconsumers have high sense on environmental concerning, but they still deemedgovernment play an important role towards consumers purchasing behaviour ongreen products. Ministry of the Environment study as cited in Sinnappan et al.(2011), since government is the largest purchaser and if its purchasing policiesfocus on environmental performances can increase the production andconsumption of green products. However, according to Lee (2004), theconsumption of green products in Korea has decreased due to poor quality eventhough the government was strongly support for green marketing as comparedwith Japan. Thus, different result in government role between Japan and Koreacreate a need for investigation in Malaysia. Therefore, the hypothesis is defined as:H2g: There is a positive relationship between government initiative and workingconsumers’ green purchase behaviour.Page 41 of 1432.4 ConclusionOverall, chapter two has discussed the literature review and a proposed conceptualframework was developed. Finally, hypotheses have developed. The next chapterwill focus mainly on the research methodology used to carry out this study.Page 42 of 143CHAPTER 3RESEARCH METHOD3.0 IntroductionThis chapter will explain the research methodology used to collect data in order toanswer the research question and hypotheses. This chapter will start with researchdesign and follow by methodology data collection, sampling design, researchinstrument which will cover pilot test in this section, as well as measurementscales and methods of analysis.3.1 Research DesignResearch design is a master plan that stated the methods and procedures forcollecting and analysing the needed information (Zikmund, 2003; Cooper &Schindler, 2008). According to Sekaran (2003), research design is set up to decideon how to collect data, analyse data, interpret data and find a solution to theproblem. The research conducted by researcher may be visualized as tellingsomething, happening of something or any particular situation. Hence, appropriateresearch was needed to avoid error occurred in collecting relevant data.Page 43 of 1433.1.1 Quantitative ResearchQuantitative research is applied in this study where a large amount of respondents’options can be collected through structured questions (Zikmund, 2003). Thus, itsanalysing methods consisted of mathematical formulas and probability to renderfindings (Zikmund, 2003) which means that the measurement is objective,quantitative and statistically valid. Besides, according to Malhorta and Peterson(2006), a course of action can be proposed base on the conclusive result ofquantitative research.3.1.2 Descriptive ResearchDescriptive research is appropriate in this study because it aims to determine thefactors that influence working consumers’ green purchase behaviour in Malaysia.Descriptive research is used to describe the population characteristics (Zikmund,2003) and describe the available circumstances instead of interpreting and makingjudgments (Creswell, 1994). The main objective of the descriptive research is toverify of the developed hypotheses that reflects the current situation. Besides,descriptive studies are based on some previous understanding of the nature of theresearch problem (Zikmund, 2003).3.2 Data Collection MethodResearcher uses both primary and secondary data to collect the informationneeded in this study. Primary data was needed and collected through survey whichuses to test the hypotheses. Meanwhile, secondary data was collected via journalsfrom internet which was used to construct the hypothesis in order to support theresearch study.Page 44 of 1433.2.1 Primary DataPrimary data are the data usually developed and gathered specifically for theresearch project at hand (Zikmund, 2003). Normally, the collected data is firsthand experience, so the primary data is more reliable, authentic and objective. Theprimary data is the fundamental source of data collection method in this study.Through the data collected from a sample of people by using questionnaire canmake a conclusion on the characteristics of the population. There have fourmethods to collect primary data which included survey, interviews, observationand focus group. Survey is the most common method used in descriptive researchto generate primary data. Self-administered survey will used to collect primarydata.3.3 Sampling DesignAccording to Zikmund (2003), sampling is a process that uses a subset ofpopulation to make a conclusion that represented the whole population. It enablesresearchers to predict some unknown populations’ characteristics (Zikmund,2003). Sampling process is use to outline the target population of the research,determine sample size and sampling technique, and appropriate way to selecttarget respondents (Five Steps in Creating a Survey Sampling Plan, 2012).3.3.1 Target PopulationTarget population is information provided from collected objects that need to bestudy in a research in order to make the right inferences. The appropriate targetpopulation should be defined in the beginning of the sampling process. The targetrespondents of this study will be working consumers in Malaysia. The reason forchosen this targeted respondents is because working consumers are fully managetheir own daily consumption. This is because their monthly income will determinetheir final purchasing decision in certain consumption process. Besides, workingPage 45 of 143consumers now are more knowledgeable and concerned the environmentalproblems due to government and education efforts. Thus, working consumer mayhave an interest on buying green products as they think their actions can reducethe harmful of environment. By this, researcher can be analysing more accuratelyin the working consumers’ purchasing behaviour towards green products.3.3.2 Sampling Frame and Sampling LocationA sampling frame is the list of elements from which the samples may be drawn(Zikmund, 2003). However, sampling frame is not relevant in this researchbecause non-probability sampling techniques are used.The self-administrated questionnaires are randomly distributed mainly in KlangValley where the population is more condense and convenience. The potentialrespondents for the current analysis are working consumers in Malaysia regardlessthe status or position they are currently held in their company. Meanwhile, somequestionnaires also have been distributed to potential respondents via Internet.3.3.3 Sampling ElementsFor this research purpose, working consumers in various occupations withdifferent ages, gender, education level, and income level are randomly selected toparticipate in the survey.3.3.4 Sampling TechniqueIn this study, non-probability sampling is used to collect the samples, but not allthe individuals being selected are given an equal chance. This is because theprobability of each individual being chosen is unknown. Besides, it relies heavilyon the personal judgment to select the unit of the sample. Non-probabilityPage 46 of 143sampling also save the cost and time for researchers and it often seem to giveacceptable results.There are four types of non-probability sampling such as convenience sampling,judgmental sampling, quota sampling and snowball sampling (Zikmund, 2003).This study is utilizes a convenience sampling technique that is an ease in sampling.This sampling technique is to achieve and records the relevant information fromthe model or the unit of the study that are easily available (Zikmund, 2003).Generally, convenience sampling can use to obtain a large number of completedquestionnaires result in quickly and economically way. This type of sample isvery low cost and extensively used. It also not requires a list of population in orderto select the respondents for the sample size of this research (Zikmund, 2003).3.3.5 Sampling SizeRoscoe (1975) recommended that the appropriate sample size is larger than 30 andless than 500 because larger sample size can generate more accurate data(Malhotra et al., 2006). 220 questionnaires were distributed to the targetrespondents. Lackey and Wingate (1998) deemed that 10% of the final study sizeis commonly sufficient for pre-test study. Therefore, 22 sets of questionnaires willbe carried out for pre-test purpose in order to ensure the questionnaire quality andappropriateness. Finally, only a total of 200 questionnaires are completelycollected.3.4 Research InstrumentResearch instrument is a testing instrument that measures a given phenomenon.Questions in questionnaire were developed based on the literature review. Selfadministrated questionnaire was used to collect the primary data.Page 47 of 1433.4.1 Questionnaire DesignQuestionnaire design is one of the most critical stages in the survey researchprocess because it will affect the response rate and the reliability and validity ofdata collection. Researcher should use simple, understandable, unambiguouswords in designing the questionnaire’s questions (Zikmund, 2003). Besides, thequestionnaire should only state the relevant and require question in order to gatherthe relevant data. In addition, the finding, sources of data, layout, order and flowof the questions are the critical factors in designing the questionnaire. It wasimportant that the questionnaire design was attractive and clear in order toencourage respondents to fill up and return back to researcher. Besides, Englishwas the solely and appropriately language used in the questionnaire designation.Both closed-ended and opened-ended questions were used in the questionnaire.This complete set of questionnaire consists of cover letter, demographic factors,factors influence, green purchase behaviour, and the closing of the questionnaires.The layout of the questionnaire was started from cover letter which is used toexplain the purpose of the survey. By explaining to the respondents the purpose ofthe questionnaire, it will enhance the participation of the targeted respondents.Besides, according to Dillman (2000), explaining why researcher want therespondents to complete the survey helps to achieve as high a response rate aspossible, and this should be done on the first page of the questionnaire. In addition,the researcher thanks the respondents for their participation and appreciates themfor spending time in completing the questionnaire. Lastly, researcher’s contactmethod such as name and email address was provides to respondents for furtherclarification for their queries. This questionnaire consists of three parts which issection A (demographic factors), B (factors influencing) and C (green purchasebehaviour) that require answering by the respondents.In section A, respondents are asked to provide some basic demographicinformation. This part consist about five simple questions that require respondentswhich include the gender, age, race, education level, and monthly income.Normally, the sequencing of the questions is flow from the simple to depth andPage 48 of 143respondents are given a series of answers and are required to select the one thatbest describe themselves. Certain demographic question like age is asked in anopen-ended basis which required respondents to indicate their ages by writingdown the number of years. This enables researcher to calculate the average age ofthe respondents. This is helpful in such a way that for instance, researcher canidentify that the respondents of this survey has an average years of 25. Thedemographic information is important to this research. For instance, if most of therespondents are having Bachelor degrees, then researcher can predict that thisresearch best describes the factors that influence working consumers’ purchasingbehaviour are those who having high education.All the independent variables questions which designed to identify the factorsinfluencing levels of the respondents will be asked in section B. In this part, itincludes a series of statements regarding different factors influences and therespondents were asked to indicate their degree of agreement with each statement.Responses were scored on a five-point scale: 1 for “strongly disagree”, 2 for“disagree”, 3 for “neutral”, 4 for “agree”, and 5 for “strongly agree”. Under eachfactors influence, several questions were asked in order to compute an averageand to enhance the accuracy of the measure of the respondents’ influencing level.In section C, the questionnaire is to test the green purchase behaviour of therespondents. Similar with section B, it includes a series of statements and therespondents were asked to indicate their degree of agreement with each statement.Again, a five-point scale was used to measure the agreeableness of therespondents. Besides, multiple questions were asked in order to compute anaverage of the responses and to enhance the accuracy of the measure of therespondents’ level of green purchasing behaviour. This part is crucial asresearcher can identify not only the level of green purchase behaviour of therespondents, but also identify the relationship between factors influences andgreen purchase behaviour of working consumers. Furthermore, researcher alsoable to understand which factors influences has no relationship with greenpurchase behaviours and vice versa.Page 49 of 143At the end of the questionnaire design, researcher thanks the respondents fortaking the time to complete the questionnaire. Besides, researcher explain again tothe respondents that all the information collected will be kept confidential and willonly be used for academic purposes only.3.4.2 Pilot TestPilot test also known as pre-testing, enable researchers to determine whether therehave any ambiguous questions being asked in the questionnaire through therespondents’ feedback (Zikmund, 2003). A pilot study is conducted to detect theweakness in design of the questionnaire (Cooper et al., 2003). The purpose of pilottest is to refine the questionnaire to ensure the respondent can answer thequestions at ease and make adjustment before distribute to target respondents.After conduct the pre-test of questionnaire, the data collected will be more reliableand valid.Lackey and Wingate (1998) proposed that 10% of the final study size iscommonly sufficient for pilot testing. Thus, 22 sets of questionnaires weredistributed to target respondents for pilot testing to ensure that there are no majorproblems of respondents understanding the questions and manage to answer themwell. However, feedback from respondents such as typing error and grammarmistake did exist in the questionnaire. Although it was minor error, but it still canreduced the questionnaire quality and appropriateness.3.5 Constructs Measurement3.5.1 Origins of constructsThe sources used in this research project were adopted from Sinnappan and AbdRahman (2011) and Ooi, Kwek and Tan (2012). All the questions asked for eachvariable are as the table below:Page 50 of 143Table 4: Questions Asked For Each Factors Influence FactorsInfluenceQuestions AskedSourcesSocialInfluence(SI)1. I learn so much about environmental productsfrom my friends.2. I learn so much about environmental issues frommy friends.3. I often buy environmental products with myfriends.4. I often share information regardingenvironmental products with my friends.Sinnappan& AbdRahman(2011)EnvironmentAttitude(EA)1. It is essential to promote green living inMalaysia.2. I strongly agree that more environmentalprotection works are needed in Malaysia.3. It is very important to raise environmentalawareness among Malaysian.4. Environmental protection issues are none of mybusiness.5. It is unwise for Malaysia to spend a vast amountof money on promoting environmentalprotection.Ooi,Kwek &Tan(2012)EnvironmentalConcern(EC)1. Malaysia’s environment is my major concern.2. I am emotionally involved in environmentalprotection issue in Malaysia.3. I often think about how the environmentalquality in Malaysia can be improved.Sinnappan& AbdRahman(2011)Perceivedseriousness ofenvironmentalproblems(EP)1. I think Malaysia’s environmental problems areworsening.2. Malaysia’s environmental problems arethreatening our health.3. I think Malaysia’s environmental problems needto be dealt urgently.4. Malaysia’s environmental problems arethreatening the reputation of Malaysia.Sinnappan& AbdRahman(2011) Page 51 of 143 Perceivedenvironmentalresponsibility(ER)1. Environmental protection starts with me.2. I think I should have so much responsibility inprotecting the environment in Malaysia.3. I have taken responsibility for environmentalprotection since I was young.4. I am willing to take up responsibility to protectthe environment in Malaysia.5. Environmental protection is the responsibility ofthe environmental organization, not me.Sinnappan& AbdRahman(2011)Perceivedeffectivenessofenvironmentalbehaviour(EB)1. I think if I carry out some pro-environmentalbehaviour in my everyday life, I wouldcontribute a lot to our environment.2. I think my participation in environmentalprotection would influence my family andfriends to participate too.3. The environmental quality of Malaysia will staythe same even if I engage in some proenvironmental behaviour.4. Even if I recycle and reuse things, theenvironmental quality of Malaysia will remainas it currently is.Sinnappan& AbdRahman(2011)GovernmentInitiative(GI)1. Environmental protection is the responsibility ofthe Malaysian government, not me.2. Schools should require all students to take acourse dealing with environment andconservation problems.3. The government should subsidize research ontechnology for recycling waste products.4. Government should enforce environmental rulesand regulation.Ooi,Kwek &Tan(2012) Page 52 of 143Table 5: Questions Asked For Green Purchase Behaviour3.5.1 Primary Scale of MeasurementResearcher able to collected all the relevant information or data from respondentsthrough questionnaire distribution. All the information collected will helpresearcher to response or resolve the current business problem. In this study,researcher will use all the measurement scale to measure the questionnaire. Thefour measurement scales are nominal, ordinal, interval and ratio scale.3.5.1.1 Nominal ScaleAccording to Zikmund (2003), nominal scale is the simplest type of scale. Thenumbers or letters allocated to objects serve as labels for identification orclassification purpose only. If the alpha numerical data is not in order form, it willuse nominal scale to measure. In other words, nominal scale does not imply anyordering among the responses. For instance, demographic profile in Section Asuch as gender and races will use nominal scale to measure. This is because dataof ‘male’ and ‘female’ are not in ordering form as well as races. DependentVariableQuestions AskedSourceGreenPurchaseBehaviour(GPB)1. When I want to buy a product, I look at theingredients label to see if it contains thing that areenvironmentally damaging.2. I prefer green products over non-green productswhen the products qualities are similar.3. I choose to buy products that are environmentallyfriendly.4. I buy green products even if they are moreexpensive than the non-green ones.Sinnappan& AbdRahman(2011) Page 53 of 1433.5.1.2 Ordinal ScaleOrdinal scale is a non-numerical scale that arranges objects or alternativesaccording to their magnitudes in an ordered relationship (Zikmund, 2003) but thedifferences between each one is not really known. If the alpha numerical data is inorder form, it will use ordinal scale to measure. Changing the response format tonumbers does not change the meaning of the scale. For example, ordinal scale willbe used in the monthly income because the data are in order form and researcherdoes not know the actual monthly of anyone.3.5.1.3 Interval ScaleAccording to Zikmund (2003), interval scale is a numeric scale that not onlyarranges objects or alternative according to their magnitudes but also distinguishesthis ordered arrangement in units of equal intervals. These types of scale are bestused for opinion measurement. These are variables that can rank data and precisedifferences between units of measure do not exist. For example, Likert scale rankfrom “Strongly Agree”, “Agree”, “Neutral”, “Disagree” and “Strongly Disagree”are applied in Section B and C to analyses the degree of agree or disagree on bothindependent and dependent variables.3.5.1.4 Ratio ScaleRatio scale is one of the highest levels of measurement. Ratio scale is a scalehaving absolute rather than relative quantities and possessing an absolute zero,where there is an absence of a given attribute (Zikmund, 2003). For instance,questions like “Please state your age” and “What is your monthly income” in thequestionnaire are under ratio scale because it having the properties of intervalscale and it has a true zero point.Page 54 of 1433.6Data ProcessingData processing refers to the converting process that transforms plain data intovaluable information or information into data. Data processing ensures that thedata is presented in a clean and systematic manner, easy to understand and be usedfor further for business purposes. The steps of data processing includedquestionnaire checking, data editing, data coding, data transcription, and datacleaning.3.6.1 Questionnaire CheckingAccording to Malhotra (2007), the initial step of data processing is questionnairechecking. It uses to check the completeness of the questionnaires which arereturned by respondents. Problems or errors in the earlier stage such as incompletethe questionnaire, respondents did not follow instructions when answering thequestionnaire, or some pages are missing from the returned questionnaire can bedetected and it allowed researcher to make an appropriate changes or correctionsbefore conducted a real survey.3.6.2 Data EditingAccording to Zikmund (2003), editing means data is ready for coding and transferto data storage. It consists of the questionnaire screening process which is toensure the completeness, consistency, and reliability of data. Data editing is usedto avoid incompleteness responses because missing value in the questionnaire willbe rejected. Ifmissing value in the questionnaires were discovered, researcher willeither assigned missing value to unsatisfactory responses or discarded theunsatisfactory respondents. Hence, researcher will request respondents to fill inthe missing information immediately to avoid missing value occurred.Page 55 of 1433.6.3 Data CodingThe available data is not in any specific order even after editing process. Codingprocess is needed to make it more usable for further usage. Coding is the processof identifying and classifying each answer with a numerical score or othercharacter symbol (Zikmund, 2003). Researcher will assign a numbers for allcategory scales used in the questionnaires. For example, in section A, “Male” isallocated as 1 and “Female” is allocated as 2. This is to ease for data entry process.3.6.4 Data TranscriptionAfter data have been properly coded, the next step is transferring the coded datafrom questionnaire directly into computer software to perform the eventual crosstabulation. The desired results can be obtained through Statistical Project of SocialScience (SPSS) software when all the data have completely entered into thesoftware.3.6.5 Data cleaningAccording to Malhotra and Birks (2007), the final step in data processing is datacleaning which use to ensure no missing responses in all the key-in data.Consistency checking can identify whether the data is logically incompatible orhave extreme value. In addition, SPSS software programme can used to identifyout of range value.Page 56 of 1433.7 Data AnalysisData analysis refers to the process of analysing and evaluating data to form somesort of finding or conclusion. The purpose of data analysis is to collectedinformation that pertinent to the subject under consideration. The objective ofcarefully selecting the data analysis strategies is to translate the meaning of rawdata into meaningful information for comparison, justification, and explorationpurposes. It is planned that a statistical package to be used for this process.Descriptive analysis, factor analysis, reliability test and inferential analysis will beused to analyse the data.3.7.1 Descriptive AnalysisAccording to Zikmund (2003), descriptive analysis is the process oftransformation of raw data into a form that guides the researcher in betterunderstanding and interpreting of the raw data. According to Hair (2006),descriptive analysis refers to a set of scientific methods and procedures to identifyand describe the existing characteristics of a target population. Descriptivestatistic used to summaries the characteristic of the data.3.7.1.1 Frequency DistributionFrequency distribution is a set of data organized by summarizing the number oftimes a particular value of a variable occurs (Zikmund, 2003). It only suit for lowlevel measurement scale which is nominal or ordinal scale (Zikmund, 2003). Thepurpose of frequency is to summarize how frequently each response occurs. Afterthat, data will tabulate into frequency table which included the percentages for allthe values correlated with that variable (Malhotra, 2007).Page 57 of 1433.7.2 Factor AnalysisFactor analysis was use to investigate whether a number of variables arecorrelated with each other. This allows numerous inter-correlated variables to becondensed into fewer dimensions, called factors. Kaiser and Rice (1974)recommend Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO) Measure of Sampling Adequacy below0.50 indicated as unacceptable.3.7.3 Reliability TestReliability test is used to decide the degree of stability and consistency with whichthe repeated measurement are made on the characteristic (Zikmund, 2003).Cronbach’s alpha reliability coefficient normally ranges between 0 and 1. Thehigher the Cronbach’s alpha is, the more reliable the test will be and vice versa.According to Nunnally (1978), a value of 0.6 or more indicated satisfactoryinternal consistency reliability.3.7.4 Inferential AnalysisBesides that, inferential analysis is also to be used to investigate the researchquestion, the theoretical framework, and the various hypotheses. Inferentialstatistics is used to generate conclusion about a population from observations andanalyses of a sample. For this research purpose, SPSS is to be used to conduct thefollowing analysis: Independent Sample t-test, One-way Analysis of Variance(ANOVA), Pearson’s Correlation Analysis and Multiple Regression.Page 58 of 1433.7.4.1 Independent Sample t-testAccording to Hair et al. (2003), independent sample t-test is used to measure thedifferences between two independent group means. T-tests also appropriate forlarger sample sizes, where n>30. Besides, the independent variable is non-metricwhich are nominal and ordinal scale whereas the dependent variable is metricwhich are interval or ratio scale. Likewise, the independent variable must havetwo groups of respondent which are male and female.3.7.4.2 One-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA)Analysis of variance (ANOVA) is used to test the hypothesis that whether three ormore means are statistically different from each other. One-way ANOVA is usedsince there is only one independent variable. Besides, the independent variablemust be non-metric which are nominal or ordinal scale and must more than twogroups for test. Likewise, the dependent variable must be metric which areinterval or ratio scale. In this study, researcher use one-way ANOVA to test forthe race groups and monthly income. Those testing groups are more than twogroups and fulfil the requirement for implement ANOVA test.3.7.4.3 Pearson’s Correlation AnalysisPearson’s correlation coefficient is a measure of linear association. Correlationsmeasure how variables are related. In other words, correlation analysis measuredthe degree of change in one variable will associated with the changes in anothervariable. Both independent variable and dependent variable are metric which areinterval or ratio scale. It uses to measure the relationship between two groups. Thecorrelation coefficient is ranges from -1.00 to +1.00 (Hair, Bush & Ortinau, 2006).When the value is +1.00, it means that there is a perfect positive linearrelationship between the two variables, and vice versa. For an example, this testPage 59 of 143use to measure the relationship between social influence and working consumers’green purchase behaviour.3.7.4.4 Multiple RegressionsMultiple regressions analysis is used to determine the relationship betweenvariables and to predict value of the dependent variable (Y) based on value ofindependent variables (X). Likewise, both independent variable and dependentvariable are metric that is interval scales. Dependent variable (Y) is a criterion or avariable that is to be predicted or explained (Zikmund, 2003). In this research, thedependent variable is the working consumers’ green purchase behaviour.Researchers will prove by the data collected about whether the factors influencehave relationship between working consumers’ green purchase behaviour. It alsoallows researcher to test which factors influence have significant relationship withworking consumers’ green purchase behaviour in separately method.3.8 ConclusionAs conclusion, this chapter have discussed the method used to carry out thisresearch. After completely collected all the questionnaire returned by respondents,data will be analyse through SPSS software. The next chapter will focus oninterpretation of the research result.Page 60 of 143CHAPTER 4RESEARCH RESULTS4.0 IntroductionThe data collected from returned respondents will be analysed through SPSSsoftware and few statistical analysis tests will be applied. Researcher will usedescriptive analysis, factor analysis, reliability test, and inferential analysis(Independent Sample t-test, One-way ANOVA, Pearson Correlations, andMultiple Linear Regression) to analysis this research data.4.1 Descriptive AnalysisDescriptive analysis is use to describe the main characteristics of a collected data.In other word, it was a conclusion technique that is used to describe some keyfeatures of the data in this research study.Page 61 of 1434.1.1 Respondents’ Demographic ProfileTable 6: Respondents’ Demographic ProfileCharacteristics Per cent (%)Gender Male47.5Female52.5 Age Lowest thru 2526 – 3510.529.0 36 – 45 32.046 thru highest 28.5Ethnic Malay25.0ChineseIndian and others49.026.0 Level of Education Secondary SchoolPre-University (6th Form)DiplomaBachelor’s DegreeMaster’s Degree16.011.09.023.540.5 Monthly Income Level Below RM 1,999RM 2,000 – RM 2,999RM 3,000 – RM 3,999RM 4,000 and above24.026.533.016.5 Total Percentage 100.0Total Respondents 200Page 62 of 143Table 6 describes the main characteristics of the targeted respondents in Malaysia.On gender, majority of the respondents are female that is 52.5% out of a total of200 respondents whereas 47.5% respondents are male.With regard to the age group in table 6, more than 30.0% (32.0%) of therespondents are aged 36 to 45 years old, follow by aged 26 to 35 years old(29.0%). In addition, about 30.0% (28.5%) of the respondents are aged 46 yearsold or older and 10.5% of the respondents are aged 25 years old or younger.By looking to the ethnics group in table 6, Chinese was the majority respondentsin this study, which consist almost 50% (49.0%) out of the total respondents,follow by Indian and others respondents (26.0%), and Malay respondents (25.0%),In table 6, Master Degree holder and Bachelor Degree holder consisted more than60.0% of out of a total of 200 respondents. More than 40.0% respondents areMaster degree holder and about 23.0% are Bachelor degree holder. In addition,around 16.0% respondents are holding secondary school, follow by 11.0% preuniversity (6th form) respondents and only less than 10.0% respondents arediploma holders.With regard to the income level in table 6, majority respondents’ income level arefall in the income range of RM 3,000 – RM 3,999, which consist of 33.0%respondents, follow by 26.0% (26.5%) respondents with income between RM2,000 – RM 2,999. Meanwhile, around 25% respondents with income below RM1,999, and more than 15.0% (16.5%). respondents with income RM 4,000 andabovePage 63 of 1434.2 Factor AnalysisFactor analysis used to expose the relationships among variables which canconcentrate those inter-correlated variables into few factors. Thus, researcher usesfactor analysis to investigate whether a number of variables are correlated witheach other. The Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO) measure of sampling adequacy is anindex used to examine the appropriateness of factor analysis. High value indicatesfactor analysis is appropriate and low value implies that factor analysis may not beappropriate. However, value more than 0.60 is adequate (Pallant, 2001). Kaiser etal. (1974) recommend accepting values of KMO test is as the following table.Table 7: Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling AdequacyNote: Rovai, A. P., Bakar, J. D. & Ponton, M. K. (2013). Social Science Research Design andStatistics: A Practitioner’s Guide to Research Methods and IBM SPSS Analysis. 11.0 update (2nded.). Virginia Beach, VA: Watertree Press.Bartlett’s test is another indication of the strength of the relationship amongvariables. In Bartlett’s test, this study needs to reject the null hypothesis ofuncorrelated variable or non-identity matrix. Thus, it is a good idea to proceed to afactor analysis test.However, out if 33 items, only a total of 31 items will be used in Factor analysisdue to Principal Components Analysis (PCA). The result of factor analysis will beshow in the following table. KMO ValueInterpretation0.00 to 0.49Unacceptable0.50 to 0.59Miserable0.60 to 0.69Mediocre0.70 to 0.79Middling0.80 to 0.89Meritorious0.90 to 1.00Marvellous Page 64 of 143Table 8: Factor AnalysisKMO and Bartlett’s Test Total Variance Explained Rotated Component Matrix(InitialEigenvalues) ComponentKaiser-Meyer-OlkinMeasure of SamplingAdequacy.(Bartlett’s Test ofSphericity)Sig. Component Total% ofVariance 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 80.781 0.000 1 6.366 20.537 SI1 0.8992 2.954 9.531 SI2 0.9253 2.838 9.156 SI3 0.8284 2.007 6.473 SI4 0.7885 1.749 5.641 EA1 0.8386 1.479 4.769 EA2 0.8487 1.308 4.219 EA3 0.8668 1.195 3.854 EC1 0.6829 0.986 3.182 EC2 0.74410 0.893 2.881 EC3 0.65611 0.806 2.601 EP1 0.66912 0.788 2.543 EP2 0.77613 0.769 2.480 EP3 0.74014 0.716 2.310 EP4 0.69015 0.637 2.054 ER1 0.67216 0.578 1.866 ER2 0.67217 0.530 1.711 ER3 0.621Page 65 of 14318 0.516 1.664 ER4 0.60419 0.455 1.467 ER5 0.50620 0.427 1.376 EB1 0.78321 0.422 1.362 EB2 0.83122 0.367 1.183 EB3 0.85623 0.349 1.127 EB4 0.82324 0.322 1.039 GI1 0.57425 0.299 0.966 GI2 0.54226 0.285 0.919 GI3 0.62727 0.270 0.870 GI4 0.58128 0.267 0.861 GPB1 0.62529 0.190 0.613 GPB2 0.57530 0.162 0.523 GPB3 0.68031 0.069 0.222 GPB4 0.668Page 66 of 143In table 8, the KMO measure is 0.781 which is considered as Middling. Thisindicates that the sampling identify in this study is satisfactory for factor analysisto proceed. In Bartlett’s test, this study needs to reject the null hypothesis ofuncorrelated variable or non-identity matrix. A significant level 0.000 indicatesthat the correlation matrix is non-identity matrix. Hence, the variables in thisanalysis have some relationships between the each other. This result is smallenough to reject the hypothesis thus it is a good idea to proceed with a factoranalysis.The Kaiser criterion states that researcher should use a number of factors equal tothe number of the Eigenvalues of the correlation matrix that are greater than one.In table 8, there have eight components were greater than one which indicated thatall the measurable variables can be group into eight components respectively.Besides, the Eigenvalues associated with each factor represent the varianceexplained by that particular linear component and it also display in terms of thepercentage of variance explained. In table 8, the total variance of eightcomponents is 64.2%. Component 1 explains 20.5% of total variance, follow bycomponent 2 explains 9.5% of total variance, component 3 explains 9.2% of totalvariance, component 4 explains 6.5% of total variance, component 5 explains 5.6%of total variance, component 6 explains 4.8% of total variance, component 7explains 4.2% of total variance, component 8 explains 3.9% of total variance, andso on. It should be clear that the first eight factors explain relatively largepercentages of variance whereas subsequent factors explain only smallpercentages of variance.Rotated component matrix in table 8 shown that all the thirty one items will begroup into 8 components. Costello and Osborne (2005) stated that a factor withless than three variables is generally weak and unstable. In addition, the factorloading of the variables must 0.7 in order to determine which items will groupinto which factors. If the value is 0.7, it is depend on the highest factor loadingallocate by each of them. For instance, the highest loading of SI1 is 0.899 whichfall in the component 1 as compare to the rest of seven components. Thus, it willgroup under component 1. Therefore, component 1 consisted of SI1, SI2, SI3 andPage 67 of 143SI4 variables, follow by Component 2 consisted of EB1, EB2, EB3, and EB4variables. Besides, EA1, EA2, EA3 variables are consisted in Component 3. EP1,EP2, EP3, and EP4 variables are group in the components 4, follow by component5 which included GPB1, GPB2, GPB3, and GPB4 variables. In addition,Component 6 consisted of ER1, R2, ER3, ER4, and ER5 variables whereas EC1,EC2, and EC3 variables are in Component 7. Lastly, GI1, GI2, GI3, and GI4variables are fall in Component 8.4.3 Reliability StatisticsCronbach’s Alpha Reliability test allow researcher to generate consistent resultsby testing the reliability of this study. According to Hair et al. (2003), coefficientalpha also referred as Cronbach’s Alpha. The measurement of Cronbach’s Alphais indicated as a number 0 and 1. According to George and Mallery (2003), theCronbach’s Alpha coefficient closer to 1, the better the internal consistency of theitems in the scale. The rules of thumb for Cronbach’s Alpha reliability scale wereas the following table 9.Table 9: Interpretation Scale of Cronbach’s Alphas Tests ResultsNote: George, D., & Mallery, P. (2003). SPSS for Windows step by step: A simple guide andreference. 11.0 update (4th ed.). Boston: Allyn & Bacon.According to Hair et al. (2003), researcher generally considers an alpha of 0.7 as aminimum, although lower coefficients may be acceptable, but it was depending onthe research objectives. In the other hands, according to Schuessler (1971) statedthat an alpha value greater than 0.60 is consider reliable. However, according toHamid, Momtaz, Ibrahim, Mansor, Samah, Yahaya, and Abdullah (2013), ScaleInterpretation> 0.9Excellent> 0.8Good> 0.7Acceptable> 0.6Questionable Page 68 of 143Cronbach’s alpha value is acceptable if it’s alpha value greater than 0.50. Thereliability test result for each variable will be shown in the following table.Table 10: Reliability Test Result for Each VariableBased on the result of Cronbach’s alpha, all variables is consider reliable becausethey achieve alpha value 0.6 and above except government’s initiative. Accordingto Hamid et al. (2013), government initiative variable is considered acceptablebecause its alpha value is 0.552, and deleted any questions would not be improveits alpha value. This result is show in table 11. In other word, the variables havegood internal consistency reliability. It also means that all variables in this studyare more than acceptable as recommended values of 0.50 by Hamid et al. (2013).This shows that all the 31 items were reliable and valid to measure the workingconsumers’ green purchase behaviour. VariablesN of itemsCronbach’s alphaDependent variableGreen PurchaseBehaviour (GPB)40.679Independent variablesSocial Influence (SI)40.901Environment Attitude(EA)30.870Environmental Concern(EC)30.721Perceived seriousness ofenvironmental problems(EP)40.749Perceived environmentalresponsibility (ER)50.638Perceived effectivenessof environmentalbehaviour (EB)40.850Government’s initiative(GI)40.552 Page 69 of 143Table 11: Reliability Statistics and Item-Total Statistics (Government’s Initiative)In the other hand, researcher also realised that there has one question in perceivedenvironmental responsibility variable must be deleted in order to increase itsCronbach’s Alpha value. Hence, after deleted the unnecessary question (ER5), itsAlpha value was increased to 0.764. The result was show in the following table.Table 12: Reliability Statistics and Item-Total Statistics (Perceived EnvironmentalResponsibility)Finally, there have a total of 30 items to be used for further analysis of inferentialstatistics. The details for all the hypotheses used for the analysis of inferentialstatistics can be found in Chapter 2.Reliability Statistics Items Item-Total StatisticsCronbach’sAlphaN of Items Cronbach’s Alpha if ItemDeleted0.552 4 GI10.526GI2GI3GI40.4600.4180.503 Reliability Statistics Items Item-Total StatisticsCronbach’sAlphaN of Items Cronbach’s Alpha if ItemDeleted0.638 5 ER10.536ER2ER3ER4ER50.5180.5350.5480.764 Page 70 of 1434.4Inferential Statistics4.4.1 Independent Sample t-testH1a: There is a significant difference between gender and working consumers’green purchase behaviour.Table 13: Independent Samples TestThe rejected region is if p0.05). This means that the twovariances are no significantly difference and approximately equal. In the T-test forequality of means, there is no significant between the two groups because thep0.979 > 0.05. Thus, do not reject null hypothesis with at most 5% error. Therefore,there is not enough evidence to show that there is a significant difference betweengender and working consumers’ green purchase behaviour. In other words, femalehave no statistically difference mean score on green purchase behaviour (3.8714)than male (3.8737).Table 13 reflected whether each variable is normally distributed. The ShapiroWilk shows the same result where p-value for male is 0.000 and p-value forfemale is 0.003, which both are less than 0.05. Therefore, reject the nullhypothesis and it can be concluded that the gender is not normally distributed.Since the data collected through questionnaire is not normally distributed, MannWhitney test which is non-parametric test is used for further analysis. The Z valueGender Mean Levene’s Test forEquality of Variancest-test for Equalityof MeansShapiro-Wilk(Normality test)MannWhitney testF Sig t Sig. (2-tailed)Sig. Z Sig.GPB Male 3.8737 2.741 0.099 0.026 0.979 0.000 -0.299 0.765Female 3.8714 0.003Page 71 of 143of Mann-Whitney test for behaviour is -0.299 with a significant level of p = 0.765.The probability value is more than 0.05, so the result is not significant. Therefore,cannot reject null hypothesis at = 0.05. Hence, there is no statistical significantdifference in the green purchase behaviour between male and female workingconsumers.4.4.2 One-way ANOVAH1b: There is a significant difference between ethnic groups and workingconsumers’ green purchase behaviour.Table 14.1: One-way ANOVA (Ethnic Group)Table 14.2: Post Hoc Test (Ethnic Group)One-wayANOVAShapiro-Wilk(Normality test)Kruskal-Wallis testF Sig. Sig. Chi-Square Sig.GPB Between Group 1.514 0.223 1.836 0.399Within Group MalayChineseIndian and Others0.0100.0000.010 (I) Ethnic (J) Ethnic Sig.Malay Chinese 0.230Indian and Others 0.333Chinese Malay 0.230Indian and Others 1.000Indian and Others Malay 0.333Chinese 1.000Page 72 of 143The reject region is to reject null hypothesis if p0.05). This means that thereis no significant difference between the ethnic groups. In other words, thevariances are significant equal. Hence, do not reject hull hypothesis with at most0.05% error and conclude that there is no significant difference between ethnicgroups and working consumers’ green purchase behaviour in Malaysia. In table14.2, the result of Post Hoc Test shows that none of the ethnic groups issignificantly differentiate because all the significant level are more than 0.05(p>0.05). It indicates that there is no difference about the green purchasebehaviour to all the race groups.Table 14.1 reflected whether each variable is normally distributed. The ShapiroWilk shows the same result where p-value is 0.000 to 0.010, which is less than0.05. Therefore, reject the null hypothesis and it can be concluded that the ethnicgroups is not normally distributed. Since the data collected through questionnaireis not normally distributed, Kruskal-Wallis test which is non-parametric test isused for further analysis. From table 14.1, the Chi-Square value for greenpurchase behaviour is 1.836 with a significant level of p = 0.399 (p>0.05). Wecannot reject null hypothesis at = 0.05 because the result is not significant.Hence, there is no significant difference between ethnic groups and workingconsumers’ green purchase behaviour.Page 73 of 143H1c: There is a significant difference between monthly income and workingconsumers’ green purchase behaviour.Table 15.1: One-way ANOVA (Monthly Income)Table 15.2: Post Hoc Test (Monthly Income)One-wayANOVAShapiro-Wilk(Normality test)Kruskal-Wallis testF Sig. Sig. Chi-Square Sig.GPB Between Group 3.286 0.022 11.046 0.011Within Group Below RM 1,999RM 2,000 – RM 2,999RM 3,000 – RM 3,999RM 4,000 and above0.0410.0000.0650.333 (I) Monthly Income (J) Monthly Income Sig.Below RM 1,999 RM 2,000 – RM 2,999 0.142RM 3,000 – RM 3,999 0.994RM 4,000 and above 0.749RM 2,000 – RM 2,999 Below RM 1,999 0.142RM 3,000 – RM 3,999 0.173RM 4,000 and above 0.018RM 3,000 – RM 3,999 Below RM 1,999 0.994RM 2,000 – RM 2,999 0.173RM 4,000 and above 0.567RM 4,000 and above Below RM 1,999 0.749RM 2,000 – RM 2,999 0.018RM 3,000 – RM 3,999 0.567Page 74 of 143The reject region is to reject null hypothesis if p

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