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Strategy and InnovationExam Revision – Generic AdviceOne set of slides and one podcast2Two (2) hoursPass mark = 50%Section A – answer all Questions Compulsory (40 marks total)Section B – answer any two (2) Questionsfrom four (4) Questions Each question worth 15 marks (30 marks total)So A (X/40) + B (Y/30) = mark out of 70converted to a %3Check – date/time/location of examBroaden your reading Materials given are core … extendLook for links across syllabus/programmeDevelop an academic argument, evaluate,justify, discuss, provide evidence …Think carefully about what is ‘criticalevaluation’4Advantages and disadvantagesCompare and contrastDo all authors/sources agree? Why do they hold these opinions? If any disagree – why?Evidence?Theory? Purpose? Limitations?Practical examples?5Read questions very carefullyAnswer the question set …Answer number of Qs expectedStructure your answer Introduction, middle (main part) and conclusionTheory and practice/examplesPractice hand-writing 6If you wish to attempt this exercise thenavoid listening too far ahead on the podcastor looking too far ahead at the slides7Critically discuss the relationship betweenglobalisation and technological change for achievingcompetitive advantage. Give examples whereappropriate. (25 Marks)8What are the key words in the question?Draft an outline answer (10 minutes) Does not have to be specific – broad brush Outline should exhibit sense of ‘structure’Then compare to model answer What mark would you give your outline answercompared to the model one?9The next slide an outline/model answerfor the question/exercise you have justdone.To maximise your learning, try and avoidreading the answer until you havecompleted the exercise!10Critically discuss the relationship betweenglobalisation and technological change forachieving competitive advantage. Give exampleswhere appropriate. (25 Marks) Introduction. [2 marks.] Discuss the pressures for globalisation and(better students) countervailing pressures towards focusing onlocalisation. [8 marks] Discuss importance of technological change for competitive advantage(eg via creating value; or Oz’s methods of securing competitiveadvantage). Give examples. Discussions may include but (betteranswers) not be limited to a focus on ICTs. [8 marks] Link ‘globalisation’ and technological change eg the Internet enablesorganisations of all sizes to compete globally; but conversely mayincrease a firm’s ‘local’ competition. [5 marks] Draw discussion to an appropriate conclusion. [2 marks]11121. Using examples, critically evaluate the difference between creativity and innovation. [5 Marks]Creativity and innovation are two terms that are often mistakenly used interchangeably when theydo not mean the same thing, as each has a different area of focus.Creativity represents the idea, or the thought, that leads to the creation of something new, or theoptimization of an existing technique or methodology. On the other hand, Innovation is the processby which creative ideas and thoughts are implemented and brought to reality, and finallycommercialized. Creativity is subjective and hard to measure, whereas innovation is objective andmeasurable. Thus creativity is useless without innovation, and innovation is fuel-less withoutcreativity.An example to illustrate the difference would be this: consider that a person is thinking of a newtheme for their restaurant. They spent months thinking it through and conceptualizing it, diving intothe tiniest of details that would make this theme a magnet of success, and bring them customersand profits. They then took all their thinking, and started making their envisioned thought a realityby procuring the materials and equipment needed for the theme, and marketed it online topotential customers. In the aforementioned example, up to the point where they started working onthe idea, it was merely creativity; once they started working on it and making it a reality, it becameinnovation.In conclusion, creativity is thinking up new things, whereas innovation is doing new things, andneither is useful without the other!2. Explain each of the different components of SCAMPER is and why it may be a useful tool forbrainstorming innovation. [7 Marks]3. Apply the concept of SCAMPER to a product or service of your choice. [14 Marks]SCAMPER is an abbreviation of creative thinking and brainstorming technique that works byfocusing the mind on one area of improvement/ differentiation at a time as detailed in below table.The examples provided use an M&Ms Minis chocolate as a product under study SectionExplanationExampleSubstitutereplace a feature with anotherReplace chocolate drops with flavoredjelly dropsCombinemerging the functionality of twoproducts into oneCombine Minis and ice-cream to haveMinis flavored ice-creamAdaptpersonalize a product to better fit aparticular environment/ scenarioProvide a button to open lid to helpelderly/ kids open it without using forceModify/Magnify/ Minifyalter a product’s size/ shape to betterfit a particular purposeIncreasing drops size, increasing/decreasing container sizePut to OtherUsesuse a product in a way it was notoriginally meant/ intended forUse the container as a throw-ableweaponEliminateremove a feature/ property from aproductMaking a dark chocolate variant –removal of sugarReverse/RearrangeChange the order of features/processes/ operations to achieve anew functionalityChocolate from the outside, sugarcoating from the inside 4. SCAMPER is one tool which could be used as part of Business Process Reengineering (BPR), inan attempt to achieve the radical enhancement of business processes. Evaluate the stepsnecessary to conduct a BPR programme of change. [14 Marks]Business Process Reengineering (BPR) is carried out on a number of stages to ensure that the fullbenefit of the process is achieved, and no avalanche recession takes place, where it looks foropportunities of improvement within the Business System Diamond (Business Processes, Jobs &Structures, Management Measurement Systems, Values & Beliefs). These stages/ steps are asfollow:1. Identify Processes for reengineeringProcesses critical to the business are identified, and scale of requested reengineering is evaluatedto be within business capabilities2. Map the current processDefine how the process is currently operating and its downfalls3. Highlight Value-Adding ActivitiesPinpoint areas of strength you would need to keep and emphasize4. Eliminate WasteRemove unnecessary procedures and processes5. Establish flow for value-adding stepsOptimizing how one value-adding activity transfers to the next by improving interface andminimizing/ removing delays and implementing parallel operation where possible, consider using adifferent activity scheduling technique6. Involve key people early in process design and prototypeTo ensure best resources are allotted to the BPR, support from key individuals and entities isnecessary, which can include external consultants and general managers of the businessEach of these stages provides its own contribution to BPR. However, the most important of themall would probably be the mapping stage, as a proper understanding of the process and intricaciesis vital to be able to put forward any correction. Furthermore, should you miss a problem duringthe mapping stage, this issue will re-occur after the process is re-engineered, inviting a possibilityfor undoing of BPR.1. Explore the implications for a company that decides to adopt a low cost competitive strategy.Explain whether such a strategy could be sustainable into the longer term. [15 Marks]A low cost competitive strategy is one that follows either Route 1 or Route 2 on the strategy clock,where a company either delivers a lower perceived value at a lower price (a ‘no frills’ strategy), oran acceptable level of perceived value at a lower price (low price strategy).These strategies are rife in the public sector and commodity markets, where there are nodiscernable differences between suppliers, and buyers do not afford nor value the differences, andhave high power and low switching costs.A low cost competitive strategy is advantageous for a new start-up or small companies to build aniche for them to enforce a good foot hold before moving on to another strategy. Furthermore, it isuseful to avoid bigger players and competitive pressure.On the other hand, as these strategies are heavily price focused, presence of another competitorin the same market using the same strategy would lead to the demise of both parties as in therace to have lower prices, both parties would have reduced/ minimized margins, and an inability toinvest as a result of the former (low margin = low cashflow = low ability for future investment =inability to pursue a future differentiation strategy)Taking the above into consideration, a low cost competitive strategy on the long term is onlyfeasible if the company has a definite low cost base that no other competitor can match, which ispossible if a company has unique access to low cost distribution/ suppliers/ operations.2. Discuss the benefits and challenges relating to an organisation’s effective use of technologyroadmaps. [15 Marks]3. Critically analyse the concept of ‘business value’. [15 Marks]End of PaperSCAMPERSCAMPER is an acronym of a creative thinking and brainstorming technique that works by focusing the mindon one area of improvement/ differentiation at a time as detailed in below table. The examples provided usean M&Ms Minis chocolate as a product under study SectionExplanationExampleSubstitutereplace a feature with anotherReplace chocolate drops with flavored jellydropsCombinemerging the functionality of twoproducts into oneCombine Minis and ice-cream to have Minisflavored ice-creamAdaptpersonalize a product to better fit aparticular environment/ scenarioProvide a button to open lid to help elderly/kids open it without using forceModify/Magnify/ Minifyalter a product’s size/ shape to better fita particular purposeIncreasing drops size, increasing/ decreasingcontainer sizePut to OtherUsesuse a product in a way it was notoriginally meant/ intended forUse the container as a throw-able weaponEliminateremove a feature/ property from aproductMaking a dark chocolate variant – removal ofsugarReverse/RearrangeChange the order of features/ processes/operations to achieve a new functionalityChocolate from the outside, sugar coatingfrom the inside Advantages Disadvantages Encourages Creativity and generates ideas Allows considerate examination of thedifferent areas of improvement Removes the restraints of established beliefs Is only effective in environments/ cultures thatsupport free thinking and is open to try new things Can lead to formation of opposing factions Loss of time and efficiencyCreativity Vs InnovationCreativity InnovationCharacteristics  idea/ thought, that leads to the creationof something new/ optimization of anexisting technique or methodology Subjective Hard to measure = thinking new things Useless without innovation the process/ way by which creativeideas/ thoughts/ processes/products areimplemented and brought to reality, andfinally commercialized Objective Easy to measure = doing new/ novel things ‘fuel-less’ without creativityExample A person is thinking of a new theme for their restaurant. They spent months thinking itthrough and conceptualizing it, diving into the tiniest of details that would make thistheme a magnet of success, and bring them customers and profits. They then took all theirthinking, and started making their envisioned thought a reality by procuring the materialsand equipment needed for the theme, and marketed it online to potential customers. Inthe aforementioned example, up to the point where they started working on the idea, itwas merely creativity; once they started working on it and making it a reality, it becameinnovation.Process Idea generation (creativity) -> idea filtration/ screening -> idea testing/ experimentation-> implementation & commercialization -> innovation diffusionGeneric Strategies: Low Cost Vs DifferentiationValue is always expressed in terms of perceived value; Strategic Clock = SC Price-basedDifferentiation (broad)Focused DifferentiationCharacteristic Route 1 & 2 on SC 1: low cost low value 2: low cost OK value Used in public sector andcommodity market:o No clear differencebetween supplierso Buyers do not afford/value differentiationo Buyers have highpower, low switch cost Route 4 on SC 4a:OK price+ market share 4b:High Price+ High Value Better products/ servicesat same/ slightly higherprice “center of excellence” Strategic Customer & KeyCustomers must beidentified correctly Route 5 on SC High price high value Targets a specificsegment/ market/ niche Premium product brands Useful for startups “Specialisation”Advantages Allows start-ups/ smallplayers to get established Avoid bigger players Delivers higher value Customer loyalty Capability for reinvesting First mover advantage Market dominancepossibleDisadvantages Vulnerable to competition Price war/ min. margin Low reinvestmentcapability Vulnerable to price basedstrategies in marketswhere customer valuescost Success depends on howeasy it is to copy USP Vulnerable to marketchanges as regularproducts gain similarfeatures Can be difficult for a startup to grow to a route 4Long term? Sustainable if it has lowcost base that no othercompetitor can match(unique supplier/distributors/ operations) Sustainable if strategiccapability is non-imitable If it targets a customerbase that valuesdifferentiation Imperfect mobility:differentiation isintangible/ cant be traded Sustainable ifdifferentiation isrigorously enforced If differentiation isreinforced by furtherdifferentiationExample China Market Ramez hypermarket “Everything for 1 rial orless” chains Lulu Hypermarket andtheir loyalty card Carrefour and theirmyClub application/reward program Sultan Centre and theirfocus on specialtyimported items Example: Handbags – CL = unbranded low quality handbags soldwith no service, BD= branded Prada, CF = manufacturing foranother brand, FD = manufacturer focused on golf bags only.Criticism: difficult to define industry boundaries as they arealways moving, no recommendations for a particular strategyover another for a particular industry segment, allows constantrepositioning of the industry within the matrix, which allows forcontinuous monitoringBCG MatrixCharacteristics  Most common and long standing method for assessing portfolio balance Uses relative market share and market growth rate as measurement parameters Recommends that a balance must be established between products requiring highinvestment and products generating high income with low required investments Defines four categories: Stars, Question Marks, Cash Cows, Old DogsAdvantages  Good way to visualize different needs and potential of a diverse business portfolio Provides a warning of possible demand of what looks like a high growth business Provides a warning of the possibility that well-performing products are not permanent Highlights that income from one area can/ should be used for development of anotherDisadvantages  Definitional Vagueness: not easy to define what high and low growth is in some cases Involves assumptions about market capital (that capital must be generated internallywith no way to generate it externally by issuing shares or using loans) Unkind to animals: managers/ representatives of the products in the cow and dogcategories can become unmotivated as they are simply being used for the sake ofothers and cast away as soon as their value is finished Assumes that products in the dog category do not affect/ not linked to other productsExample Using Google Products as a case study: Youtube is a product which has a high market share in a market with high rate Search Engine is a product with high market share in a mature market Google’s Drive & Docs applications have low relative market share and operate inmarket with a high growth rate, thus they are a question mark GooglePlus is a product which had low market share in a saturated market = old dog,which was shut down in 2018Value ChainCharacteristics  Used to determine the internal linkages in the company between departments(primary – primary or secondary-secondary), Used to analyse the flow of value added activities from raw materials to endcustomer, Looks at what value company adds to each link thereby determining companycompetitiveness Highlight external linkages Made up of 9 value activities and 1 field: profit/margin, where size of field isdependent on the 9 activities Activities divided into categories: primary and secondary Primary activity = operational activities to produce the product Support activity = managerial activities to coordinate primary activities Margin = perceived value by the customer – total cost of producing the product If internal linkages are strong, smooth, and efficient, margin will be high. it will below otherwise as a result of loss of time and energy due to miscommunication Total perceived value created must be higher than the cost the customer is payingfor company to be successful. Evaluation of value created must be regular/repetitive as it is not fixedAdvantages  Encourages continuous improvementDisadvantages  Very rigid and static Assumes that products are manufactured before they are sold Puts company in a defensive strategy Looks for incremental innovation and ImprovementExample 1 If a company increases target sales by 100%, the first linkage within the organisation thatneeds to know about this is M&S as they have to find new/ different buyersSecond linkage = inbound logistics and procurement = procure and get more raw materialsThird Linkage = HRM and operations where HRM might need to hire extra staff to cope upwith increased targetExample 2 Get raw material (inbound), blade manufactured (operations), dispatch of blade(outbound), convincing buyer (S&M), maintenance (service)Procurement= contracts for purchase of raw materials, agreement with freight company,establish procedure for mobilization of service engineersTechnology = calculating proportions of materials, plans for delivery of blades,maintenance frequencyHRM= service engineers have correct training for conducting maintenanceInfrastructure = support everything else ProcurementTechnology DevelopHRMFirm Infrapurchasing/ notphysical input,anything bought for thefirm from building toraw materialsR & D, systems thatprovide overview offull company, ERP =resource planningright peopleat rightposition atright timerecruitment,training,retention andmotivationMission, vision,goal strategy,target, qualitymanagement,finance,planningInbound LogisticsEstablishment ofprocurement routinesOperationsmanufacturing/transforming rawmaterials into neededproductsNegotiating energy andservice purchase forowned machinesIdentify Productionprogress, ETA/COutbound Logisticsorder processing,packing, shipping,distribution of finishedproduct to buyersBuying vehicles fordelivery, negotiatingwith freight partnersMarketing & Salespromotion, pricing,establishingdistribution channelsAdvertisementmaterialsProvide amount ofstock and demandServicewarranty, technicalsupport, repair,maintenance,customer trainingVehicles/ tools forservice team obtaining rawmaterials/ receivinggoods, inspection,storageMiscellaneous In order for a business to be successful, it needs to create perceived value that the end user wouldappreciate and make them believe they need to pay to have it. The most successful businesses are the onesthat create the most value. 𝑉𝑎𝑙𝑢𝑒 = 𝑆𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑠𝑓𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑜𝑓 𝑛𝑒𝑒𝑑𝑈𝑠𝑒 𝑜𝑓 𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑜𝑢𝑟𝑐𝑒𝑠 The perceived value can be in one of the following forms => Diversification is a corporate level strategyContinuous Vs Radical ImprovementContinuous Improvement (CI) Radical Improvement (BPR)Definition  An ongoing team-based effort toimprove processes and reduce errorsin order to improve overall processefficiency and customer satisfaction Fundamental rethinking and redesign of corebusiness processes to achieve dramaticimprovements in critical performancemeasures such as quality, cost, & cycle timeCharacteristics  Aims to improve competitiveness A number of small steps Focuses on exploitation of resources Effects are long-term & undramatic Continuous and incremental Change is gradual and constant Involves everyone Group effort/ system approach Stimulated by conventional knowhow Risks are spread across multiplesimultaneous projects Requires little investment Requires large effort to maintain People-oriented Evaluated on the basis of people &efforts for better outcome Aims to create opportunities Jumps/ large steps Focuses on exploration of resources Effects are short-term & dramatic Intermittent and non-incremental Change is Abrupt & Volatile Involves key “champions” Individual approach Stimulated by technological breakthroughs +new theories Risks are concentrated in a single big project/shift Requires large investment Requires small effort to maintain Technology-oriented Evaluated on the basis of change in profitsSteps/Roadmap/Lifecycle Define the process Standardize the process Eliminate errors Streamline the process Reduce sources of variation Bring the process under control Improve process design Define corporate vision/ goals & involve keypeople “champions” Identify processes for redesign Analyze/ map existing processes Evaluate & select available value-addingimplementable technologies Eliminate waste Implement & establish flow of value-addingselected technologies/ steps Continuous ImprovementModels  PDCA – Plan Do Check Act DMAIC – Define Measure AnalyzeImprove Control Business System Diamond:Business Process -> Jobs & Structures ->Management & Measurement Systems ->Values & Beliefs= BPR LifecycleRogers’ Innovation Attributes & DiffusionDefinition  Innovation diffusion process is an uncertainty reduction process to increase the rate ofadoption of an innovation Innovation diffusion = process by which an innovation is communicated overtime in asocial system Attributes are perceived differently by individuals, which affects their rate ofadoption Aim: Attributes of innovation proposed to help reduce the amount of uncertainty ininnovation1.RelativeAdvantage The degree to which an innovation is perceived to be better than the idea itsupersedes Associated with cost and social status motivation Innovators, early adopters, early majority are more status motivated than latemajority and laggards Monetary incentives help to increase the relative advantage More advantage = lower uncertainty + higher rate of adoption2.Compatibility  The degree to which an innovation is perceived as consistent with the existing values,past experiences, and needs of potential adopters Matching an individual’s needs = lower uncertainty + higher rate of adoption3.Complexity/Simplicity The degree to which an innovation is perceived as relatively difficult to understandand use Obstacle; Higher complexity = increases uncertainty + lower rate of adoption4.Trialability  The degree to which an innovation may be experimented with on a limited basis Can lead to reinvention/ modification of innovation – changed by potential adopter More experimented on/ tried = lower uncertainty + higher rate of adoption More important to early adopters than late adopters Late adopters interested in vicarious trial5.Observability  The degree to which the results of an innovation are visible to others Involves role-modeling/ peer observation = you see someone with an innovation andyou want to try it out Higher observability = lower uncertainty + higher rate of adoptionValueDefinition  The perceived difference between the a product/ service cost and the benefit it adds = ratio of sales price to overall cost 𝑉𝑎𝑙𝑢𝑒 = 𝑆𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑠𝑓𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑜𝑓 𝑛𝑒𝑒𝑑𝑈𝑠𝑒 𝑜𝑓 𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑜𝑢𝑟𝑐𝑒𝑠ValueProposition What the product/ service offers as compared to the client needs and other products/services in the marketValue Pillars/Ingredients Efficiency (how is it done), Profitability (cost management), Utilization (exploitationof resources), Quality (conformance to standards/ client satisfaction requirements),Innovation (in terms of potential performance and reactiveness to real/ perceivedchanges in market/ economy), Passion (affective reaction to environment), andEffectiveness (doing the right thing to match needs)TechnologyValue/ Benefit Process: increase performance, new processes & organizational intelligence Economic: improved info economics, new factor of production, disruptive economy Organisational: flatter structure, faster decisionsValue creation Uniqueness Complementary AssetsDefinition  Controlling knowledge generated from aninnovation Controlling assets needed to exploit aninnovationIncludes  Controlled through either:o Legal= costly to create/ enforce,limited time (Patent/ ©)o Secrecy = hard to maintain (leaks)o Speed = self-limiting hard work Competencies Resources Includes things doable: manufacturingcapability, expertise, competencies Things obtainable: brand, distributionchannel, customer relationshipsStandardsDefinition  A rule established by either an authority or general consensus, or as a model/example/measure of how well something is done TypesAdvantagesDe Jure (in Law) Supports transparency Supported by stakeholder consensusDe Facto (In Fact) Reflects industry view and concern Disadvantages  Time-consuming Potential interference by external party Lack of transparency Potential monopolyStandardsnegativelyaffect value Reduce choice = only one way to go/ method to do it Reduce rate of innovation = confine innovation to subsystem Sustain monopoly = leader is the standardStrategyDefinition  Strategy = the long term direction and scope of an organisation which involves itsutilization of its resources within a changing environment to meet market needs &fulfill stakeholder expectations Competitive Advantage = a condition or circumstance that puts a company in afavorable or superior business position Information Technology = hardware, software, telecommunication Information systems = I(C)T + people and proceduresStrategy Levels  Corporate (CEO/ Board) = purpose/goal, portfolio issues, buy/ sell business unit Business (Top Management/ GM) = market, products, advertisement Operational (functional/ Dept Mngmt) = process & resources integration, tool upgradeImprovingCompetitiveAdvantage Reducing costs Raising barriers to entry Establishing high switching costs for customers Creating new products/ services Differentiating products/ services Enhancing products Establishing alliances Locking-in suppliers/ buyersTechnologyStrategyImportance Innovation Funnel = most ideas do not become successful new products + successfultechnological innovation requires carefully crafted strategies & implementationprocessesTechnology RoadmapDefinition  A strategic management tool to help organisations effectively identify potentialproducts/ services for the future A means to identify, evaluate, and select among strategic alternatives for achievingtechnological objectivesChallenges  Needs customization Continuously keeping the technology roadmap relevant and active Starting up the technology roadmap process Developing a robust technology roadmap process Roll-out of the technology roadmap processSuccess Factor  Clear business needs Desire to develop business processes Company culture + politics Involvement of the right people/ functions Senior management commitment Proper timing of initiativeBenefits  Facilitate integration of technology intocompany Support strategic planning processes Identify new opportunities fortechnology exploitation Provide top level information ontechnological direction of company Support communication & cooperationwithin company/sector Identify technical/ market gaps Support sourcing decisions Common Reference/ frameworks Wide range of applicationsSESSION: 2017/18 DIET: 1stModule Title: Strategy and Innovation MMN6223676LEVEL: MMODULE LEADER: Professor David Edgar12th January 2018DURATION: 2 hrsAnswer all Questions in Section AAnswer two (2) Questions from Section BPLEASE READ THE QUESTIONS CAREFULLYMATERIALS TO Lined Examination Script BooksBE SUPPLIED/ALLOWED: Unlined Examination Script BooksOther Materials, e.g. Graph paper, statistical tables (please specify)Question Paper (Supplied)Where a student has answered more than the required number of questions in anycoursework or examination paper and has not indicated which answers are to beexcluded from marking, only the first questions answered will be marked. Forexample, if a paper requires five questions to be answered and seven are attempted,where it is not clearly indicated which answers should be excluded, only the first fivequestions will be marked and used to calculate the overall mark for the paper. Incases where the examination paper and coursework has more than one section, thesame procedure will apply to each section.Answer all Questions in Section AAnswer two (2) Questions from Section BSection A (Compulsory Question – all parts must be answered) TOTAL 40 Marks1. Using examples, critically evaluate FOUR different types of value that anorganisation can seek to create. [12 Marks]2. Explain each component of the Value Chain (Porter 1985) and criticallyanalyse how it can be used to help an organisation develop a Unique SellingPoint (USP). [18 Marks]3. Identify one emerging area of development in technology (NB not limited toIT) that may have a disruptive and strategic impact on organisations and/orsociety in the future. Evaluate the features, opportunities and value addedthat the disruptive technology may bring to organisations and/or society. [10Marks]Section B (Answer any TWO Questions) TOTAL 30 Marks1. Using examples, apply SCAMPER and critically evaluate how an organisationcould innovate around its product or service offerings. [15 Marks]2. With reference to the BCG, explore the importance of a balanced portfoliowhen planning and developing new products or services. [15 Marks]3. Discuss the benefits and challenges relating to an organisation’s effective useof technology roadmaps. [15 Marks]4. Discuss how systems thinking concepts can be used to understandorganisations, and the issues that may face them. Your answer shouldprovide examples that apply relevant systems thinking concepts toorganisation(s) of your choice. [15 Marks]End of Exam Question PaperPage 1 of 2First DietInstructions:The examination is scheduled as an Open Book Exam. It will take place during theallocated exam week. The exam will be released 72 hours before the submissiondate. As such, the exam will be released on GCULearn and via GCULearn studentemails at 10am (UK time) on Friday 8th January 2021 and must be completed andsubmitted into Turnitin by 10am (UK time) on Monday 11th January 2021. Youwill receive more information about the examination during the revision period.Answer all Questions in Section AAnswer two (2) Questions from Section BSECTION ASection A (Compulsory Question – all parts must be answered) TOTAL 40 Marks1. Apply the concept of SCAMPER to propose how to change a product orservice of your choice and explain what value would be created by theproposed changes.[20 Marks]2. Using examples, critically evaluate the differences between an invention andan innovation.[5 Marks]3. Compare and contrast two examples of modern information systems, in termsof how they could enable a business to achieve a competitive advantage.[15 Marks]SECTION BSection B (Answer any TWO Questions) TOTAL 30 Marks1. Using company examples, critically evaluate to what extent a Diversificationcan be seen to be a better strategy than Market Penetration. [15 Marks]Page 2 of 22. Critically evaluate the implications of adopting a low cost generic strategywhen operating in a growth market. Use company examples to illustrate yourmain points. [15 Marks]3. Discuss Rogers’ attributes of an innovation (relative advantage, compatibility,complexity, trialability and observability) in relation to the actual/potentialadoption of an innovation of your choice. [15 Marks]4. Critically discuss how General Systems Theory (GST; also known as ‘systemsthinking’) can be used to describe and solve organisational problems. Giveorganisational examples where appropriate to support your answer.[15 Marks]12th January 2018DURATION: 2 hrsAnswer all Questions in Section AAnswer two (2) Questions from Section BPLEASE READ THE QUESTIONS CAREFULLYMATERIALS TO Lined Examination Script BooksBE SUPPLIED/ALLOWED: Unlined Examination Script BooksOther Materials, e.g. Graph paper, statistical tables (please specify)Question Paper (Supplied)Where a student has answered more than the required number of questions in anycoursework or examination paper and has not indicated which answers are to beexcluded from marking, only the first questions answered will be marked. For example,if a paper requires five questions to be answered and seven are attempted, where itis not clearly indicated which answers should be excluded, only the first five questionswill be marked and used to calculate the overall mark for the paper. In cases wherethe examination paper and coursework has more than one section, the sameprocedure will apply to each section.Answer all Questions in Section AAnswer two (2) Questions from Section BSection A (Compulsory Question – all parts must be answered) TOTAL 40 Marks1. Using examples, critically evaluate FOUR different types of value that anorganisation can seek to create. [12 Marks]2. Explain each component of the Value Chain (Porter 1985) and critically analysehow it can be used to help an organisation develop a Unique Selling Point(USP). [18 Marks]3. Identify one emerging area of development in technology (NB not limited to IT)that may have a disruptive and strategic impact on organisations and/or societyin the future. Evaluate the features, opportunities and value added that thedisruptive technology may bring to organisations and/or society. [10 Marks]Section B (Answer any TWO Questions) TOTAL 30 Marks1. Using examples, apply SCAMPER and critically evaluate how an organisationcould innovate around its product or service offerings. [15 Marks]2. With reference to the BCG, explore the importance of a balanced portfolio whenplanning and developing new products or services. [15 Marks]3. Discuss the benefits and challenges relating to an organisation’s effective useof technology roadmaps. [15 Marks]4. Discuss how systems thinking concepts can be used to understandorganisations, and the issues that may face them. Your answer should provideexamples that apply relevant systems thinking concepts to organisation(s) ofyour choice. [15 Marks]End of Exam Question Paper School of Engineering andComputing SESSION: 2008/2009DIET: First STRATEGY AND INNOVATION Level: M Module Code: ENGM533 Module Leader: Prof David Edgar (SIE) DATE: January 2009DURATION: 2 ½Hours Requirements: There are 6 questions. All questions carry equal weighting.CANDIDATES MUST ATTEMPT ANY THREE (3) QUESTIONSEach question is worth 25 marks in totalPLEASE READ THE QUESTIONS CAREFULLYMATERIALS TOBE SUPPLIED/ALLOWED:Question Paper (Supplied)Lined Examination Script (Supplied) Students for whom English is not their first language are permitted to use aStandard English/Foreign Language dictionary, e.g. French/English,English/French. Please ensure that the dictionary does not contain any notes orother materials and note that electronic dictionaries are not permissible. Question 1Discuss the role and impact that ‘system thinking’ based tools and approaches such asSoft Systems Methodology (SSM), Brainstorming and Morphological Analysis may havewhen developing a business strategy.(25 Marks)Question 2Part ADescribe the concept of ‘business value’. In your attempt, you should illustrate howIT/IS can help to deliver business value.(5 Marks)Part BDiscuss the concept of innovation and evaluate the use of SCAMPER as a tool to assistorganisations to become innovative when looking at their business processes andproducts and services. You should illustrate your points with business examples.(20 Marks)(Total of 25 Marks)Question 3Part ACritically discuss the issues, challenges and innovative capability of at least threedisruptive technologies and how they may be used to change the nature, shape andstructure of competition.(10 Marks)Part BDescribe the main tools and approaches of predicting new and emerging technologies.(15 Marks)(Total of 25 Marks)Question 4Critically evaluate how a differentiation strategy can lead to a competitive advantage.Provide industry examples to support your argument and clarify the different forms ofvalue that can be used as the basis for such a strategy.(25 Marks)Question 5Using industry examples, critically discuss how political; legal; economic; environmentaland social constraints affect the strategic aspirations of either a national or a multinational enterprise.(25 Marks)Question 6Critically explore to what extent quality management can be used as a foundation forgaining and sustaining a competitive advantage. Use industry examples to illustrate andsupport your argument.(25 Marks)*** End of Question Paper ***Marking & Outline SolutionsAs a general guide:-Full marks will be awarded to candidates who show factual understanding, knowledge ofthe literature and the ability, where specified, to critically comment on issues and relatedissues.Good marks will be awarded to candidates with factual understanding and someknowledge of the literature.Would be looking for student’s ability to evaluate, critically assess, justify, and developan academic argument when answering the question. Exceptional students should berewarded for their ability to synthesise and be creative.Pass marks will be awarded to candidates showing factual understanding.Candidates will fail where major errors in definitions are made, and where no appropriatereferences to examples or the literature are made.Question 1Discuss the role and impact of ‘system thinking’ based tools and approaches such as SoftSystems Methodology (SSM), Brainstorming and Morphological Analysis may havewhen developing a business strategy.(25 Marks)Nature of thinking and looking at problems (hard and soft) – (3 Marks)Description of teach tool (4 Marks each)Key parts to strategic development: (10 Marks) (one for each point and one for a businessexample)1. Should be doing Vs is doing2. Get lock in and buy in for what should be done3. Multiple ‘W’s; agreed W and contentious Ws4. Links to Role analysis5. Holism and Emergent properties6. Cultural and political analysis modes of operation7. EtcQuestion 2Part ADescribe the concept of ‘business value’. In your attempt, you should illustrate howIT/IS can help to deliver business value.(5 Marks)‘Value’ has a different meaning for different stakeholders – conflicting definitions ofbusiness value. Financial, structural, emotional, intellectual, etc. (3 marks)Link the concept of business value to IT/IS and introduce the following or similarconcepts – value chain, the supply chain and CRM, B2B, B2C and so on. (2 marks)Part BDiscuss the concept of innovation and evaluate the use of SCAMPER as a tool to assistorganisations to become innovative when looking at their business processes andproducts and services. You should illustrate your points with business examples.(20 Marks)(25 Marks)View of what is innovation and why it is important (3 Marks)To cover the stages of innovation (5 Marks) Innovation Prescription Innovation Platforms Innovation Pipeline Innovation Project Portfolio Innovation People Substitute? Combine? Adapt? Modify? Magnify? Put to other uses? Eliminate? Reverse? Rearrange?(12 Marks available, but must have a good business example to support the point)Question 3Part ACritically discuss the issues, challenges and innovative capability of at least threedisruptive technologies and they may be used to change the nature, shape and structure ofcompetition.(10 Marks)10 marks – This is relatively open-ended but whatever is produced must clearly focus onuse and management of the technology chosen. Students must support their answers withactual examples, and leading players, and types of applications. (RFID, GIS, GRPS,Smart Dust, Robots, nano, protein/tissue engineering, etc, etc)Part BDescribe the main tools and approaches of predicting new and emerging technologies.(15 Marks)1. Extrapolators (trend analysis, Fisher-Pry, S curves, etc)2. Pattern Analysis (analogy, feedback, morphological matrices)3. Goal Analysis (impact, content, stakeholder, patent analysis, roadmaps, valuemodels)4. Counter Punches (scanning, scenarios, etc)5. Intuitors (Delphi, competitor analysis, etc)3 marks for what each is and the contextualisation (3 times 5 = 15 marks).(25 Marks)Question 4Critically evaluate how a differentiation strategy can lead to a competitive advantage.Provide industry examples to support your argument and clarify the different forms ofvalue that can be used as the basis for such a strategy.(25 Marks)5 marks – for providing a clear definition of what a differentiation strategy is and how itis developed.2 marks for providing industry examples.Up to 4 marks for identifying the different forms of value creation (1/2 mark for each).Up to 10 marks for linking the nature of differentiation to competitive advantage.Up to 8 marks for linking the source of value to the differentiation strategy.Question 5Using industry examples, critically discuss how political; legal; economic; environmentaland social constraints affect the strategic aspirations of either a national or a multinational enterprise.(25 Marks)5 marks – for providing a clear definition and examples of each of the environmentalelements – PEST(L)10 marks for providing critical discussion of relevant industry examples of impacts of theenvironment.Up to 10 marks for linking the nature of the environment to the strategic aspirations ofthe organisation.Up to 4 marks for evidence of additional reading, breadth of industry knowledge and/orcurrent environmental issues.Question 6Critically explore to what extent quality management can be used as a foundation forgaining and sustaining a competitive advantage. Use industry examples to illustrate andsupport your argument.(25 Marks)This is a relatively open-ended question that allows the student to adopt a range ofapproaches and allows the better student to draw on a range of theory as well as introduceinnovative concepts and ideas. The student is expected to use industry examples to showthe different perspectives of quality management and to build a discussion between theoperational and strategic dimensions of quality. It is likely that the student will draw onTQM, Six Sigma, Lean Sigma, EQF and principles of Juran, Demming, Peters andWaterman, as well as more contemporary authors. The strategic management frameworksused may include the value chain, principles of competence and core competence. Thestudent should balance the answer to explore how to gain advantage but also to sustainsuch advantage.

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