World is going through too many advances | My Assignment Tutor

Contents Executive Summary. 1 Introduction. 1 Project scope and Boundaries. 2 Establishing the Context. 3 Relevant Stakeholders and Constraints. 3 Constraints. 3 Rules, Roles and responsibility. 3 Rules. 3 Roles and responsibility. 4 Process and Tools. 4 Tools. 4 Risk Criteria. 5 Communication and Consultation. 7 Risk assessment. 8 Risk Treatment. 9 Monitoring and review.. 9 Discussion. 10 References. 10           Executive Summary World is going through too many advances at this time, and the same time half of the world have gone through lockdown because there was not specific risk management plan related to COVID-19. That’s why learning from pandemic, everyone should be prepared for the any type of accidents or mishaps in every sector. In this study the Valero refinery expansion risk management task was considered. By using ALARP method risk criteria was made and using FMECA risk were prioritize. On this risk treatment plan was made for Valero energy refinery plant. From this study risk management plan was learnt from step one to last step which monitoring and reviewing of the project. Introduction  In the world full of technology and computer instructed machine, accident have decreased but there is always a chance of accidents for which a company should be prepared. So, to handle any type of risk and accident, company managers with the help of stakeholder risk management plan should be prepared.  Risk management plan is a detailed written plan for any type of accident which can occur in company.  To make risk management plan, definition of the risk should be known. Risk is an event which have somewhat probability of happening and can have negative and sometime positive impact on the on-going process. Risk management is not one time process, risk management plan is ongoing process constantly identifying, monitoring and analyzing the situation to control the risk.  As process in the industry keep changes, people have to identify the new risk      from the life cycle of the project. By which the main aim of risk management plan can be fruitful by decreasing the probability and impact of the particular accident or event in the company.  In this study, Risk management plan as per the ISO 31000:2018 for the Valero energy company. In which fire hazard took place in February of 2007.  Valero refinery is situated at sunray, Texas USA. In 2007 February fire occurred which turned violent because of that 3 workers were burnt seriously. After the accident refinery was shut down for two months and for rest of the year production was cut short. The US chemical safety and hazard investigation board launched the investigation for the Valero fire accident.  The fire started in Propone deasphalting unit of the refinery, which have high pressured Propane that is used to separate gas and oil from the asphalt. There was massive propone release from the unit which made vapor cloud and it caught the fire. From the investigation It was found out water which was trapped in the pipe line froze due to cold weather this resulted the crack in the pipe, but when temperature increased the water liquified and propone started to leak from the crack. A metal wedge was kept under the manual valve which was not able to turned off because of that small proportion of water able to enter the propone. When fire started was there no coming back for the Valero energy, as there was no remote valve to shut off the fuel because they did not follow the refinery rules  which required to install remotely operable valve. Project scope and Boundaries Fig – Scope for the Expansion of Valero Refinery The Valero refinery is almost 50 miles north in Amarillo, near the town named sunrays in the Texas. Whole refinery was built in 1933 by Shamrock oil company. It became the part of Valero energy in the year of 2001, when the previous company merged with Valero energy. The refinery produced almost 170000 barrels of raw oil in one day[1]. After the merger Valero decided to expansion of the refinery plant. The expansion plan is created to increase the production of the plant from 170000 barrels per day to 250000 barrels per day. So in the scope of expansion is Valero refinery is given in above figure. Oil refinery expansion contains extra equipment, towers, and pump. Simultaneously the production is increased the loading and storage area have to be added. And permits of the expansion have to gained from the agency which should follow every rules and regulation for safety and environmental progress.  Boundaries should be defined to complete the work on time and as per planning and scheduling of the project and cost. So the boundaries in construction is fabrication, installation , pipes and commissioning of the area. In the loading area same fabrication for the extra equipment in the design and leveling the ground for the truck pad. This are the boundaries of the expansion of the Valero refinery. By this expansion the main objective of increasing per day barrel production will be fulfilled. Establishing the Context Relevant Stakeholders and Constraints Refinery is the big project there are many stakeholder attached to the one refinery construction or the expansion. Various types of stakeholders are there in Valero refinery expansion of Texas. The main stakeholders in the expansion will be the investor in the project. Other financer of the project as it is very costly task to expand the production of the refinery. Other than that any major permission office from which Valero requires the permission of the expansion of the refinery plant. NGO in the area can also be the stakeholder in the expansion of the refinery. Constraints Increasing the production of the refinery and expanding the refinery plant is very complex process. At various stages the planning and scheduling have to be noted and pull back as per the planned program. One of the biggest constraints that expansion of oil refinery is to reduce environmental footprints, as governments and local authorities are facing the different environmental issue. Other main constraint is disposal of the wastewater. Refinery need lot of water in the process which get polluted. The polluted water is of no use. To dispose this is big concern because it should not affect the health of people living around as water can sip in the ground water and infects the whole ground water. Many health affecting gas is produced as by product of crude oil. Gases like carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxides, Sulfur oxides and carbon monoxide. This type of emission have to be reduced. Rules, Roles and responsibility In any project defining rules and roles are very important, or it will create a great chaos specially in case of refinery expansion it will slowly big mammoth problem if not handled properly. Rules and regulation is the binding force of any project, that helps project to be get complete on time and in effective cost. Rules First of all, the safety rules should be followed while constructing expansion of the plant.               Every safety rule as the US safety rules. Worker safety will be the first priority and all the rules written in occupational and safety act will be followed. Every worker have to wear the helmet during the construction work, Contractors of the construction will have to take care of the rules and strictly apply it on everyone on the construction site. At the construction site the procurement will be done by the company manager not by the contractor constructing the plant. First contractor will check the assure about the fabrication and construction then the manager of the department in the company will check the quality of the fabrication of the equipment and fabrication, if the manager is not satisfied with the quality of the work, contractor of the site has to fabricate or construct it as per the design laid by the company. Pipe lines used should be checked, joints have to verified twice from worker and contractor, as it is refinery a minute leakage can cause fatal accident. All the construction will made which will reduce carbon footprints in the nature.  Roles and responsibility Decision making on the construction site and planning have fast and without hesitation. To have fast and reliable decision-making roles and responsibility have to be divided so that schedule plan can be completed. Valero refinery expansion is complex and big project to function it correctly and on time, role and responsibility is divided. For procurement of machinery the manager of the Valero energy corporation will be responsible, different department managers will play the role of procuring different type of machinery and tools needed for the expansion of the plant. Man power procurement for will be from the contractor end. Finance of the project will directly under the lens of finance department of the Valero energy. The main of quality checking will be done at end of every fortnight by the manager of production as they have prepared the plan the design layout with the help of the experts, if production manager is not satisfied with the quality of the work. Contractor head will be informed, then it is his responsibility to repair or make it better before second quality check round. There will be a work safety inspector from the Valero side which notices the environment and quality of life given to the worker during the construction work. The main responsibility of the safety inspector, to check worker does not work at hazardous place without any safety equipment and follow all the rules laid out in ISO  31000:2009.  By this way the risk management of the Valero energy plant expansion will be done by safety inspector. Individual task and roles have to be completed by which whole group task can be successful.  Process and Tools Refinery process is complex and extra accuracy is needed because small mistake can turn to fatal accident and loss. A petrol processing plant gives the most required powers to ordinary use for modern, business and homegrown purposes. Ordinarily, in any treatment facility, unrefined petroleum is handled in Crude Distillation Unit, comprising environmental refining and vacuum refining sections. The atmospheric section works at air pressure and the items acquired from various plate are LPG, Gasoline, Aviation fuel, Kerosene and High-Speed Diesel. The environmental refining buildup is prepared in vacuum refining section, which works under vacuum to forestall the breaking of higher atomic weight and higher bubbling parts present in the raw petroleum. Various evaluations of vacuum gas oils and short buildup were acquired from vacuum section. There different kind of process from which crude oil is produced. First comes the Physical separation which includes aromatic distillation, de-asphalting[2]. After that chemical conversion is the next process which includes isomerization, catalytic cracking and Asphalt bowling. Purification process is next process in that process desalting, hydro finishing and hydrotreating. Steaming and power supply for this process is also important which should be included in particular different process. On environmental checks should be done all over the process. Tools Refinery expansion process is huge and construction tools and  machinery have to be procured and heavy machinery tools will be part of the contractor and safety of people operating them will be in  contractor part. Excavation is the big task in the expansion of refinery plant, driller will be used in the process, According to ISO 31000:2018 the operator who is managing heavy machinery should have experience. Large equipment division is a one imperative to supporting exercises of refinery construction. In activate of this business cycle, large equipment division can’t separate with hazard and dependent on meetings to handle administrator, there are a few prospects dangers may show up in hefty hardware division. This can upset business measures in organization, they are gear harm, fuel shortage, trouble to discover spare parts, and various large equipment vehicles. In light of that hazard prospects that will happen in substantial hardware division can if chances are probably going to happen can upset the course of the organization’s business measures and can straightforwardly diminish the benefit of the organization. Accordingly, large equipment machinery, hazard the executives is a necessity. Pressure vessels , heat exchangers, piping system have to fabricated precisely with the help of welding machine, in this different kind of welding machine can be used for different task. Extra care have to be taken while using such system they are high flammable and a small mistake can burn out whole erected plant. Risk Criteria To give criteria and level of risk in the oil refineries in this study ALARP method is used. The ALARP (As Low As Reasonably Practicable) rule accepts that there is a degree of hazard which is decent and necessitates that the danger be at any rate underneath that level. The passing term sensibly practicable decides how low dangers ought to be pushed towards the locale of irrelevant dangers[3]. A limitless measure of exertion could diminish the danger to an endlessly low level, however a boundless measure of exertion will be vastly costly to execute. So ALARP expects that there is a danger level which is low to the point that it isn’t worth the expense to diminish it further. Fundamentally this implies that hazard decrease measures ought to be carried out until no further danger decrease is conceivable without huge capital speculation, or different assets consumption that would be terribly lopsided to the measure of hazard decrease accomplished. Figure – Different kind of risk in oil refiners In refineries different kind of accident can happen, some are critical some can be handled without any risk. Refineries are big plant and every type of vehicle roam in plant some to load people and some are loading crude oil. So vehicle accidents are normal in the plant more often they don’t cost anything but some time people may loss their life because of fire after accident. It can be reduced by giving indication on road perfectly and driver should be attentive. This is like acceptable risk and cannot be fully eliminated.  In every industry slip and falls are normal this happens frequently to be safe from this worker should be given safety gears like helmets and belts if hanging. This is also accepted risk in the oil and refineries. After that contact injuries due to mismanagement of the movable machinery, some time operator of the machinery get careless and mishaps happens due to it. In that there can be physical injury. This tolerable as nothing cannot be done extra but it can cause life so it is kept in the tolerable section. Confined space in the oil refinery is very rare situation but very deadly, this accident is not tolerable as person die because of lack of oxygen. This type of accident is not tolerable, there can be improvement in this , people can train the worker what to do in type of situation or how to get out of it before it gets deadly. This training can save life of people and same time worker will safe at workplace. Lat and most deadly situation in the oil refineries is gas or oil leak which can result in hazardous fire and burn down refinery or area around. To avoid this type of situation health check of every machine and pipe should be done time to time, if any small problem is seen should be identified and solved as soon as possible. This is very fatal, not at all accepted. Figure – Tolerability of the Risk By using ALARP methodology, it was seen that some types of accident are frequent but accepted and some type of accident can be worked upon. But the fatal kind of accident is not accepted at all although frequency is rare. Slips and fall of the worker is acceptable as the worker is wearing safety gears less harm is done, this accident occur frequently but it is acceptable. Other accident is moving vehicle as the site in expansion the vehicle rush will increase , if all the direction is followed severe accident do not happen so it is also acceptable kind of risk. Contact injuries does not convert into big mishaps maximum some kind of physical injury occur the frequency is not very often so it comes in the tolerable zone. Confinement accident if proper training is given to the worker how to deal with it the risk is also in tolerable zone. Last and rare kind of risk is kind of leakage of gas or crude oil can convert in hazardous incident so it comes in unacceptable region of tolerability of risk. By the help of the ALARP system tolerability of risk was found which can be very helpful in further work.   Communication and Consultation Communication is the trading of undertaking explicit data with the accentuation on making understanding between the sender and the recipient. Viable correspondence is perhaps the main elements adding to the achievement of a task. The undertaking group should give ideal and precise data to all stakeholder. Individuals from the undertaking group get ready data in an assortment of approaches to address the issues of venture partners. Communication in normal days is important, but during the crisis the communication in the stakeholder of the project have greater impact it can help to reduce the effect of the risk. Communication between the stakeholders and responsible person who are working in the refinery increase the chances project being successful. Stakeholders can easily give their feedback according to target in planned for the refinery in the specific time bound. Work can on undisturbed, by chance there is any miscommunication the whole project can be jeopardize. The capacity to impart likely dangers to human well-being and the climate is an essential ability to work with local area cooperation and dynamic. Communicators should grapple with contending translations of dubious science and hazard management methodologies, while acquiring local area trust and advancing significant commitment. It is fundamental for chiefs to comprehend stakeholder perception of the peril. Stakeholders incorporate, however are not restricted to, the local area, public elements, likely people in question, administrative organizations, and civil and state authorities. There are many general difficulties to  communicate about any ecological circumstance, including variety of people involve in the project, significance of setting up trust among the gatherings, and obviously imparting about the logical and administrative prerequisites. There is frequently dissimilar data accessible from various sources about the expected seriousness and vulnerability related with openness and unfriendly well being impacts that may result from openness, and the requirement for treatment or reaction activities. So this type of challenges must be considered to get the better information from reliable communication method. Consultation is a process to  know about the views of the experience person and know how to get better output from the process. Here in Valero refinery consultation between team, worker and stakeholder is necessary as the stakeholder can match up their mindset with the team to get the better result in risk management plan. The worker working on the ground should be consulted to the other type of risk involved in the refinery and measures to reduce the risk. This will give the ground report and help to make better decision in risk management plan. Risk assessment Risk evaluation is demonstrated important as an administration instrument in surveying the general wellbeing execution of the refinery in this case interaction Industry. Despite the fact that administration frameworks like designing codes, agendas, and audits by experienced specialists have given generous well being confirmations, significant episodes including various setbacks, maintenance and huge harm can happen – as delineated by ongoing world-scale disasters. Hazard appraisal procedures give progressed quantitative intends to enhance other risk distinguishing proof, investigation, appraisal, and control and the board techniques to recognize the potential for such occurrences and to assess control methodologies. FMECA is a safety examination strategy, which is fundamentally created for unwavering quality and security appraisal of a framework, interaction and activities. FMECA strategy is use in unwavering quality designing to recognize inactive dangers related with a framework part dependent on examining their failures modes and assessing their odds of event and their outcomes on framework conduct. FMECA approach implies the risk calculation of various failure modes, which is resolved dependent on hazard need numbers. In FMCEA technique risk priority number is given which is the multiply of three factors of risk. First factor is probability of the failure, second is degree of failure effecting the system, third is failure mode identified before affecting the system. As Valero is vast refinery, many things have to planned to get the result anticipated. Oil refinery is like no tolerance zone, a small ignorance can cause hazardous accident[4]. Risk management plan have to on point to exclude all kind of risk from the plant. So first in the FMECA analysis talking about risk regarding due to service and maintenance not done. In this risk probability can be low as Valero energy does the maintenance time to time, degree can be high as some pressure pump if not maintained well can blast, third factor people can know the problem working around them it can be solved before affecting the system. Second risk assessment consequence of leakage in pipe from which gas or crude oil will get leak, probability of this moderate, some time there can be leakage. Degree of this low at start but if not taken care it can become hazardous. In the third factor, it can be known as people can smell the leakage of gas and see crude oil leakage from the pipes is moderate enough. Third case can because of defect in insulation failure, in this case probability of happening is very low,  degree of effect can be very high, it cannot be detected before it affects the system in Valero energy plant. In this by the help of FMECA technique insulation failure will have highest priority as it can be noticed before affecting the system and degree of effect will be very high. Risk Treatment  Risk treatment alludes to the choices and decisions accessible to deal with a particular danger. Hazard can be controlled inside through hazard aversion or hazard minimization. Hazard can be controlled monetarily through hazard acknowledgment/maintenance. Hazard evasion is utilized when the danger is viewed as huge enough to stay away from the risk by staying away from the activity that would make openness to it. In the above section, several types were taken in order and seen the which case should given more priority. The result from the FMECA analysis the damage or defect in insulation can be big risk to avoid or solve the risk. Insulation of the wires should be checked every month and inspection team also point out the wear and tear of the particular which need maintenance on immediate basis. Second risk was leakage in the pipe, in this risk the treatment is simple to extra coat the pipe with different kind of insulation and detectors should be placed on sensitive place of pipe form which early leakage can be identified, by this big mishaps can be avoided. Last risk which was the risk because of maintenance not done properly the simple solution to this risk is to maintain each and every equipment, if any disturbance is noticed plant should be shut down to eliminate the risk. Monitoring and review According to 31000:2018 the final stage of the risk management is monitoring and review[5]. The general motivation behind the risk audit and customary checking is to ensure of hazard the executives treatment just as progress made in the treatment plan and if there is any need to alter the arrangement if there is a significant change in Both interior and outside settings around our mediation. Both the significance and desperation of each hazard may change as well. Consequently, it remains fundamentally essential to consistently audit dangers to distinguish new ones and to recognize the progressions in the dangers and if there are any new arising chances that should be tended to. From the risk treatment section, everything should be noted weekly to know the condition of the machinery and pipes and insulation of different wires. This monitoring of the risk important to avoid the big accident. Same review is also needed to check is there other emerging risk which should be noticed and solved before it get out of the hand. Discussion In this study, there was in depth study of the risk management plan of the Valero energy one of the refineries. In the study it was assumed Valero energy refinery is going through the expansion and assuming that the several things where decide in the study. In the study risk criteria was defined by using ALARP methodology, from that risk assessment were made from FMECA technique to give priority to the different level of risk, From FMECA method risk treatment plan was made and monitoring and review of the refinery was also based on that. All this was done within the guideline of ISO 31000:2018. It was very helpful, many topics were learned while preparing this report. This study will surely help us in  real life risk management plan. References 1              Holmstrom, D., Lay, J., Banks, J., Kaszniak, M., MacKenzie, C., and Parasram, V.J.P.S.P.: ‘Valero–McKee refinery propane release and fire’, 2010, 29, (4), pp. 322-331 2              Diya’uddeen, B.H., Daud, W.M.A.W., Aziz, A.A.J.P.s., and protection, e.: ‘Treatment technologies for petroleum refinery effluents: A review’, 2011, 89, (2), pp. 95-105 3              Jones-Lee, M., Aven, T.J.R.E., and Safety, S.: ‘ALARP—What does it really mean?’, 2011, 96, (8), pp. 877-882 4              Chen, Y., Ye, C., Liu, B., and Kang, R.: ‘Status of FMECA research and engineering application’, in Editor (Ed.)^(Eds.): ‘Book Status of FMECA research and engineering application’ (IEEE, 2012, edn.), pp. 1-9 5              Hopkin, P.: ‘Fundamentals of risk management: understanding, evaluating and implementing effective risk management’ (Kogan Page Publishers, 2018. 2018)


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